Pesticides and their adverse effects

Published in Poisons Beware

For chemical pesticides in common use by local authorities and individuals in Croatia we list active substances, in alphabetical order, with their scientifically proven possible adverse effects and EU approval status.

Pesticides and their adverse effects Photo: Vivian Grisogono

For each we identify what type of poison it is, its known possible adverse effects, EU approval status, commonly used products containing the active ingredient, and scientific and official sources of information about it.

To check the status of any product, you can refer to the EU Pesticides Database. Each entry includes the latest legislation relating to the listed pesticides. The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) records approvals of active substances and products. Its website is the primary source of information about the laws governing pesticides and their approval processes. You can check its list of substances which are approved or under review on the ECHA website page: mouse over 'Information on chemicals' in the header; then click on 'Biocidal active substances', under 'BPR' in the submenu; click on 'biocidal active substances' under the heading 'Information on biocides'; click 'search' in the next field, and type the name of the substance in the box marked 'Substance name', click the 'search' button below right; the substance, if identified, will come up as a special listing at the bottom of the page. It will show one or more versions of the substance, giving various details, including approval status; to the right of the entry is a box linking to authorized products based on the active substance.

INSECTICIDES. - ECHA APPROVAL CODE PT18 (Insecticides, acaricides, products to control other arthropods)

ABAMECTIN (See Emamectin) Combination of Avermectin B1a & B1b, growth regulator, insecticide, miticide, nematicide, derived from soil bacterium Streptomyces avermitilis.
Possible adverse effects: extremely toxic to bees, birds; highly toxic to aquatic life: fish, invertebrates, plants, algae and sediment dwelling organisms; toxic to earthworms; highly toxic to humans through skin contact, inhalation or ingestion: can cause problems for reproduction, impairing male fertility; neurological damage including tremors and ataxia; respiratory failure; skin and eye irritation.
EU: Approved 01/05/2009 - 30/04/2020. ECHA: Approved PT18 01/07/2013 - 30/06/2023
Products: ECHA-approved include BAYGON BAITS, Baygon Esca Scarafaggi, Raid baits, Raid Roach Bait, RAID Klopka za Žohare.
Sources:
- ECHA 2019. Abamectin Factsheet
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. 2018. Abamectin
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2006, updated 2019. Abamectin
- University of California, Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program. Abamectin
USED ON HVAR by farmers cultivating vines, olives etc.
 
ACETAMIPRID. Neonicotinoid
Possible adverse effects: Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic
environment; highly toxic to honeybees if mixed with piperonyl butoxide or propiconazole; harmful for populations of pollinating insects; harmful to birds and earthworms; dangerous for the environment; in humans: harmful - toxic if swallowed; can be fatal if inhaled; skin irritant
EU: Approved. ECHA: Approved, PT18, 01/02/2020 - 31/01/2027. 
Products: Mospilan 20SP. Acetamiprid products no longer registered or available in Croatia: Mospilan 20SG, Acelan 20SP, Volley, Wizzaard, Macho 60FSECHAno related products authorized (06.05.2019.)
Sources:
- Iwasa, T., Motoyama, N., Ambrose, J.T., Roe, R.M. 2004. Mechanism for the differential toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticides in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Crop Protection 23: 371-378
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. 2018. Acetamiprid
- Cayman Chemical 2018. Safety Data Sheet: Acetamiprid
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005, updated 2019. Acetamiprid
USED ON HVAR: Mospilan usedby vegetable-growers
 
ALPHA-CYPERMETHRIN (ALPHAMETHRIN). Synthetic pyrethroid. 
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to fish, most aquatic organisms and honeybees; extremely toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects; toxic to earthworms; possible human carcinogen; can cause organ damage, respiratory irritation, irreversible eye damage; serious water pollutant.
EU: Approved 01.03.2005 expiry extended from 31.10.2018 to 31.07.2019. ECHA: Approved 01/07/2016 - 30/06/2026 under PT18, (but no related biocidal products listed as approved, as at February 2019)
Products: Fastac EC, Antec, Contest, Fedona, Littac, Tenopa. ECHAno related products authorized (06.05.2019.)
Sources:
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Alpha-cyoermethrin
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. 2018. Alpha-cypermethrin.
- El Okda, E-S., Abdel-Hamid, M. A-A., Hamdy, A.M. 2017. Immunological and genotoxic effects of occupational exposure to alpha-cypermethrin pesticide. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health. Vol 30 (4) 603-615.
- Bej, S., Mukherjee, D., Saha, N.C. 2015. Acute toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin to oligochaete worm, Branchiura sowerbyi (Beddard 1982) along with their behavioural responses. International Journal of Scientific Research. 1:12, 325- 326.
- Wast, N., Gupta, A.K., Prakash, M.M., Gaherwal, S. 2014. Toxic Effect of Alphamethrin 10 EC on Freshwater FishPoecilia reticulata (Peters, 1859). World Applied Sciences Journal 30 (6): 782-786.  
- Kemabonta, K., Akinhanmi, F.O. 2013. Toxicological Effects of Chlorpyrifos, Dichlorvos and Alpha Cypermethrin on Adult Albino Mice, Mus Musculus. Production, Agriculture and Technology. 9 (2): 1-17.
- Sarikaya, R., 2009. Investigation of Acute Toxicity of Alpha-Cypermethrin on Adult Nile Tilapia (Oreochromos niloticus L.). Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 9: 85-89
USED ON HVAR: Fastac EC is used against fruit fly, especially in olive groves, by many individual agriculturalists.  
 
AQUATAIN AMF. Silicone-based liquid larvicide (film over the surface of standing water causes pupae and larvae to suffocate)
Possible adverse effects: can damage non-target organisms which depend on the water surface for respiration and movement.
EU: European Commission exempted Aquatain from registration due to its mode of action.
USED ON HVAR: DDD programme, 2017 Stari Grad region 9 litres, 23-25 May; Jelsa region 16 litres, 19-22 May 2017.
 
AVERMECTIN (see Abamectin)
 
AZAMETHIPHOS. Organophosphate, designed for use on target areas, not for spraying in the air; mainly used against flies in enclosed spaces, on horses, cattle, pigs and chickens. 
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; toxic to birds; acutely toxic to humans if swallowed or inhaled; can cause headache, weakness, nervousness, sweating, vomiting and difficulty swallowing. Exposure to extremely high levels may result in muscular twitching, eye pain, slurred speech, colic, hyper-salivation, heart complaints, breathing difficulties, convulsions and unconsciousness; also causes eye and skin irritation on contact; 
EU, ECHA (PT18)not approved
Products: Muhomor, Salmosan, Alfacron 10, Alfacron Plus, Snip Fly BaitECHA: no related products approved (06.05.2019)
Sources:
- Pub Chem: Compound summary for CID 71482, Safety and Hazards
- European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products 1999. Azamethiphos, Summary Report.
- Scottish Environment Protection Agency. Azamethiphos. Scottish Pollutant Release Directory.
- University of Hertfordshire. Azamethiphos. Veterinary Substances Database.
- Pesticides Action Network (PAN) Europe. 2006. What substances are banned and authorized in the EU market?
- Muhomor. 2017.  Muhomor je insekticid topiv u vodi. Djelatna tvar: Azametifos u koncentraciji 10%. Genera, Jedna komapnija za Jedno zdravlje
- ECHA (Updated 15/08/2018) Azamethiphos
USED ON HVAR - against flies around rubbish bins and rubbish dumps 2017: Hvar Town and surrounds, (with Microfly) 20th June, (with Microfly) 13th July, 11th August heat-spray fogging in rubbish dumps; 28th September, 12th October fogging in rubbish dumps. Total quantity 40.5 kg; Stari Grad and surrounds, Muhomor 33 kg, Jelsa Council area 31.5 kg, May, July, August, September 2017. 2018: around Hvar Town, 25th July, 16th August, 4th September - total quantity 9 kg.

