Glyphosate herbicides, scientific evidence

Published in Poisons Beware

An overview of the scientific evidence for claims that glyphosate-based herbicides are or are not safe.

Herbicide in a Hvar field Herbicide in a Hvar field Photo: Vivian Grisogono

EVIDENCE INDICATING THAT GLYPHOSATE-BASED HERBICIDES ARE NOT SAFE

In this list, most of the scientific papers cited have been published in peer-reviewed journals. Where possible, online links to the articles are given. Almost all the articles carry numerous references to previous scientific research.

Because there has been controversy over the safety or otherwise of glyphosate, there have been calls for more rigorous research, such as: Landrigan, P.J., Belpoggi, F. 2018. The need for independent research on the health-effects of glyphosate-based herbicides. Environmental Health 17: 51. 17 references.

In response to this need, the independently funded Ramazzini Institute initiated The Global Glyphosate Study in 2016, producing their first peer-reviewed papers from their pilot studies in 2018, which showed adverse effects from glyphosate at previously accepted 'safe doses'..

Overviews

Cox, C., 1995. Glyphosate Fact Sheets: Part 1: Toxicology. Journal of Pesticide Reform. 15 (3) Fall 1995. Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides, Eugene, OR. 50 references. 

Ho, M-W., Sirinathsinghji, E., 2012. Why Glyphosate should be banned - a review of its hazards to health and the environment. Permaculture Research Institute. (Institute of Sc ience in Society Special Report) 107 references

Earth Open Source, 2012. Roundup and Birth Defects (overview, with industry responses)

Mason, Rosemary, 2013. Glyphosate Destructor of Human Health and Biodiversity. GMO Evidence

Friends of the Earth, June 2013. Concerns about Glyphosate's Approval. Friends of the Earth Europe (www.foeeurope.com).

Robinson, C., 2014. The glyphosate toxicity studies you're not allowed to see. GMWatch

Vandenberg, L.N., Blumberg, B., Antoniou, M.N., Benbrook, C.M., Carroll, L., Colborn, T., Everett, L.G., hansen, M., Landrigan, P.J., Lanphear, B.P., Mesnage, R., vom Saal, F.S., Welshons, W.V., Myers, J.P. 2016. Is it time to reasses current safety standards for glyphosate-based herbicides? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, (BMJ Journals) 71 (6) 55 references

Myers, J.P., Antoniou, M.N., Blumberg, B., Carroll, L., Colborn, T., Everett, L.G., Hansen, M., Landrigan, P.J., Lanphear, B.P., Mesnage, R., Vandenberg, L.N., vom Saal, F.S., Wlshons, W.V., Benbrook, C.M. 2016. Concerns over use of glyphosate-based herbicides and risks associated with exposures: a consensus statement. Environmental Health 15: 19.  80 references

Clausing, P., Robinson, C., and Burtscher-Schaden, H. 2018. Pesticides and public health: An analysis of the regulatory approach to assessing the carcinogenicity of glyphosate in the European Union. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 20 references

Torretta, V., Katsoyiannis, I.A., Viotti, P., Rada, E.C. 2018. Critical Review of the Effects of Glyphosate Exposure to the Environment and Humans through the Food Supply Chain. Sustainability, MDPI Basel, Switzerland.  This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). 67 references

Landrigan, P.J., Belpoggi, F. 2018. The need for independent research on the health effects of glyphosate-based herbicides. Environmental Health , 17:51. 17 references

Defrage, N., Spiroux de Vendomois, J., Séralini, G.E., 2018. Toxicity of formulants and heavy metals in glyphosate-based herbicides and other pesticides. Science Direct: Toxicology Reports. 5: 156-163. 71 references

Van Bruggen, A.H.C., He, M.M., Shin, K., Mai, V., Jeong, K.C., Finckh, M.R., Morris, J.G.Jr. 2018. Environmental and health effects of the herbicide glyphosate. Science of the Total Environment, 616-617: 255-268. 167 references

Antibiotic resistance

Liu, Y-B., Long, M-X., Yin, Y-J., Si, M-R., Zhang, L., Lu, Z-Q., Wang, Y., Shen, X-H. 2013. Physiological roles of mycothiol in detoxification and tolerance to multiple poisonous chemicals in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Archives of Microbiology 195 (6) 419-429. 48 references 

Kurenbach, B., Gibson, P.S., Hill, A.M., Bitzer, A.S., Silby, M.W., Godsoe, W., Heinemann, J.A. 2017. Herbicide ingredients change Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium and Escherichia coli antibiotic responses. Microbiology, online 17 November 2017 doi: 10.1099/mic.0.000573 40 references

Cancer risks

De Roos, A.J., Blair, A., Rusiecki, J.A., Hoppin, J.A., Svec, M., Dosemeci, M., Sandler, D.P., Alavanja, M.C., 2005. Cancer Incidence among Glyphosate-Exposed Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health study. Environmental Health Perspectives 113 (1) 49-54. 56 references

Eriksson, M., Hardell, L., Carlberg, M., Akerman, M., 2008. Pesticide exposure as risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma including histopathological subgroup analysis. International Journal of Cancer 123: 1657-1663. 41 references