Organophosphates were not approved under the Insect Control Programme of Measures and Implementation Plans issued by the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute in 2017 and 2018, yet Muhomor was used on Hvar in both years.

Every insect has a role in the natural chain. Photo: Vivian Grisogono
BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ISRAELENSIS (Bti).  Soil bacterium.
Possible adverse effects: possibly interferes with reproduction in birds; can cause eye and skin irritation in humans and animals; may disturb essential wetland organisms; long-term use perhaps causes loss of biodiversity in the environment. 
Products: Aquabac©, Teknar©, Bactimos© , and Vectobac©. 
EU: Approved 01.05.2009, expiry 30.04.2019, according to the EU Pesticides Database. 
Sources:
- Washington State Department of Health. Mosquito Larvicide - Bti.
- Poulin, B., Lefebre, G., Paz, L., 2010. Red flag for green spray: adverse trophic effects of Bti on breeding birds. Journal of Applied Ecology. Vol.47, Issue 4, 884-889.
- Maletz, S., Wollenweber, M., Kubiak, K., Müller, A., Schmitz, S., Maier, D., Hecker, M., Hollert, H.. 2015. Investigation of potential endocrine disrupting effects of mosquito larvicidal Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) formulations. The science of the total environment. Vol.536, 729-738.
USED ON HVAR: 2017: 22nd September, and 2018: 19th September, Baturad was used on 3 hectares of woodland around the Hvar Town region against the Pine Processionary Moth caterpillars, quantity 600 litres each time.
 
CARBARYL. Carbamate
Possible adverse effects:  Highly toxic to mammals, aquatic invertebrates, aquatic crustaceans, bees, earthworms. Can be fatal in humans; possible carcinogen and endocrine disruptor; possibly damaging for reproduction and development; can cause cholinesterase inhibition, blurred vision, tears, headaches, memory loss, rhinorrhoea (discharge of thin nasal mucus), salivation; sweating, muscle weakness, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea; tremors, cyanosis, convulsions and skin irritation. 
EU: Not approvedECHA: not approved
Product: Sevin. Combined with limacide Metaldehyde in Lily Miller Slug, Snail and Insect Killer Bait, and for Ortho Bug-Geta Plus. ECHAno related products approved (06.05.2019)
Sources
- University of Hertfordshire PPDB, updated 2018. Carbaryl.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005, updated 2019. Carbaryl.
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2016. Carbaryl Factsheet.
HAS BEEN USED LONG-TERM IN CROATIA, especially for fruit thinning, applied two to three weeks after full flowering of the trees. (Refs: Radivojević et al. 2011.  Effect of chemical and hand thinning young apple tree on yield and fruit quality. Proceedings, 46th Croatian and 6th International Symposium on Agriculture, Opatija Croatia, pp 1044-1047.  Croatian Agriculture Ministry, article in Croatian). However,  it is no longer authorized for this use in Croatia.
 
CHLORPYRIFOS. Organophosphate. 
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to honeybees, birds, fish, aquatic organisms; moderately toxic to earthworms, algae and aquatic plants; in humans can cause nausea, dizziness, confusion, and respiratory paralysis and death; causes neurodevelopmental defects in children; can harm mother and foetus during pregnancy; can cause acute muscle paralysis and weakness, also breathing difficulties, depression, and double visionin humans, dogs and cats; overexposure can cause weakness, ataxia (uncoordinated movements), proprioceptive dysfunctions (disturbed awareness of posture and movements), particularly of the hind legs, and paralysis in animals, including dogs and cats. 
EU: Approved 01.07.2006, expiry 31.01.2019, extended to 31.01.2020. ECHA:  not approved. [Chlorpyrifos banned in the United States and 8 EU countries, but still allowed in Croatia.]
Product: Pyrinex 48 EC. ECHA: no related products approved (06.05.2019)
Sources:
- Toxnet (Toxicology Data Network) 1983, updated 2015. Chlorpyrifos.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency 2016. Revised Human Health Risk Assessment on Chlorpyrifos
- United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive (HSE) 2016. Changes to Authorisations for Products Containing Chlorpyrifos. (Use restricted to spraying brassica seedlings only, all existing stocks of chlorpyrifos to be destroyed)
- Junquera, P. article updated 2017. CHLORPYRIFOS: SAFETY SUMMARY for VETERINARY USE in DOGS, CATS, HORSES, CATTLE, SHEEP, GOATS, SWINE and POULTRY. Poisoning, intoxication, overdose, antidote. Parasitipedia.net
- United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, 2018. Lulac (11 Petitioners, including Pesticide Action Network (PANNA), Farmworker Justice GreenLatinos, Learning Disabilities Association of America, Farmworkers Association of Florida) v. Wheeler (for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)  EPA ordered to revoke all tolerances and cancel all registrations for chlorpyrifos within 60 days: Chlorpyrifos banned in the United States
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database. updated August 2018. Chlorpyrifos.
- Health and Environment Alliance (HEAL) August 2018. Chlorpyrifos factsheet (with 40 references)
USED ON HVAR (to our knowledge) 
 
CYPERMETHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid. 
Possible adverse effects: classified as a possible cause of cancer in humans; very toxic to cats, bees, aquatic insects and fish, highly toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects; toxic to a lesser degree to birds.; in humans, can cause organ damage, skin numbness or burning, respiratory irritation, loss of bladder control, vomiting, loss of co-ordination, coma, seizures, and (rarely) death. 
EU: Permit 01.03.2006, expired 31.10.2018. Still under review, Cypermethrin was re-approved in August 2018, subject to stringent conditions. ECHA: Approved, PT18, 01/06/2020 - 31/05/2030
Products: Cipex, Microfly, Ammo, Cymbush, Demon, Raid Ant Killer, Hot-Shot Fogger, Raid Wasp and Hornet Killer. ECHAno insecticidal products approved (although Cypermethrin was authorized for wood preservative products, PT08.)
Sources
- ECHA 2019. Cypermethrin Factsheet.
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Cypermethrin
-U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs. 2016. Chemicals Evaluated for Carcinogenic Potential. Annual Cancer Report.
-Aggarwal, P., Jamshed, N., Ekka, M., Imran A. 2015. Suicidal poisoning with cypermethrin: A clinical dilemma in the emergency department. Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock. 8:2 123-125.
-TOXNET Toxicology Data Network (U.S.National Library of Medicine). 1986, updated 2012. Cypermethrin.
-PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005. Cypermethrin.
-Extension Toxicology Network, (Extoxnet). 1993. Pesticide Information profile: Cypermethrin. (Pesticide Information Project, Cornell University)
USED ON HVAR, DDD programme, for adult insect suppression 'fogging' spraying and dispersion: 2016, Cipex 10E, Microfly, (with Permex 22E) - Hvar Town and its surrounds, June, July x2, August, October 2016; Stari Grad and its surrounds, June, July and August 2016; Jelsa Council region, July x2, August 2016. 2017: Hvar Town region, Microfly 20th June, (with Permex) 25th May, 20th June, (with Permex and Muhomor) 13th July, total quantity of Microfly 14 kg. Cipex (with Permex) 11th August for hot-spray fogging against mosquitoes around Hvar and its settlements; Cipex (with Muhomor and mineral oil) 11th August against flies on Hvar's rubbish dumps; Cipex (with Permex 22E) 28th September, 12th October for fogging around the Hvar Town region. Total quantity of Cipex 13 litres. Stari Grad and environs, May, July, August, September 2017; Jelsa Council area, July, August, September 2017, Cipex (with Permex 22E) in fogging against mosquitoes; combined with Muhomor for fly control around rubbish bins and rubbish dumps, Stari Grad and environs, also Jelsa Council region, May, July, August, September 2017. Stari Grad Cipex total, 8 litres, Microfly 7 kg; Jelsa, Cipex 10 litres, Microfly 5 kg. 2018: Hvar Town region, Cipex 3rd July, 4th September, 19th September, 18th October, total quantity 13 litres; Microfly 3rd July, 25th July, 16th August, 4th September, 19th September. Stari Grad region: Cipex 2L, Microfly 3L, fogging 26th July, 15th August, 6th September, Jelsa Council area, main streets, Microfly (4 litres) with Cipex (3 litres) used for fogging action 25th July, 14th August, 5th September 2018.
 
DELTAMETHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid. 
Possible adverse effects: in humans can cause ataxia, convulsions leading to muscle fibrillation and paralysis, dermatitis, oedema, diarrhoea, dyspnoea, headache, hepatic microsomal enzyme induction, irritability, peripheral vascular collapse, rhinorrhoea, serum alkaline phosphatase elevation, tinnitus, tremors, vomiting and death due to respiratory failure. Possible allergic reactions: anaphylaxis, bronchospasm, eosinophilia, fever, hypersensitivity pneumonia, pallor, pollinosis, sweating, sudden swelling of the face, eyelids, lips and mucous membranes, and tachycardia. Toxic to bees; highly toxic to cats; extremely toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects, toxic to fish, also to aquatic herbivorous insects, causing increased algae; 
EU: Approved: 01/11/2003 expiry 31/10/2018, extended to 31/10/2019. ECHA: Approved, PT18, 01/10/2013 - 30/09/2023. 
Products: Butoflin, Crackdown, Decis 2.5 EC, Decis 100 EC, Scatto, Rotor Super, Poleci Plus, Raid Max Bug Killer, Raid Max Spider and Scorpion Killer. ECHA: Many Deltamethrin-based insecticides were approved or re-approved on the European Chemicals Agency listing of approved products as at 26th October 2018, but the list did not include any of these commonly advertised products, although several similarly named Raid products were listed as authorized.
Sources:
- ECHA 2019. Deltamethrin Factsheet.
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Deltamethrin
- PubChem, Open Chemistry Database. 2017. Deltamethrin.
- Dai, P-L., Wang, Q., Sun, J-H., Liu, F., Wang, X., Wu, Y-Y., Z. T. 2009. Effects of sublethal concentrations of bifenthrin and deltamethrin on fecundity, growth, and development of the honeybee Apis mellifera ligustica. Environmental Toxicology. 29-3, 644-649
- Extension Toxicology Network (Extoxnet) 1995. Deltamethrin. (Pesticide Information Project, Cornell University)
- Parasitipedia.net. Deltamethrin: Safety Summary for Veterinary Use
ON HVAR: Deltamethrin was on the list of pesticides recommended for use around Hvar Town, Stari Grad and the Jelsa Council area, under the Programme issued by the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute for 2017 and 2018.
DELTAMETHRIN AND THE PRODUCTS DECIS 100ec, DECIS 2.5EC, SCATTO, ROTOR SUPER, AND POLECI PLUS were recommended for use on Hvar and in other olive-growing areas against fruit-flies by the CROATIAN AGRICULTURE-FORESTRY ADVISORY SECTION FOR THE SPLIT-DALMATIAN COUNTY, IN JULY 2018.
 
DIFLUBENZURON. Benzamide insecticide, Insect Growth Regulator (Disruptor) (IGR). 
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to freshwater and marine invertebrates; moderately toxic to fish and earthworms; slightly toxic to birds; affected haemoglobin in animal studies; can cause breathing difficulties in humans; direct contact can be harmful to skin and eyes; metabolites are possible human carcinogens. 
EU:  Approved 01.01.2009, expiry 31.12.2018, extended to 31st December 2019ECHA: Approved, PT18, 01/02/2015 - 31/12/2025.

Products: Dimilin, Vigilante, Micromite, Flubex. ECHA: As at 6th May 2019 three products were listed as approved under PT18: Dimilin 5 (for Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden); Labyrinth+ (France); Termigard Plus (Spain).  Flubex, Vigilante and Micromite were not included. 

Sources:
- United States Environmental Protection Agency 1997. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (R.E.D.): Diflubenzuron.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database 2005, modified 2018: Diflubenzuron.
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database, updated 2018. Diflubenzuron.
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Diflubenzuron
USED ON HVAR, DDD programme, for larvicidal actions, Flubex, 2016: Hvar Town and surrounds, May and October 2016. Stari Grad and surrounds, April and October 2016; Jelsa Council area, April-May and October 2016. 2017: Jelsa Council area: Dimilin used for larvicide, rainwater drains & septic tanks, June & July 2017. 2018: Dimilin used in the Hvar Town region, 13th June, 3rd July, 5.5 kg. Dimilin used in Vrboska on the road to Soline bathing beach (at the request of residents), in Jelsa around the Park and in the rainwater drains in the centre of Jelsa, 13th June & 25th July 2018, 5 kg.
 
DIMETHOATE. Organophosphate. 
Possible adverse effects. Very toxic to bees and aquatic organisms; possibly toxic to wildlife, including birds, and livestock: possible endocrine disruptor; in humans inhalation, swallowing or excess skin contact can cause  breathing difficulties, headache, dizziness, tiredness, slurred speech, blurred vision, a lack of coordination, sweating, slow or rapid heart beat, convulsions, incontinence and in extreme cases unconsciousness and death; when swallowed, canalso cause vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, faecal incontinence; long-term exposuremay lead to impaired memory, depression, irritability, confusion and insomnia; possible human carcinogen (USEPA). 
EU: Approved 01.10.2007, expiry extended to 31.07.2019ECHA: not approved
Products: Phosphamide, Rogor 40, Calinogor, Chromogor, Cygon, Perfekthion, Fosfamid 40, AadimethoalECHA: no related products authorized
Sources:
- World Health Organisation 1989. International Programme on Chemical Safety: Environmental Health Criteria for Dimethoate.
- Extension Toxicology Network (Extoxnet) 1993. Dimethoate
- Scottish Environment Protection Agency. Dimethoate.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database 2005, modified 2008. Dimethoate. (Pesticide Information Project, Cornell University)
- University of Hertfordshire 2018. Pesticide Properties Database: Dimethoate.
DIMETHOATE AND THE PRODUCTS Calinogor, Chromogor, Perfekthion, Rogor 40 were recommended for use on Hvar and in other olive-growing areas against fruit-flies by the CROATIAN AGRICULTURE-FORESTRY ADVISORY SECTION FOR THE SPLIT-DALMATIAN COUNTY, IN JULY 2018.
 
EMAMECTIN BENZOATE. Semisynthetic derivative of avermectin.
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to bees, birds, aquatic life, aquatic environment, algae; in humans: highly toxic through swallowing, inhalation and skin contact; can cause organ damage, serious eye irritation or damage; muscle tremors, muscle incoordination, vomiting, pulmonary oedema, unconsciousness; skin allergies.
EU: Approved 01/05/2014 - 30/04/2024. ECHA: Emamectin not approved (Abamectin (avermectin) approved, PT18, 01/07/2013 - 30/06/2023 - see above)
Products: Revive, Affirm, Proclaim. ECHA: no approved products (06.05.2019) 
Sources:
- United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2014. Emamectin Benzoate 4.0% Tree Injection, Label Amendment
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database 2005, modified 2019. Emamectin
- University of Hertfordshire, Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Emamectin benzoate 
- EU National Assessment, Evaluator FRANCE. 2018. Revive, Registration Report
- Cornell Cooperative Extension, Pesticide Management Education Program 2000. Emamectin Benzoate - Registration of Proclaim Insecticide 3/00.
USED ON HVAR by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc. Revive used on palm trees in Jelsa Park 12.04.2019.
 