Samsel, Anthony & Seneff, Stephanie 2013. Glyphosate, pathways to Modern Diseases II: Celiac Sprue and Gluten Intolerance. Interdisciplinary Toxicology 6 (4) 159-184. 271 references

Thongprakalsang, S., Thiantanawat, A., Rangkadilok N., Suriyo, T., Satayavivad, J., 2013. Glyphosate induces human breast cancer cells growth via oestrogen receptors. Food & Chemical Toxicology 59: 129-136

Alavanja, M.C.R., Ross, M.K., Bonner, M.R., 2013. Increased Cancer Burden Among Pesticide Applicators and Others Due to Pesticide Exposure. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 63 (2): 120-142. 186 references

Séralini, G-E, Clair, E., Mesnage, R., Grass, S., Defarge, N., Malatesta, M., Hannequin, D., Spirouz de Vendômois, J., 2014. Republished study: long-term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize.  Environmental Sciences Europe. 75 references.

Ho, M.W., 2014. Glyphosate and Cancer. Institute of Science in Society Report 26.3.2014. 34 references

Schinasi, L., Leon, M.E., 2014. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Occupational Exposure to Agricultural Pesticide Chemical Groups and Active Ingredients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 11 (4): 4449-4527. 77 references

International Agency for Research into Cancer, 2015. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Vol.112 (2015) Some Organophosphate Insecticides and Herbicides. GlyphosateAuthors: Guyton, K.Z., Loomis, D., Grosse, Y., Ghissassi, F. E., Benbrahim-Tallaa, L., Guha, N., Scoccianti, C., Mattock, H., Straif, K.  on behalf of the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph Working Group, IARC, Lyon, France. Summary published in the Lancet Oncology, Vol. 16, no.5, pp 490-491, May 2015. 16 references

Samsel, A., Seneff, S. 2015. Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases IV: Cancer and related pathologies. Journal of Biological Physics and Chemistry 15 (3) 121 - 159. 246 references

Zhang, L., Rana, I., Shaffer, R.M., Taioli, E., Sheppard, L., 2019. Exposure to Glyphosate-Based Herbicides and Risk for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Meta-Analysis and Supporting Evidence. Mutation Research / Reviews in Mutation Research, available online 10.02.2019. 124 references

Leon, M.E., Schinasi, L.H., Lebailly, P., Freeman, L.E.B., Nordby. K-C., Ferro, G., Monnereau, A., Brouwer, M., Tual, S., Baldi, I., Kjaerham, K., Hofmann, J.N., Kristensen, P., Koutros, S., straif, K., Kromhout, H., Schuz. J. 2019. Pesticide use and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoid malignancies in agricultural cohorts from France, Norway and the USA: a pooled analysis from the AGRICOH consortium. International Journal of Epidemiology. 53 references

Duforestel, M., Nadaradjane, A., Bougras-Cartron, G., Briand, J., Olivier, C., Frenel, J-S., Vallette, F.M., Lelièvre, S.A., Cartron, P.-F. 2019. Glyphosate Orimes Mammary Cells for Tumorigenesis by Reprogramming the Epigenome in a TET3-Dependent Manner. Frontiers in Genetics, September 2019. 48 references

Portier, C.J., 2020. A comprehensive analysis of the animal carcinogenicity data for glyphosate from chronic exposure rodent carcinogenicity studies. Environmental Health. 19, 18. Published online, Open Access, 12th February 2020. 100 references

Pregnancy, birth defects and endocrine disruption

Tate, T.M., Spurlock, J.O., Christian, F.A. 1997. Effect of Glyphosate on the Development of Pseudosuccinea columella Snails. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 33 (3) 286-289

Garry, V.F., Harkins, M.E., Erickson, L.L., Long-Simpson, L.K., Holland, S.E., Burroughs, B.L., 2002. Birth Defects, Season of Conception, and Sex of Children Born to Pesticide Applicators Living in the Red River Valley of Minnesota, USA. Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (Suppl 3) 441-449. 69 references

Richard, S., Moslemi, S., Sipahular, H., Benachour, N., Séralini, G-E., 2005. Differential Effects of Glyphosate and Roundup on Human Placenta and Aromatase. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113 (6) 716-720. 38 references

Benachour, N., Sipahular, H., Moslemi, S., Gasnier, C., Travert, C., Séralini, G.E., 2007. Time- and dose-dependent effects of Roundup on Human embryonic and placental cells. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 53 (1): 126-133. 42 references

Gasnier, C., Dumont, C., Benachour, N., Clair, E., Chagnon, M.C., Séralini, G.E. 2009. Glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic and endocrine disruptors in human cell lines. Toxicology 262 (3) : 184-191. 94 references

Romano, R.M.., Romano, M.A., 2010. Prepubertal exposure to commercial formulation of the herbicide glyphosate alters testosterone levels and testicular morphology. Archives of Toxicology. 84 (4) 309-317. 40 references 

Antoniou, M., Ezz El-Din Mostafa Habib, M., Howard, C. V., Jennings, R.C., Leifert, C., Nodari, R.O., Robinson, C., Fagan, J.. June 2011. Roundup and birth defects. Is the public being kept in the dark? Pub. Earth Open Source.358 references

Antoniou,M., Habib, M.E.M., Howard, C. V., Jennings, R.C., Leifert, C., Nodari, R.O., Robinson, C., Fagan, J. 2012. Teratogenic Effects of Glyphosate-based Herbicides: Divergence of Regulatory Decisions from Scientific Evidence. Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology, S4-006, 97 references

Romano, M.A., Romano, R.M., Santos, L.D., Wisniewski, P., Campos, D.A., de Souza, P.B., Bernardi, M.M., Nunes, M.T., de Oliviera C.A. 2012. Gyphosate impairs male offspring reproductive development by disrupting gonadotropin expression. Archives of Toxicology, 86 (4) 663-673. 56 references

Kruger, M, Schrodl, Wieland, Pedersen, Ib, & Shehata, A. A., 2014. Detection of Glyphosate in Malformed Piglets. Journal of Environmental and Analytical Toxicology, 4:230 4 references

Young, F., Ho D., Glynn, D., & Edwards, V. 2015. Endocrine disruption and cytotoxicity of glyphosate and roundup in human JAr cells in vitro. Integrative Pharamcology, Toxicology and Genotoxicology. Vol 1 (1) 12-19. 30 references

Parvez, S., Gerona, R. R., Proctor, C., Friesen, M., Ashby, J. L., Reiter, J. L., Lui, Z. & Winchester, P. D. 2018. Glyphosate exposure in pregnancy and shortened gestational length: a prospective Indiana birth cohort study. Environmental Health 2018 17:23. 56 references

Chiu, Y-H., Williams, P.L., Gillman, M., et.al. 2018. Association Between Pesticide Residue Intake From Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables and Pregnancy Outcomes Among Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment With Assisted Reproductive Technology. JAMA Network 178 (1) 17-26.  

Milesi, M.M., Lorenz, V., Pacini, G., Repetti, M.R., Demonte, L.D., Varayoud, J., Luque, E.H. 2018. Perinatal exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide impairs female reproductive outcomes and induces second-generation adverse effects in Wistar rats. Archives of Toxicology, 92 (8) 2629-2643. 94 references

Avila-Vazquez, M., Difilippo, F.S., Mac Lean, B., Maturano, B., Etchegoyen, A. 2018. Environmental Exposure to Glyphosate and Reproductive Health Impacts in Agricultural Population of Argentina. Journal of Environmental Protection, Open Access Scientific Research, Vol. 9, no.3, March 2018. 36 references

Manservisi, F., Lesseur, C., Panzacchi, S., Mandrioli, D., Falcioni, L., Bua, L., Manservigi, M., Spinaci, M., Galeati, G., Mantovani, A., Lorenzetti, S., Miglio, R., Andrade, A.M., Kristensen, D.M., Perry, M.J., Swan, S.H., Chen, J., Belpoggi, F. 2019. The Ramazzini Institute 13-week pilot study glyphosate-based herbicides administered at human-equivalent dose to Sprague Dawley rats: effects on development and the endocrine system. Environmental Health, 18:15. 54 references

DNA damage and genotoxic effects

Prasad, S., Srivastava, S., Singh, M., Shukla, Y., 2009. Clastogenic Effects of Glyphosate in Bone Marrow Cells of Swiss Albino Mice. Journal of Toxicology (2009) 308985. 39 references

Koller, V.J., Fürhacker, M., Nersesyan, A., Mišik, M., Eisenbauer, M., Knasmueller, S., 2012. Cytotoxic and DNA-damaging properties of glyphosate and Roundup in human-derived buccal epithelial cells. Archives of Toxicology 86 (5): 805-813. 47 references

Townsend, M., Peck, C., Meng, W., Heaton, M., Robison, R., O'Neill, K. 2017. Evaluation of various glyphosate concentrations on DNA damage in human Raji cells and its impact on cytotoxicity. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 85: 79-85.

Kwiatkowska, M., Reszka, E., Wozniak, K., Jablonska, E., Michalowicz, J., Bokowska, B. 2017. DNA damage and methyltaion induced by glyphosate in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (in vitro study). Food and Chemical Toxicology 105: 93-98. 

Santovito, A., Ruberto, S, Gendusa, C., Cervella, P. 2018. In vitro evaluation of genomic damage induced by glyphosate on human lymphocytes. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. Vol. 25, Issue 34, pp 34693-34700. (Online October 2018) 37 references

Benbrook, C.M., 2018. How did the US EPA and IARC reach diametrically opposed conclusions on the genotoxicity of glyphosate-based herbicides? Environmental Sciences Europe, 31:2 (online 14th Janaury 2019. 70 references

Long-term trans-generational risks

Kubsad, D., Nilsson, E.E., King, S.E., Sadler-Riggleman, I., Beck, D., skinner, M.E. 2019. Assessment of Glyphosate Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Pathologies and Sperm Epimutations: Generational Toxicology. Scientific Reports, 9, Article no: 6372. (published 23rd April 2019. 100 references