IMIDACLOPRID. Neonicotinoid.
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to bees, birds, also aquatic life and aquatic environments, with long-lasting effects; can affect reproduction and development in humans; possibly associated with autism spectrum disorder; moderately toxic to mammals, fish and earthworms; persists in soil.
EU: Approved to 31/07/2022, restricted for certain flowering crops. ECHA: Approved, PT18, 01/07/2013 - 30/06/2023.Products: Admire, Advantage, Kohinor, Merit, Confidor, Hachikusan, Premise, Prothor, Winner, Gaucho (not on the ECHA list of approved products. ECHA approved products: FLYGOLD ULTRA, Lurectron Flybait (with Tricosene), Muchostop, QUICKBAYT GR, QUICKBAYT, (with Tricosene, approved by ECHA, market area Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom)
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database 2005, updated January 2019. Imidacloprid. (Pesticide Information Project, Cornell University)
- University of Hertfordshire, Pesticides Properties Database. 2018. Imidacloprid.
- Baines, D., Wilton, E., Pawluk, A., de Gorter, M., Chomistek, N. 2017. Neonicotinoids act like endocrine disrupting chemicals in newly-emerged bees and winter bees. Scientific Reports 7: article number 10979
- Eng, M.L., Stutchbury, B.J.M., Morrissey, C.A. 2017. Imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos insecticides impair migratory ability in a seed-eating songbird. Scientific Reports, 7., article no. 15176.
- Pisa, L.W., Amaral-Rogers, V., Belzunces, L.P., Bonmatin, J.M., Downs, C.A., Goulson, D., Kreutzweiser, D.P., Krupke, C., Liess, M., McField, M., Morrissey, C.A., Noome, D.A., Settele, J., Simon-Delso, N., Stark, J.D., Van der Sluijs, J.P., Van Dyck, H., Wiemers, M. 2015. Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22: 1: 68-102.
- Zhang, E., Nieh, J.C. 2015. The neonicotinoid imidacloprid impairs honey bee aversive learning of simulated predation.Journal of Experimental Biology, 218: 3199-3205
USED ON HVAR: DDD programme, Quick Bayt® (imidacloprid with Tricosene) used on rubbosi tips. 2018: Hvar Town region, July 3rd, 2 kg.; Stari Grad region, 3rd July, 25th July, 15th August, 6th September 2018, 2kg.
 
PERMETHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid. 
Possible adverse effects: classified as a potential carcinogen for humans; linked to Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; poisonous to cats, also other animals: highly toxic to bees, sea organisms, fish; in humans, can cause neurological damage, also problems in the immune and endocrine systems. 
EU: not approved. ECHA: approved, PT18, 01/05/2016 - 30/04/2025
Products: Permex 22E (with piperonyl butoxide); household fly-killer sprays such as Sanmex Fly and Wasp Killer; Raid formula 277 insect killer. ECHA: 12 approved permethrin-based products approved as at 6th May 2019.  The list did not include Permex 22E or Permex 22EC. 
You can find a list of Permethrin products on the 'Scorecard' Pollution Information Site.
Sources:
- ECHA 2019. Permethrin Factsheet.
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Permethrin
- Alavanja, M.C.R., Hoffmann, J.N., Lynch, C.F., Hines, C.J., Barry, K. H., Barker, J., Buckman, D.W., Thomas, K., Sandler, D. P., Hoppin, J.A., Koutros, S., Andreotti, G., Lubin, J.H., Blair, A., Beane Freeman, L.E. 2014. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Risk and Insecticide, Fungicide and Fumigant Use in the Agricultural Health Study. PLoS One (US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health) 9 (10): e109332.
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. August 2009. Permethrin Facts.
- Hoffmann, M., Meléndez, J.L., Ruhman, M.A., 2008. Risks of Permethrin Use to the Federally Threatened California Red-legged Frog (Rana aurora draytonii) and Bay Checkerspot Butterfly (Euphydryas editha bayensis), and the Federally Endangered California Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus), Salt Marsh Harvest Mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris), and San Francisco Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia). Environmental Fate and Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs, Washington, D.C. 20460
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2007. Permethrin & Resmethrin (Pyrethroids), Toxicity and Exposure Assessment for Children's Health. TEACH Chemical summary.
-World Health Organization. 2006. "International Program on Chemical Safety, Environmental Health Criteria 92: Permethrin."
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) for Permethrin."
- U.S. Centers for Disease Control (ATSDR). 2003. "Toxicological Profile for Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids."
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2002. "TRI Explorer: Providing Access to EPA's Toxic Release Inventory Data."
- International Cat Care. Permethrin Poisoning in Cats.
USED ON HVAR, DDD programme, for adult insect suppression, including fogging spraying and dispersion: 2016: Permex 22E (with Microfly, Cipex 10E)- Hvar Town and its surrounds, June, July x2, August, October; Stari Grad and its environs, June, July, August; Jelsa Council area, July x2, August 2016. 2017: Hvar Town and surrounds Permex 22E (with Microfly) 25th May, 20th June; 13th July; (with Cipex) 11th August, 28th September, 12th October. Permex 22E: 22 litres; Stari Grad and surrounds (with Cipex) 17-18th May, 14th July, 11th August, 26th September, total 10 litres; Jelsa Council region (with Cipex), 12th July, 10th August, 27th September 2017, 9 litres. 2018: Hvar Town region
, 24th July 2018, quantity 3 kg; Stari Grad region (also Cipex, Microfly), 26th July, 15th August, 6th September, 3L; Jelsa region (also Cipex, Microfly), 25th July, 14th August, 5th September 2018, 4L.
 
d-PHENOTHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to cats, bees and aquatic organisms; in humans, can cause dizziness, salivation, headache, fatigue, diarrhoea, irritability to sound and touch. 
EU, ECHA: not approved (parallel but distinct substance, IR-trans phenothrin, was given conditional approval in an Assessment Report under European Commission Directive 98/8/EC in 2013., ECHA, PT18, 01/09/2015 - 31/08/2025) 
Products: Sumithrin, Raid, Enforcer Flea Killer, Enforcer BedBug spray, Enforcer Flying Insect Killer, Enforcer Wasp and Hornet Killer, Ortho Max Flying Insect Killer, AnvilECHA: no related approved products (06.05.2019) 
Sources:
- WHO/FAO 1994. d-Phenothrin. WHO/FAO Data Sheet on Pesticides no.85.
- Cox, C. 2003. Sumithrin (d-Phenothrin). Insecticide Factsheet. Journal of Pesticide Reform. 23 / 2, 10- 14.
ON HVAR: d-Phenothrin was on the list of pesticides recommended for use around Hvar Town, Stari Grad and the Jelsa Council area, under the Programme issued by the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute for 2017.
 
PHOSMET. Organophosphate. 
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to aquatic life and environment; highly toxic to honeybees; in humans can be fatal if inhaled; if swallowed, causes stomach pain, diarrhoea, nausea, sickness; can cause organ damage, eye irritation; possibly causes fetal damage or disrupts fertility; can cause swelling, itchiness, raised skin temperature if absorbed through the skin; can be toxic to birds, earthworms, cats and dogs. 
EU: Approved 01/10/2017, expiry 31/07/2019, ECHA: not approved
Product: Imidan 50 WG. ECHAECHAno related approved products (06.05.2019)
Sources:
- Ultra Scientific Inc. Phosmet (Imidan) Safety Data Sheet.
- Extension Toxicology Network (Extoxnet) 1993. Phosmet. (Pesticide Information Project, Cornell University)
- United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2001. Pesticides: Reregistration. Phosmet IRED facts. (safer alternatives available)
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database: 2005, modified 2018. Phosmet (Imidan, Imidathion)
- University of Hertfordshire, Pesticide Properties Database, updated 2018: Phosmet.
THE PHOSMET PRODUCT IMIDAN was recommended for use on Hvar and in other olive-growing areas against fruit-flies by the CROATIAN AGRICULTURE-FORESTRY ADVISORY SECTION FOR THE SPLIT-DALMATIAN COUNTY, in JULY 2018.
 
RESMETHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid. 
Possible adverse effects: potentially harmful to humans: endocrine disruptor, neurotoxic, eye and skin irritant, possible thyroid toxicity; possible human carcinogen; highly toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates; moderately toxic to birds; 
EU, ECHA: not approved. Banned in the United States since 2015.
Trade names: Chrysron, Crossfire, Raid Flying Insect Killer. ECHAno approved products (06.05.2019)
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2018. Resmethrin.
- US EPA. 2011. Permethrin, Resmethrin, d-Phenothrin (Sumithrin®): Synthetic Pyrethroids for Mosquito Control.
- University of Hertfordshire, Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Resmethrin.
ON HVAR: Resmethrin was on the list of pesticides recommended for use around Hvar Town, Stari Grad and the Jelsa Council area, under the Programme issued by the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute for 2017. 
 
SPINOSAD, combination of Spinosyn A and Spinosyn D, derived from naturally occurring soil fungi (naturalyte)
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to aquatic organisms, with long-lasting effects; highly toxic to bees; toxic to fish and earthworms; in humans can cause allergic reactions and eye irritation.
EU: Approved 01.02.2007 - 30.04.2020. ECHA: Approved, PT18, 01.11.2012. - 31.10.2022.
Products: Laser, Success Bait. ECHA: 37 related products approved, not including Laser and Success Bait (06.05.2019)
Sources:
- ECHA 2019. Spinosad Factsheet.
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties DataBase. 2018. Spinosad.
- PubChem Database Spinosad factor A
- Syracuse Environmental Research Associates, Inc. 2016. Spinosad: Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment. SERA TR-056-16-03b
ON HVAR: used by individuals, especially on vines
 
TETRAMETHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid. 
Possible adverse effects: potential human carcinogen, also can cause dizziness, breathing difficulties, coughing, eye irritation, gastrointestinal upset, blisters and skin rashes; extremely toxic to bees and aquatic organisms, including fish and aquatic invertebrates. 
EU / ECHAnot approved (under assessment as at May 6th 2019)  
Products: Permex 22E; Household insect-killing sprays such as Sanmex Fly and Wasp Killer.; Bonide Wasp and Hornet Killer, Enforcer Flea Spray, Hi-Yield Wasp and Hornet Spray, Ortho MAX Flying Insect Killer, Raid Flea Killer, Raid Flying Insect Killer. ECHA: no related approved products
Sources:
- ECHA 2019. Tetramethrin Factsheet.
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2008, revised 2010. Reregistration Eligibility Decision Document for Tetramethrin.
- Thoreby, E. (author), Williams, M.M. (editor), Lah, K. (updater) 2011. Tetramethrin. Toxipedia.
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Tetramethrin.
- ECHA, (updated 21 10 2018) Tetramethrin
USED ON HVAR DDD programme for adult insect suppression fogging spraying and dispersion: 2016: Permex 22E (with Microfly, Cipex 10E)- Hvar Town and its surrounds, June, July x2, August, October; Stari Grad and its environs, June, July, August; Jelsa Council area, July x2, August 2016. 2017: Hvar Town and surrounds Permex 22E (with Microfly) 25th May, 20th June; 13th July; (with Cipex) 11th August, 28th September, 12th October. Permex 22E: 22 litres; Stari Grad and surrounds (with Cipex) 17-18th May, 14th July, 11th August, 26th September, total 10 litres; Jelsa Council region (with Cipex), 12th July, 10th August, 27th September 2017, 9 litres. 2018: Hvar Town region, 24th July 2018, quantity 3 kg; Stari Grad region (also Cipex, Microfly), 26th July, 15th August, 6th September, 3L; Jelsa region (also Cipex, Microfly), 25th July, 14th August, 5th September 2018, 4L.
 
THIAMETHOXAM. Neonicotinoid.
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to aquatic life, with acute and lasting effects; highly toxic to bees; toxic to earthworms; in humans, can be harmful through skin contact, inhalation, and especially ingestion; can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, dizziness, headache; ingestion can cause seizures, coma, hypothermia, respiratory failure, hypotension, ventricular dysrhythmias and death.
EU: Approved (expiry extended to 30.04.2019.) but for restricted use only (Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/785, of 29th May 2018.) ECHA: approved PT18 01.02.2015 - 31.05.2025.
Products: Actara, Cruiser SB, Centric, Flagship, Meridian, Optigard, Platinum (not on the ECHA approved list as at 6th May 2019). ECHA approved products: Agita 10WG, AGITA 100 PLUS, AGITAGARD 10WG, AGITA®10wg, Ditex, MS Thia-Fly (Market area Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus & 22 more); AGITA 1GB (Market area France Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom).
Sources:
- ECHA 2019. Thiamethoxam Substance information.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2019. Thiamethoxam
- Coulon, M., Schurr, F., Martel, A.-C., Cougoule, N., Bégaud, A., Mangoni, P., Dlamon, A., Alaux, C., Le Conte, Y., Thiéry R., Ribière-Chabert, M., Dubois, E. 2018. Metabolisation of thiamethoxam (a neonicotinoid pesticide) and interaction with the Chronic bee paralysis virus in honeybees. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 144: 10-18
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Thiamethoxam.
- Tosi, S., Nieh, J.C. 2017. A common nicotinoid pesticide, thiamethoxam, alters honey bee activity, motor functions and movement to light. Nature Scientific Reports 7: article number 15132.
- Toxnet (Toxicology Data Network) 2011, updated 2012. Thiamethoxam.
USED ON HVAR by individuals cultivating olives, vines, etc
 
TRICHLORFON. Organophosphate.
Possible adverse effects: In humans, possible carcinogen; suspected to cause reproductive problems and birth defects; can cause vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal cramps; affects the nervous system: can cause confusion, headaches, irritability, speech difficulties, memory and concentration loss; when inhaled, causes breathing problems, pulmonary oedema, sometimes nose-bleeds; eye contact can cause redness and bleeding, tears, blurred vision; skin contact can cause sweating and muscle contractions; severe poisoning affects the central nervous system and can cause loss of coordination (ataxia), slurred speech, weakness, fatigue, paralysis, unconsciousness, and even death; symptoms such as cramps, tingling, numbness in the legs followed by incoordination and paralysis sometimes come on 1-4 weeks after exposure and can leave permanent disability.
Highly toxic to birds, bees, and aquatic organisms, toxic to fish. 
EU /ECHA: Not approved.
Sources:
- Toxnet (Toxicology Data Network) 1983, updated 2018. Trichlorfon
- Extension Toxicology Network (Extoxnet) 1993. Trichlorfon. (Pesticide Information Project, Cornell University)
- National Center for Biotechnology Information.PubChem Compound Database. 2005, modified 2018. Metrifonate - TRICHLORFON
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database 2018. TrichlorfonUSED ON HVAR: for many years was distributed to households together with rat poison (Ratimor, see below), previously in flimsy cellophane packaging. In tablet form, intended for use down toilet pans: result, most probably finishes in the sea from many seaside properties, or in the soil from soak-away septic tanks. 