Male infertility

Clair, E., Mesnage, R., Travert, C., Séralini, G.E., 2012. A glyphosate-based herbicide induces apoptosis in mature rat cells in vitro, and testosterone decrease at lower levels. Toxicology in vitro 26: 269-279. 61 references

de Liz Oliveira Cavalli, V.L., Cattani, D., Heinz Rieg, C.E., Pierozan, P., Zanatta, L., Parisotto, E.B., Filho D.W.., Mena Barreto Silva, F.R., Pessoa-Pureur, R., Zamoner, A., 2013. Roundup disrupts male reproductive functions by triggering calcium-mediated cell death in rat testis and Sertoli cells. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 65: 335-346. 80 references

Asthma

Avila-Vázquez, M., Difilippo, F., Mac Lean, B., Maturano, E. 2020. Risk of asthma and environmental exposure to glyphosate in an ecological study. Authorea. August 13, 2020. 30 references

Gut bacteria / microbiome disruption

Brewster, D.W., Warren, J.,Hopkins, W.E., 1991. Metabolism of glyphosate in Sprague-Dawley rats: Tissue distribution, identification, and quantification of glyphosate-derived materials following a single oral dose. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 17: 43-51

Shehata, A. A., Schrödl, W., Aldin, A. A., Hafez, H. M., Krüger, M., 2012. The effect of Glyphosate on potential pathogens and beneficial members of poultry microbiotica in vitro. Current Microbiology, 9th December 2012. 59 references

Samsel, Anthony & Seneff, Stephanie 2013. Glyphosate, pathways to Modern Diseases II: Celiac Sprue and Gluten Intolerance. Interdisciplinary Toxicology 6 (4) 159-184. 271 references

Samsel, Anthony, Seneff, Stephanie, 2013. Glyphosate's Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases. Entropy 15: 1416-1463. 286 references

Schrödl, W., Krüger, S., Konstantinova-Müller, T., Shehata, A., Rulff, R., Krüger, M., 2014. Possible Effects of Glyphosate on Mucorales Abundance in the Rumen of Dairy Cows in Germany. Current Microbiology 69 (6) 817-823. 40 references 

Mao, Q, Manservisi, S., Panzacchi, S., Mandrioli, D., Menghetti, I., Vornoli, A., Buia, L., Falcioni, L., Lesseur, C., Chen, J., Belpoggi, F., Hu, J. 2018. The Ramazzini Institute 13-week pilot study on glyphosate and Roundup administered at human-equivalent dose to Sprague Dawley rats: effects on the microbiome. Environmental Health, 17:50. 80 references

Mesnage, R., Teixeira, M.,Mandrioli, D., Falcioni, L., Ducarmon, Q.R., Zwittink, R.D., Amiel, C., Panoff, J-M., Belpoggi, F., Antoniou, M.N. 2019. Shogun metagenomics reveal glyphosate alters the gut microbiome of Sprague-Dawley rats by inhibiting the shikimate pathway. bioRxiv - preprint (prior to peer review) posted 11th December 2019. 74 references

Organ damage (especially kidneys and liver)

Jayasumana, C., Gunatilake, S., Senanayake, P., 2014. Glyphosate, Hard Water and Nephrotoxic Metals: Are They the Culprits Behind the Epidemic of Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology in Sri Lanka? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 109 references

Séralini, G-E, Clair, E., Mesnage, R., Gress, S., Defarge, N., Malatesta, M., Hennequin, D., Spiroux de Vendômois, J., 2014. Republished study: long-term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize. Environmental Sciences Europe, 26: 14. 75 references

Tizhe, E.V., Onyebuche, I.I., George, B.D.J., Ambali, S.F., Shallangwa, J.M., 2014. Influence of zinc supplementation on histopathological changes in the stomach, liver, kidney, brain, pancreas and spleen during subchronic exposure of Wistar rats to glyphosate. Comparative Clinical Pathology 23 (5): 1535-1543 (published online October 2013) 32 references

Jayasumana, C., Paranagama, P., Agampodi, S., Wijewardane, C., Gunatilake, S., Siribaddana, S., 2015. Drinking well water and occupatiomal exposure to Herbicides is associated with chronic kidney disease, in Padavi-Sripura, Sri Lanka. Environmental Health 14:6. 41 references

Jayasumana, C., Gunatilake, S., Siribaddana, S., 2015. Simultaneous exposure to multiple heavy metals and glyphosate may contribute to Sri Lankan agricultural nephropathy. BMC Nephrology 16:103. 47 references

Mesnage, R., Arno, M., Costanzo, M., Malatesta, M., Séralini, G.-E., Antoniou, M.N. 2015. Transcriptome profile analysis reflects rat liver and kidney damage following chronic ultra-low dose Roundup exposure. EnvironmentalHealth 14:70. 44 references

Mesnage, R., Renney, G., Séralini, G.-E., Ward, M., & Antoniou, M. N. 2017. Multiomics reveal non-fatty liver disease in rats following chronic exposure to an ultra-low dose of Roundup herbicide. Nature.com - Scientific reports 7, article number 39328. Published online 9th January 2017. 53 references

Ford, B., Bateman, L.A., Gutierrez-Palominos, L., Park, R., Nomura, D.K. 2017. Mapping Proteome-wide Targets of Glyphosate in Mice. Cell Chemical Biology. 33 references

Gunatilake, S., Seneff, S., Orlando, L. 2019. Glyphosate's Synergistic Toxicity in Combination with Other Factors as a Cause of Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Origin. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 16 (15): 2734. 167 references

Dietary intake, exposure. Glyphosate present in human and animal urine, also human breast milk

Hoppe, H-W., 2013. Determination of Glyphosate residues in Human urine samples from 18 European countries. Study of 182 urine samples carried out at the Medical Laboratory Bremen, Germany, sponsored by BUND & FoE

Krüger, M., Schledorn, P., Schrödl, W., Hoppe, H-W., Lutz, W., Shehata, A.A., 2014.Detection of Glyphosate Residues in Animals and Humans. Journal of Environmental and Anayltical Toxicology4: 210. 30 references

Schrödl, W., Krüger, S., Konstantinova-Müller, T., Shehata, A., Rulff, R., Krüger, M., 2014. Possible Effects of Glyphosate on Mucorales Abundance in the Rumen of Dairy Cows in Germany. Current Microbiology 69 (6) 817-823. 40 references

Honeycutt, Z., Rowlands, H., 2014. Glyphosate testing report:Findings in American Mothers' Breast Milk, Urine and Water. Research conducted by Moms Across America & Sustainable Pulse. 6 references, plus listing of ten relevant scientific papers with online links.

Mills, P.J., Kania-Korwel, I., Fagan, J., et al. 2017. Excretion of the Herbicide Glyphosate in Older Adults between 1993 asnd 2016. JAMA Network (Journal of the American Medical Association) 318 (16) 1610-1611

Neural damage, Neurotoxicity

Paganelli, A., Gnazzo, V., Acosta, H., Lopez, S.L., & Carrasco, A.E., 2010. Glyphosate-based herbciides produce teratogenic effects on vertebrates by impairing retinoic acid signalling. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 18: 23 (10): 1586 - 95, 99 references

Cattani, D., de Liz Oliveira Cavalli V.L., Rieg, C.E.H., Dominques, J.T., Dal-Cim, T., Tasca, C.I., Barreto Silva, F.R.M., Zamoner, A., 2014. Mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity induced by glyphosate-based herbicide in immature rat hippocampus: involvement of glutamate excitoxicity. Toxicology 320 (5): 34-45.

Parkinson’s disease

Barbosa E.R., da Costa, L., Bacheschi, L.A., Scaff, M., Leite, C.C., 2001. Parkinsonism after glycine-derivate exposure. Movement Disorders 16 (3): 565-568

Caballero, M., Amiri, S., Denney, J.T., Monsivais, P., Hystad, P. 2018. Estimated Residential Exposure to Agricultural Chemicals and Premature Mortality by Parkinson's Disease in Washington State. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15 (12) 2885. 40 references

Autism

de Cock, M., Maas, Y.G., van de Bor, M., 2012. Does perinatal exposure to endocrine disruptors induce autism spectrum and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders? Review. Acta Paediatrica 101 (8): 811-888. 55 references

von Ehremstein, O.S., Ling, C., Cui, X., Cockburn, M., Park, A.S., Yu F., Wu, J. 2019. Prenatal and infant exposure to ambient pesticides and autism spectrum disorder in children: population based case-control study. British Medical Journal; 364:1962. 80 references

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS
Cox, C., 1995. Glyphosate, Part 2: Human Exposure and Ecological Effects. Journal of Pesticide Reform 15 (4) 78 references

WATER, FISH, AQUATIC ORGANISMS

Folmar, L.C., Sanders, H.O., Julin, A.M. 1979. Toxicity of the herbicide glyphosate and several of its formulations to fish and aquatic invertebrates. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 8 (3) 269-278. 9 references

Popp, M., Hann, S., Mentler, A., Fuerhacker, M., Stingeder, G., Koellensperger, G., 2008. Determination of glyphosate and AMPA in surface and waste water using high-performance ion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction celll  mass spectrometry (HPIC-ICP-DRC-MS). Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 391 (2): 695-699. 16 references

Cummings,M., Bullerjahn, G.S. 2009. Phosphate Utilization by Great Lakes (Cyanobacteria). Vermont Government Agency (Poster)

Bullerjahn,G.S. 2010. Glyphosate loadings in Lake Erie Watersheds. Final report for LEPF Award 09-357. (Data collected through field studies)

Strickland,T., Fisher, L., Korleski, C. / Phosphorus Task Force. 2010. Ohio Lake Erie Phosphorus Task Force Final Report. Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. 126 references. (p.41, 4.2.1.6. Glyphosate as a Source of Phosphorus)

Sanchis,J., Kantiani, L., Llorca, M., Rubio, F., Ginebreda, A., Fraile, J., Garrido, T., Farré, M., 2012. Determination of glyphosate in groundwater samples using an ultrasensitive immunoassay and confirmation by on-line solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 402 (7) 2336-2345. 25 references