 
TRICOSENE. Chemical compound: muscalure, Z-9-tricosene, cis-tricos-9-ene, muscamone
Possible adverse effects: Irritant to skin and eyes on contact; inhalation can cause irritation to the respiratory tract; highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates
EU: Not approved ECHA: Approved PT19, repellants and attractants, 01/10/2014 - 30/09/2024.
Products: Maxforce Fly Spot Bait, Bonanza Fly Bait, Stimukil Fly Bait. ECHA approved products (6th May 2019): Lurectron Flybait, also FLYGOLD ULTRA, QUICK BAYT, QUICK BAYT GR, Muchostop (see Imidacloprid)
Sources:
- ECHA 2019. Tricosene Factsheet.
- University of Hertfordshire Bio-Pesticides DataBase. 2018. Muscalure, Z-9-tricosene.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database, 2005, updated January 2019. Tricosene
USED ON HVAR DDD programme, on rubbish tips: 2018: Quick Bayt®, Hvar Town region, 3rd July, 2 kg; Stari Grad region, 3rd July, 25th July, 15th July, 6th September 2018, 2 kg.
 
SYNERGIST (INERT SUBSTANCE  / MIXER)
PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE (PBO). Pyrethroid synergist. 
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; may delay mental development in infants; animal studies show possible damage, including tumours, in mice and rats.
ECHA: approved, PT18, 01/07/2018 - 30/06/2028
Sources:
- Okamiya, H., Mitsumori, K., Onodera, H., Ito, S., Imazawa, T., Yasuhara, K., Takahashi, M. 1998. Mechanistic study on liver tumor promoting effects of piperonyl butoxide in rats. Archives of Toxicology 72 (11): 744-750.
- Khan, M.Z. & Law, F.C.P. 2005. Adverse effects of pesticides and related chemicals on enzyme and hormone systems of fish, amphibians and reptiles: a review. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Science 42 (4): 315-323. 
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. Reregistration Eligibility Decision for Piperonyl Butoxide (PBO)
- Muguruma, M., Nishimura, J., Jin, M., Kashida, Y., Moto, M., Takahashi, M., Yokouchi, Y., Mitsumori, K. 2006. Molecular pathological analysis for determining the possible mechanism of piperonyl butoxide-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. Toxicology 228 (2-3): 178-187. 
- Horton, M. K., Rundle, A., Camann, D.E., Boyd Barr, D., Rauh, V.A., whyatt, R. M. 2011. Impact of Prenatal Exposure to Piperonyl Butoxide and Permethrin on 36-month Neurodevelopment. Pediatrics. 
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Piperonyl Butoxide
For an overview of inert substances, please refer to the United States Environmental Protection Agency listing: Pesticide Registration, Inert Ingredients
USED ON HVAR in Permex 22E for adult insect suppression 'fogging' spraying and dispersion (see Permethrin or Tetramethrin, above)
 
FUNGICIDES  (Agricultural fungicides are not included in the ECHA list of approved chemical substances)
AZOXYSTROBIN (substance group strobilurin)
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to aquatic organisms and the aquatic environment, with long-lasting effects; highly toxic to hoverfly larvae; toxic to fish, earthworms; in humans, suspected possible carcinogen; can be fatal if swallowed; highly toxic if inhaled; harmful if absorbed through the skin; skin and eye irritant.
EU: Approved 01.01.2012 - 31.12.2024
Products: Universalis (with Folpet), Amistar, Mirador
Sources:
- PubChem 2019. Azoxystrobin.
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Azoxystrobin.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency 2016. Azoxystrobin, Conditional Registration.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency 1997. Azoxystrobin. Pesticide Fact Sheet, for Conditional Registration.
USED ON HVAR: Universalis is used especially on vines.
 
COPPER COMPOUNDS
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to fish, birds, aquatic invertebrates, organisms and plants; toxic to bees and earthworms; sheep, chickens; persists in the soil. In humans can cause nausea, irritation of respiratory tract and skin, eczema. Eye contact can cause conjunctivitis, inflammation of the eyelid lining, excess fluid build-up in the eyelid, clouding of the cornea, cornea tissue deterioration due to ulceration in the eye's mucous membrane.
Long-term, excessive exposure leads to the risk of heavy metal poisoning, including liver disease, brain damage, kidney and intestinal problems, anaemia, mutagenic potential; possible damaging effects on reproduction and development. Symptoms include: a metallic taste in the mouth, burning pain in the chest and abdomen, intense nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, headache, sweating, shock, disrupted urination leading to yellowing of the skin. People with Wilson's disease (in which copper is absorbed and stored excessively in the body), are at special risk of poisoning from copper-based pesticides.
EU: Approved.
Products: Bordeaux Mixture (combination of copper sulphate and hydrated lime / calcium dihydroxide, see below ); Kocide 3000 (copper hydroxide), Champ®Formula 2 (copper hydroxide), Comac (copper hydroxide), Wetcol 3 Copper Fungicide (tetracopper tricalcium sulphate and soluble calcium), Bordocop, Nordox 75WG (copper(I) oxide)
 
COPPER SULPHATE
Bordeaux Mixture. (combination of copper sulphate and hydrated lime / calcium dihydroxide)
Possible adverse effects: toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates, aquatic plants, algae, birds, earthworms. In humans: harmful if inhaled, can cause serious eye problems. Associated with increased risk of potentially malignant oral submucous fibrosis, which can lead to oral squamous cell carcinoma.
EU: Approved, 01.01.2019-31.12.2025.
Sources:
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. August 2018. Copper Sulphate.
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. May 2018. Bordeaux Mixture.
- Rodrigues, C.G., Krüger, A. P., Barbosa, W. F., Guedes, R. N. C. 2016. Leaf Fertilizers Affect Survival and Behavior of the Neotropical Stingless Bee Friesella schrottkyi (Meliponini: Apidae: Hymenoptera). Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol.109, 3, pp 1001-1008.
- Mathew, P., Ravi, D.A., Varghese, S.S., Manojkumar, A.D. 2015. Effect of copper-based fungicide (bordeaux mixture) spray on the total copper content of areca nut: Implications in increasing prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis. Journal of International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry.
- European Food Safety Authority. 2008. Conclusion on the peer review of copper compounds. Scientific Report 187, 1-101.
- EXTOXNET Extension Toxicology Network. 1994. Copper Sulphate.
USED ON HVAR: Copper-based compounds, such as Nordox, and especially Copper Sulphate and Bordeaux Mixture, are widely used on vines, especially on the north side of the island, also on other crops.
 
 
FLUOPYRAM, substance group benzamide, pyramide
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to fish, aquatic plants and algae, with long-lasting effects; slightly toxic to bees, birds, earthworms; in humans, can cause serious eye irritation; possibly causes damage to nervous system; affects reproduction, possibly damages the unborn child
EU: Approved 01/02/2014 - 31/01/2024.
Products: Luna ® Privilege; Luna Experience (fluopyram with tebuconazole)
Sources:
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database, 2018. Fluopyram
- Bayer Crop Science Safety Data Sheet, 2017. Luna Experience SC400
USED ON HVAR by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc
 
FOLPET (synthetic phthalimide)
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to fish and aquatic organisms; probable human carcinogen; causes developmental effects in animals; toxic if inhaled; causes serious eye irritation; can cause allergic skin reactions; moderately toxic to earthworms. ECHA warnings: hazardous to the environment and human health
EU: Approved 01/10/2007 - 31/07/2020. ECHA: approved under PT 06 (preservatives for products during storage), 07 (film preservatives), 09 (fibre, leather, rubber and polymerised materials preservatives)
Products: Folpet 80 WDG, Folpan 50 wp, Phoenix®, Mikal (folpet and fosetyl-al), Pergado F (folpet and mandipropamid)
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2019. Folpet.
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. 2018. Folpet.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency 1999. R.E.D. facts. Folpet.
USED ON HVAR by farmers cultivating grapes and olives, etc
 