Shiogiri, N.S., Paulino, M.G., Carraschi, S.P., Baraldi, F.G., da Cruz, C.,Fernandes, M.N., 2012. Acute exposure of a glyphosate-herbicide affects the gills and liver of the Neotropical fish, Piaractus mesopotamicus. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 34 (2) 388-396

Nwani, C.D., Nagpure, N.S., Kumar, R., Kushwaha, B., Lakra, W.S., 2013. DNA damage and oxidative stress modulatory effects of glyphosate-based herbicide in freshwater fish Channa punctatus. environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 36 (2) 539-547. 15 references

Ruiz-Toledo, J., Castro, R., Rivéro-Perez, N., Bello-Mendoza, R., Sánchez, D., 2014. Occurrence of Glyphosate in Water Bodies Derived from Intensive Agriculture in a Tropical Region of Southern Mexico. Bulletin of Envirnomental Contamination and Toxicology 93 (3): 289-293. 47 references

Mercurio, P., Flores, F., Mueller, J.F., Carter, S., Negri, A.P., 2014. Glyphosate persistence in seawater. Marine Pollution Bulletin 85 (2) 385-390. 53 references

Wang,C., Lin X., Li,L., Lin, S., 2016. Differential Growth Responses of Marine Phytoplankton to Herbicide Glyphosate. PLoS One. 86 references

Roy, N.M., Carneiro, B., Ochs, J. 2016. Glyphosate induces neurotoxicity in zebrafish. Environmental Toxicology and Pharamcology, 42: 45-54. 

Hébert, M.-P., Fugère, V., Gonzalez, A. 2018. The overlooked impact of rising glyphosate use on phosphorus loading in agricultural watersheds. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment (The Ecological Society of America) 17 (1): 48 - 56. 59 references 

Fugère, V., Hébert, M-P., Barbosa da Costa N., Xu, C.C.Y., Barrett, R.D.H., Beisner, B.E., Bell, G., Fussmann, G.F., Shapiro B.J., Yargeau, V., Gonzalez, A. 2020. Community rescue in experiemntal phytoplankton communities facing severe herbicide pollution. Nature Ecology and Evolution, 1134-5. 81 references 

SOIL, SOIL ORGANISMS

Correia, F.V., Moreira, J.C., 2010. Effects of Glyphosate and 2,4-D on Earthworms (Eisenia foetida) in Laboratory Tests. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 85 (3): 264-268
 
Gaup-Berghausen M,  Hofer M,  Rewald B, Zaller JG 2015. Glyphosate-based herbicides reduce the activity and reproduction of earthworms and lead to increased soil nutrient concentrations. Scientific Reports Nature.com 5: 12886. Published online 05.08.2015. 47 references 
 
Bento, C.P.M., Yang, X., Gort, G., Xue, S., van Dam, R., Zomer, P., Mol, H.G.J., Ritsema, C.J., Geissen, V., 2016. Persistence of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in loess soil under different combinations of temperature, soil moisture and light/darkness. Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 572, 301-311
 
Aristilde, L., Reed, M.L., Wilkes,R.A., Youngster, T., Kukurugya, M.A., Katz, V., Sasaki, C.R.S. 2017. Glyphosate-Induced Specific and Widespread Perturbations in the Metabolome of Soil Pseudomonas Species. Fronteirs in Environmental Science (20th June 2017).  42 references
 
Kremer, R.J. 2017. Soil and Environmental Health After Twenty Years of Intensive Use of Glyphosate. Advances in Plants and Agriculture Research 6 (5): 00224. DOI: 10.15406/apar.2017.06.00224; Online PDF: MedCrave, (7th March 2017). 14 references
 
Silva, V., Mol, G.J., Zomer, P., Tienstra, M., Ritsema, C.J., Geissen, V., 2018. Pesticide residues in European agricultural soils - A hidden reality unfolded. Science of the Total Environment, 653: 1532-1545. (25.02.2019). 49 references, plus 39 references relating to supplementary material

TREES

Feucht, J.R. 1988. Herbicide injuries to trees - symptoms and solutions. Journal of Arboriculture 14 (9) 215-219 (page 217). 8 references

PLANTS

Hawkes, T.R., Lorraine-Colwill, D.F., Williams, P.H., Warner, S.A.J., Sutton, P.B., Powles, S.B., Preston, C., 1999. Resistance to Glyphosate in a Population of Lolium Rigidum. Plant Biotechnology and in vitro Biology in the 21st Century. Current Plant Science and Biotechnology in Agriculture. 36: 491-494 10 references

Bott, S., Tesfamariam, T., Candan, H., Cakmak, I., Römheld, V., Neumann, G., 2008. Glyphosate-induced impairment of plant growth and micronutrient status in glyphosate-resistant soybean (Plant and Soil 312 (1-2): 185-194

Fernandez, M.R., Zentner, R.P., Basnyat, P., Gehl, D., Selles, F., Huber, D., 2009. Glyphosate associations with cereal diseases caused by Fusarium spp. in the Canadian prairies. European Journal of Agronomy 31: 133-143. 63 references 

Kremer, R.J., Means, N.E., 2009. Glyphosate and glyphosate-resistant crop interactions with rhizosphere microorganisms. European Journal of Agronomy 31 (3) 153-161. 

Johal, G.S., Huber, D.M., 2009. Glyphosate effects on diseases of plants. European Journal of Agronomy 31 (3): 144-152. 72 references

BEES

Gill, R.J., Ramos-Rodriguez, O., Raine, N.E., 2012 Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees. Nature 491: 105-108. 40 references, 20 supplementary references

Herbert, L.T., Vázquez, D.E., Arenas, A., Farina, W.M., 2014. Effects of field-realistic doses of glyphosate on honeybee appetite behaviour. Journal of Experimental Biology 217: 3457-3464. 52 references

Balbuena M.S., Tison, L., Hahn, M-L., Greggers, U., Menzel, R., Farina, W.M. 2015. Effects of sublethal doses of glyphosate on honeybee navigation. Journal of Experimental Biology 218. 2799-2805. 47 references

Motta, E.V.S., Raymann, K., Moran, N.A. 2018. Glyphosate perturbs the gut microbiotica of honey bees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) of the United States of America, published online ahead of print, September 24 2018. 47 references

BUTTERFLIES

Sirinathsinghji, E., 2011. Glyphosate and Monarch Butterfly Decline. Report for the Institute of Scientists in Society, 19/9/2011.

Pleasants, J.M., Oberhauser, K.S., 2012. Milkweed loss  in agricultural fields because of herbicide use: effect on the monarch butterfly population. Insect Conservation and Diversity 6 (2): 135-144. 33 references

Taylor, O. R. Jr, Pleasants, J.M., Grundel, R., Pecoraro, S.D., Lovett, J.P., Ryan, A. 2020. Evaluating the Mogration Mortality Hypothesis Using Monarch Tagging Data. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. (Online 07.08.2020) 49 references

GASTROPODS

Tate, T.M., Spurlock, J.O., Christian, F.A. 1997. Effect of Glyphosate on the Development of Pseudosuccinea columella Snails. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 33 (3) 286-289

Glyphosate-based herbicide in a Hvar vineyard. Photo: Vivian Grisogono

EVIDENCE FOR GLYPHOSATE SAFETY

?

Great doubts have been cast on the integrity of scientists and others who write in support of Glyphosate. As the agro-chemical business yields huge profits worldwide, there is much at stake. it is not surprising if the companies are prepared to pay for support, nor that some people of iinfluence may accept payment in return for their backing.

When Glyphosate came up for review by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, no scientific papers from peer-reviewed journals were included in the review document. The few published papers listed in the bibliography dealt largely with laboratory protocols. Otherwise the vast majority of the 'supporting evidence' consisted of unpublished papers sponsored by the agro-chemical companies who were seeking reregistration of the product.

EPA Reregistration Decision: Glyphosate. EPA 738-R-93-014. September 1993, page 2. Bibliography: 281 entries, comprising 7 published papers, 228 unpublished papers submitted by Monsanto, 38 unpublished papers from other sources, 4 letters and 4 official statements / documents.

Despite extensive research, I have not found any convincing scientific evidence for Glyphosate's safety. After all, how can any poison be safe? The slightest doubt should be enough to put a stop to its use, in accordance with the Precautionary Principle.

If any reader comes across genuinely independent scientific papers published in peer-reviewed journals which put forward a reasoned case for the safe use of Glyphosate in the environment, we will consider adding them to this list of references.

© Vivian Grisogono 2016: this record is frequently updated 

You are here: Home poisons be aware Glyphosate herbicides, scientific evidence

Eco Environment News feeds

  • Sheep grazing has dominated the Howgill Fells for over a century, but with shifting agricultural subsidies and urgent calls to address biodiversity loss, change is coming

    For William Wordsworth the Howgill Fells was a romantic landscape, for rewilders they could be home to wolves, and for farmer John Pratt, these hills are home. “I was hoping this day would never come. I shan’t say it will break my heart, but it will,” says Pratt, who is selling his sheep and retiring after 55 years of uplands farming. “I’ve had a flock of sheep since I was 14, so I’m ready for a break,” he adds.

    The 69-year-old tenant farmer works seven days a week and takes six days of holiday a year. Since 1966 he has been renting Kilnmire Farm (with no heating in the house) on the edge of Ravenstonedale village in Cumbria with his wife, Hazel. He doesn’t drink alcohol (he’s Methodist) and doesn’t have a mobile phone because he “wouldn’t know how to use it”. He tried an olive for the first time in 2017. It’s a lifestyle none of his three children is willing to take on.

    Continue reading...

  • Gas discovery at centre of Turkey-Greece dispute will ‘make world even less safe’

    The giant gas reserves at the heart of a bitter political standoff between Greece and Turkey could lead to the same carbon emissions as the whole of France and Spain combined every year, according to a report that has called for the proposed gas pipeline project to be scrapped.