FOSETYL-ALUMINIUM (Fosetyl-al) Organophosphate
Possible adverse effects: toxic to mammals, bees, birds, fish, aquatic invertebrates, algae, earthworms; possible human carcinogen; irritant if inhaled, can cause lung damage; causes serious eye irritation or damage; skin irritant
EU: approved 01/05/2007 - 30/04/2020.
Products: Mikal (fosetyl-al and folpet), Aliette, Fosetyl-Al 80WP
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2019. Fosetyl-Al
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Fosetyl-al
- Toxnet (Toxicology Data Network) 1993, updated 2006, field updates 2010. Fosetyl-Aluminum
- United States Environmental Protection Agency 1991. R.E.D. facts. Fosetyl-Al
USED ON HVAR by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc
 
MANCOZEB (substance group carbamate)
Possible adverse effects: toxic to fish, birds, aquatic invertebrates; moderately toxic to bees, earthworms, algae; in humans: possible thyroid disruptor; possible effects on reproduction and development; respiratory tract irritant; eye irritant
EU: Approved 01/07/2006 - extended to 31/01/2020.
Products: Cadillac, Mancozeb Plus, Mancozeb Flowable with Zinc, Matco 8-64 (mancozeb with metalaxyl), Ridomil Gold (mancozeb with metalaxyl)
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2019. Mancozeb
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Mancozeb
- Axelstad, M., Boberg, J., Nellemann, C., Kiersgaard, M., Jacobsen, P.R., Christiansen, S., Hougaard, K.S., Hass, U. 2011. Exposure to the widely used fungicide mancozeb causes thyroid disruption in rat dams but no behavioral effects in the offspring. Toxicological Sciences 120 (2) 439-446
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2005. Mancozeb Facts - Pesticide Reregistration
ON HVAR: Ridomil and Cadillac used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc
 
MANDIPROPAMID (substance group mandelamide)
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to fish and aquatic organisms; modertaley toxic to birds and earthworms; can be harmful to the liver and kidneys; eye irritant.
EU: Approved 01/08/2013 - 31/07/2023. ECHA warning:  hazardous to the environment.
Products: Pergado F (Mandipropamid with Folpet), Pergado MZ (Mandipropamid with Mancozeb)
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 26/10/2006 updated 10/07/2019. Mandipropamid
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database, updated June 2019. Mandipropamid
ON HVAR: Pergado used especially by grape-growers
METALAXYL (substance group phenylamide)
Possible adverse effects: toxic to bees, birds, fish, earthworms; in humans: can cause serious eye damage; skin irritant; very harmful if swallowed
EU: Approved 01/07/2010 - 30/06/2023. 
Products: Folio, Fubol Gold, Ridomil Gold (metalaxyl with mancozeb)
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2006 modified 2019. Metalaxyl-M
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Metalaxyl-M
ON HVAR: Ridomil used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc
 
METIRAM Substance group Carbamate
Possible adverse effects: Moderately toxic to fish; highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates; highly toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; hazardous to the aquqatic environment; moderately toxic to honeybees and earthworms; in humans: can cause skin and eye irritation; can cause anaemia; toxic if ingested or inhaled; can cause abdominal cramps, vomiting and diarrhoea if ingested; classified as a possible human carcinogen
EU: Approved 01/07/20016 - 31/01/2020 (extended from 31/01/2019). ECHA : Not listed as at 4th March 2019
Products: Cabrio® Top (Metiram & Pyraclostrobin), Polyram
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005, modified 2019. Metiram
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Metiram
- Toxnet (Toxicology Data Network) 1991, revised 2010. Metiram
ON HVAR: Cabrio® Top used by individuals cultivating vines, olives
 
PENCONAZOLE, substance group Triazole
Possible adverse effects: toxic to bees, birds, fish, aquatic invertebrates and algae; suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child; possible endocrine disruptor; harmful if swallowed
EU: Approved 01.01.2012 - 31.12.2021.
Products: Penconazole 200 ew, Hockley Pencon 10, Topas,
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2019. Penconazole
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Penconazole
ON HVAR: Topas used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc
 
PROPICONAZOLE substance group Triazole
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to fish; toxic to aquatic organisms; in humans, highly irritant to eyes and skin; harmful if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through the skin; can cause skin allergies; possible liver toxicant; possible endocrine disruptor; classified as possible carcinogen by USEPA.
Products: Tilt, Menara, Mantis, Banner Maxx
EU: approval withdrawn December 2018, final deadline March 2020.
Sources: - University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Propiconazole
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2014. Tilt fungicide. Revised master label
ON HVAR: Tilt used by individuals cultivating vines, olives
 
PROPINEB (substance type: carbamate)
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to aquatic life; toxic to bees, birds, earthworms; in humans: can cause organ damage, allergic skin reactions; toxic on skin contact; suspected as possible carcinogen, respiratory tract irritant.
EU: not approved (approval revoked, with a grace period allowed to Member States until 22nd June 2019).
Products: Propineb 70%, Antracol®WP/70 (with zinc)
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database, 2005 modified 2019. Propineb
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Propineb
ON HVAR: Antracol used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc
 
PYRACLOSTROBIN Carbamate ester, substance group Strobilurin
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to fish, aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; hazardous to the aquatic environment with long-term effects; in humans: toxic, acutely dangerous if inhaled, can be fatal if swallowed; may cause respiratory irritation; causes eye and skin irritation; causes neurodegeneration; can cause nausea, headache, dizziness, chest pain
EU: Approved 01/06/2004 - 31/01/2020. ECHA: Not listed as at 28th February 2019
Products: Cabrio® Top (Pyraclostrobin & Metyram), Baitai ® (Pyraclostrobin & Metyram), Cabrio Team ® (Pyraclostrobin & Dimethomorph)
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database, 2006 modified 2019. Pyraclostrobin
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Pyraclostrobin
- Pearson, B.L., Simon, J.M., McCoy, E.S., Salazar, G., Fragola, G., Zylka, M.J. 2016. Identification of chemicals that mimic transcriptional changes associated with autism, brain aging and neurodegeneration. Nature Communications 7, 11173
- United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Acute Pesticide Poisoning Associated with Pyraclostrobin Fungicide - Iowa 2007 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Rreport 56 (51) 1343-1345
ON HVAR: Cabrio® Top used by individuals cultivating vines, olives
 
PYRIMETHANIL (Substance group anilinopyrimidine).
Possible adverse effects: toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; endocrine disruptor in tree frogs, causes liver and kidney damage in non-target species; toxic to earthworms; in humans, possible carcinogen; toxic through skin contact and inhalation
EU: approved 01/05/2007 - 30/04/2020
Products: Pyrus® 400SC
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database, 2005/2019. Pyrimethanil
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database, 2019. Pyrimethanil
- Bernabo, I., Guardia, A., Macirella, R., Tripepi, S., Brunelli, E. 2017. Chronic exposure to fungicide pyrimethanil: multi-organ effects on the Italian tree frog (Hyla intermedia).  Scientific Reports 7, 6869.
-Toxnet, Toxicology Data Network. 2004 / 2010. Pyrimethanil
USED ON HVAR: Pyrus® 400SC is used especially on vines.
 