    The gas discovery has inflamed regional tensions in theeastern Mediterranean as Greece and Turkey vie for control of new fossil fuel reserves in disputed waters and, according to Global Witness, the climate cost will outweigh its value in Europe’s carbon neutral future.

    Continue reading...

  • Halting destruction of wild places could slow frequency of deadly outbreaks, say scientists

    The world is in an “era of pandemics” and unless the destruction of the natural world is halted they will emerge more often, spread more rapidly, kill more people and affect the global economy with more devastating impact than ever before, according to a report from some of the world’s leading scientists.

    The emergence of diseases such as Covid-19, bird flu and HIV from animals was entirely driven by the razing of wild places for farming and the trade in wild species, which brought people into contact with the dangerous microbes, the experts said.

    Continue reading...

  • Who better to ask how to handle the cold than people who work in the elements? Here, Guardian readers give their best advice – from the ideal breakfast to the perfect snood

    I was once working at a beer festival in -12C and high wind for 18 hours. It was so cold that beer brought outside would “steam” like a cup of tea. We kept warm by wearing about 10 layers (Scottish woolly jumpers and Norwegian merino thermals). Under-layers are much more important than jackets, but they must be breathable and not cotton. Old-fashioned all-in-one long johns with a vest suit (and a bum hatch) were the best thing I bought, as they keep your middle warm even if you move around a lot (regular vests come untucked). Wool is the best material, as it stays dry; damp is the real enemy. Your hands are the best indicator – they should stay warm without gloves and steam if cold water touches them. If your hands get cold, you need another layer. Kenn Flatt, markettrader

    Take spare gloves for the afternoon. There is nothing worse than putting on cold, soggy gloves after your lunch break – it makes you feel cold instantly. Simon Rogers, ranger,Cwm Idwal national nature reserve,Snowdonia

    Continue reading...

  • Guardian photographer David Levene visits National Trust houses at Chartwell and Emmetts Gardens to capture the spectacular colours of autumn

    Continue reading...

  • Climate crisis exacerbates extreme weather during natural events, say experts

    La Niña climate event is under way, heralding a colder and stormier winter than usual across the northern hemisphere, but 2020 remains likely to be one of the warmest years on record.

    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has declared La Niña event – a cooling of surface ocean water along the Pacific coast of the South American tropics – to help governments and humanitarian agencies plan for extreme weather events around the world.

    Continue reading...

  • Removal of millions of tonnes of material from Goodwin Sands, the watery grave of hundreds of ships in the English Channel, would make a mockery of marine protection pledges, critics say

    Six miles off the coast of Deal, in Kent, lies Goodwin Sands, a 10-mile sandbank known as the “ship swallower”. Seals bask there at low tide, belying its reputation as one of the most treacherous spots in the Channel and a graveyard for centuries-old shipwrecks, as well as downed aircraft from the second world war.

    Now the site has become central to another battle, by conservationists and campaigners, to safeguard Britain’s seas from damaging activities and to hold the government to account on its “30 x 30” pledge to protect 30% of marine habitats by 2030.

    Continue reading...

  • Wenlock Edge, Shropshire: These mushrooms are outrageously exhibitionist, and bring to mind an old song

    “One for sorrow, two for joy” goes the old magpie rhyme, but these are not birds, these are mushrooms – Coprinopsis picacea, the magpie inkcap. There have been changes since the last time I walked this path between field and wood: a new wire fence erected, low-sweeping branches of an old oak lopped, debris and scrub cleared, pasture tidied and improved. In a patch where something has been disturbed under the fence is a cluster of amazing black and white fungi; fruiting bodies in various states of growth and decay. In this one patch, an egg pushes out of the ground; a dark bell-end with white feathery patches rises upwards on a stalk; at a foot tall, its cap rolls up and melts into a black inky gloop. “Three for a girl and four for a boy…”

    The magpie inkcap is unusual and, although it is found in Britain and Ireland, throughout Europe and in North America, it’s rare to find such a strong group. Scientifically described in 1785 as Coprinus (an eater of dung) picacea that looks like Pica pica, the magpie – it was renamed Coprinopsis at the beginning of this century because of DNA differences with other Coprinus species such as shaggy inkcap.

    Continue reading...

  • Restoring and connecting habitat across Britain could save a fifth of species by 2030, says report by Rewilding Britain

    Global heating is shifting Britain’s climatic zones by up to 5km each year, outpacing wildlife’s ability to adapt and survive, according to a new report by Rewilding Britain.

    If species cannot adapt to higher temperatures or relocate elsewhere, they will be threatened with extinction.

    Continue reading...

  • The Biobank is an ambitious scheme to house 800 corals in a purpose-built facility in Port Douglas

    A Noah’s ark-like plan to house hundreds of the world’s most at-risk coral species at a publicly accessible bank next to the Great Barrier Reef could prove an important part of long-term coral conservation, marine biologists say.

    The Living Coral Biobank, labelled a “coral ark” by its proponents, would serve as a technologically advanced facility where 800 different types of hard corals would be kept and bred, in the event live samples are needed to revive populations wiped out in nature in the future.

    Continue reading...

Eco Health News feeds

Eco Nature News feeds

Feed not found.