SPIROXAMINE (Substance group morpholine).
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to aquatic life; in humans, suspected of causing damage to the unborn child; may cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure; harmful if swallowed or inhaled; can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions;
EU: Approved 01.01.2012 - 31.12.2021.
Products: Impulse®, Prosper®500 EC, Falcon (Spiroxamine with tebuconazole)
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2019. Spiroxamine
- European Chemicals Agency, Substance Information. 2018. Spiroxamine
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Spiroxamine
ON HVAR: Falcon used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc
 
SULPHUR (inorganic compound)
Possible adverse effects: if inhaled can cause coughing, sneezing and respiratory impairment; skin contact can cause redness, itching and burning in sensitive individuals; eye contact can cause painful irritation, redness and tears; ingestion can cause nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea; can interfere with photosynthesis in plants.
EU: Approved 01/01/2010 - 31/12/2020.
Product: Chromosul 80. (Warnings: to be used no more than four times a year, and never when the vine is fully developed; should not be mixed with propamocarb, captan, heptenophos, oils, bupirimate and folpet.)
Sources:
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Sulphur
- Petit, A-N., Fontaine, F., Vatsa, P., Clément, C., Vaillant-Gaveau, N. 2012. Fungicide impacts on photosynthesis in crop plants. Photosynthesis Reseach 111 (3) 315-326
- Extension Toxicology Network  (Extoxnet). 1995. Sulfur. (Pesticide Information Project, Cornell University)
ON HVAR: Chromosul used especially by grape-growers
 
TEBUCONAZOLE, (substance group triazole)
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; toxic to bees, birds, earthworms; in humans: can damage the unborn child; possible human carcinogen; toxic if swallowed.
EU: Approved 01/09/2009 - 31/08/2019. ECHA: approved under PT07 (film preservatives), 08 (wood preservatives), 10 (construction material preservatives)
Product: Tebuconazole 3.6, Cogito (tebuconazole with propiconazole), Luna (tebuconazole with fluopyram), Falcon (tebuconazole with spiroxamine)
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2019. Tebuconazole
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Tebuconazole
ON HVAR: Luna and Falcon used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc
 
LIMACIDE (MOLLUSCICIDE) ECHA APPROVAL CODE PT16, molluscicides, vermicides and products to control other invertebrates (against slugs, snails and other arthropods)
METALDEHYDE (Chemical compound)
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to aquatic organisms, with long-lasting effects; deadly to dogs and cats: Toxic to humans if swallowed or through skin contact or inhalation; can cause salivation, lethargy, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, convulsions, hyperthermia, comas, and death
EU: approved, 01/06/2011-31/05/2023. ECHA: not approved
Products: Corry's slug, snail and insect killer, Bug-geta snail and slug pellets, Slugit, Slug-Tox, Certis Deal 5, Meridien, Carakol, Metalden, Metarex. Combined with insecticide Carbaryl in Lily Miller Slug, Snail and Insect Killer Bait, also for Ortho Bug-Geta Plus. ECHA: no approved related products
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database, 2005, modified 2019. Metaldehyde.
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database updated 2018. Metaldehyde.
- Toxnet (Toxicology Data Network), 1983, updated 2010. Metaldehyde.
USED ON HVAR: widely used as Pužomor in gardens and fields, with many documented fatalities among dogs and cats.  

RODENTICIDES  ECHA APPROVAL CODE PT14, rodenticides

Raticide delivered in flimsy box to households on Hvar, 2018.
BRODIFACOUM. Rodenticide - superwarfarin - 4-hydroxycoumarin vitamin K antagonist anticoagulant poison. 
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic when ingested, causes haemorrhage, can be fatal to humans and animals alike; can be fatal through inhalation and skin contact; highly toxic to fish and birds; causes long-lasting damaging effects in aquatic environments;  
EUNot approved ECHA: approved, PT14, 01/02/2012 - 30/06/2024. 
Products: Ratimor, Ridak, Delicat, Sorexa Checkatube. ECHA approved products include AGRIGARD PASTA BF-50, ALBAROD BF-50 PASTA, BRODI PASTE, BRODITEC P-50, BRODITEC P-50 CEREALI, ANTI-RAT Plus, Vahaplokid, ANTI-RAT Plus vaska briketes, ANTI-RAT Plus vaškiniai blokai, BRODI RAT BLOCK, BRODIFACOUM BB
Sources:
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Brodifacoum
- PubChem, Open Chemistry Database 2011, updated 2018: Brodifacoum
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database, updated 2018. Brodifacoum
- Toxnet (Toxicology Data Network) 1984, updated 2014. Brodifacoum
ON HVAR: Brodifacoum was on the list of pesticides recommended for use around Hvar Town, Stari Grad and the Jelsa Council area, under the Programme issued by the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute for 2017, and in the Institute's Implementation Plan for 2018.
 
BROMADIOLONE. Rodenticide - anticoagulant - superwarfarin - 4-hydroxycoumarin vitamin K antagonist anticoagulant poison. 
Possible adverse effects: Acutely toxic, can be fatal if swallowed, inhaled, or via skin contact; may damage fertility or the unborn child; can cause organ damage in humans; highly toxic to fish and aquatic life, also to earthworms. 
EU: Approved 01.06.2011, expiry 31.05.2021 according to the EU Pesticides Database. ECHA: approved, PT14, 01/07/2011 - 30/06/2024 
Products: Ratimor wax blocks, Ratimor Bromadiolone Fresh Bait, Ratimor Bromadiolone Pasta Bait, Maki, Coumarin, Tomcat, Sarakat Bromabait, Contrac, Bromone, Maki, Super-Caid
Sources:
- PubChem, Open Chemistry Database, 2011. updated 2018. Bromadiolone
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database, updated 2018. Bromadiolone
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Bromadiolone
USED ON HVAR, Ratimor (granules and wax blocks): 2016: Hvar Town and surrounds: May and October; Stari Grad and surrounds, April and October; Jelsa Council region, April-May and October 2016; 2017: Hvar Town region, May-June, 17th & 23rd November, total quantities 1010 kg granules 172 kg wax blocks; Stari Grad and surrounds, May and November, total: 787 kg; Jelsa Council region, May and November 2017. total 981 kg; 2018: Hvar Town region 22nd May, 3rd October, Ratimor granules 455 kg, wax blocks 22 kg; Stari Grad & surrounds, 22-24 May, 2-4 October; Jelsa Council region, 18-21 May, 25th September - 4th October 2018.Ratimor has been delivered to households on Hvar twice a year for many years. It was delivered along with an insecticide, Trichlorfon (see above). Until 2017, the pesticides were delivered in flimsy cellophane packages, with the instructions on the inside. In 2018, Ratimor was delivered to households in flimsy cardboard boxes, without detailed instructions as to how to use the poisons, and without any guidance as to how to dispose of the box and poison after use.
Bromadiolone rat poison was delivered in cellophane packaging to households on Hvar every year up to 2017.

HERBICIDES. (Herbicides are not included in the ECHA list of approved chemical substances)

GLYPHOSATE. There are at least some 750 glyphosate-based herbicides available in the world markets. Eleven of them, including the widely used Roundup (Cidokor in Croatian), were banned in the EU in 2016.

Suspected possible adverse effects in humans: carcinogenic; neurotoxic; genotoxic; contributes to antibiotic resistance; influences pregnancy, fertility, and birth defects; endocrine disruptor; damages DNA, gut bacteria, organs including liver, kidneys and spleen; contributes to Parkinson's Disease and autism.

Possible environmental ill-effects: damage to water, fish, aquatic organisms, soil, soil organisms, bees, butterflies, gastropods, trees, plants.

Herbicide in the Stari Grad Plain. Photo: Vivian Grisogono
You can find a detailed presentation of the evidence of glyphosate's potential dangers here. For a description of the problems relating to glyphosate, click here.
USED ON HVAR: Roundup (locally Cidokor) has been widely and intensively used on Hvar over many years, alongside other glyphosate-based herbicides such as 'Ouragan', 'Oxalis' and 'Boom Efekt'.
 
Information updated 12th July 2019.
 
Please note: The above information is as complete and accurate as possible, and has taken several years to piece together. The Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute and some of the Hvar local authorities have not to date given us the complete information which we requested. If you are aware of inaccuracies or further information which would be relevant to this list, please let us know at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
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