Glyphosate herbicides, scientific evidence

An overview of the scientific evidence for claims that glyphosate-based herbicides are or are not safe.

Herbicide in a Hvar field Herbicide in a Hvar field Photo: Vivian Grisogono

EVIDENCE INDICATING THAT GLYPHOSATE-BASED HERBICIDES ARE NOT SAFE

In this list, most of the scientific papers cited have been published in peer-reviewed journals. Where possible, online links to the articles are given. Almost all the articles carry numerous references to previous scientific research.

Because there has been controversy over the safety or otherwise of glyphosate, there have been calls for more rigorous research, such as: Landrigan, P.J., Belpoggi, F. 2018. The need for independent research on the health-effects of glyphosate-based herbicides. Environmental Health 17: 51. 17 references.

In response to this need, the independently funded Ramazzini Institute initiated The Global Glyphosate Study in 2016, producing their first peer-reviewed papers from their pilot studies in 2018, which showed adverse effects from glyphosate at previously accepted 'safe doses'..

Overviews

Cox, C., 1995. Glyphosate Fact Sheets: Part 1: Toxicology. Journal of Pesticide Reform. 15 (3) Fall 1995. Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides, Eugene, OR. 50 references. 

Ho, M-W., Sirinathsinghji, E., 2012. Why Glyphosate should be banned - a review of its hazards to health and the environment. Permaculture Research Institute. (Institute of Sc ience in Society Special Report) 107 references

Earth Open Source, 2012. Roundup and Birth Defects (overview, with industry responses)

Mason, Rosemary, 2013. Glyphosate Destructor of Human Health and Biodiversity. GMO Evidence

Friends of the Earth, June 2013. Concerns about Glyphosate's Approval. Friends of the Earth Europe (www.foeeurope.com).

Robinson, C., 2014. The glyphosate toxicity studies you're not allowed to see. GMWatch

Vandenberg, L.N., Blumberg, B., Antoniou, M.N., Benbrook, C.M., Carroll, L., Colborn, T., Everett, L.G., hansen, M., Landrigan, P.J., Lanphear, B.P., Mesnage, R., vom Saal, F.S., Welshons, W.V., Myers, J.P. 2016. Is it time to reasses current safety standards for glyphosate-based herbicides? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, (BMJ Journals) 71 (6) 55 references

Myers, J.P., Antoniou, M.N., Blumberg, B., Carroll, L., Colborn, T., Everett, L.G., Hansen, M., Landrigan, P.J., Lanphear, B.P., Mesnage, R., Vandenberg, L.N., vom Saal, F.S., Wlshons, W.V., Benbrook, C.M. 2016. Concerns over use of glyphosate-based herbicides and risks associated with exposures: a consensus statement. Environmental Health 15: 19.  80 references

Clausing, P., Robinson, C., and Burtscher-Schaden, H. 2018. Pesticides and public health: An analysis of the regulatory approach to assessing the carcinogenicity of glyphosate in the European Union. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 20 references

Torretta, V., Katsoyiannis, I.A., Viotti, P., Rada, E.C. 2018. Critical Review of the Effects of Glyphosate Exposure to the Environment and Humans through the Food Supply Chain. Sustainability, MDPI Basel, Switzerland.  This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). 67 references

Landrigan, P.J., Belpoggi, F. 2018. The need for independent research on the health effects of glyphosate-based herbicides. Environmental Health , 17:51. 17 references

Defrage, N., Spiroux de Vendomois, J., Séralini, G.E., 2018. Toxicity of formulants and heavy metals in glyphosate-based herbicides and other pesticides. Science Direct: Toxicology Reports. 5: 156-163. 71 references

Vanlaeys, A., Dubuisson, F., Séralini, G-E., Travert, C. 2018. Formulants of glyphosate-based herbicides have more deleterious impact than glyphosate on TM4 Sertoli cells, Toxicology In Vitro 52 (October 2018) 14–22

Van Bruggen, A.H.C., He, M.M., Shin, K., Mai, V., Jeong, K.C., Finckh, M.R., Morris, J.G.Jr. 2018. Environmental and health effects of the herbicide glyphosate. Science of the Total Environment, 616-617: 255-268. 167 references

Mesnage, R., Benbrook, C., Antoniou, M.N. 2019. Insight into the confusion over surfactant co-formulants in glyphosate-based herbicides, Food and Chemical Toxicology. 128 (June 2019) 137–145, 73 references

Zaller, J.G. and Brühl, C.A. 2019. Editorial: Non-target Effects of Pesticides on Organisms Inhabiting Agroecosystems (2019) Frontiers in Environmental Science (31 May 2019). 3 references

Gillezeau, C., Lieberman-Cribbin, W., Taioli, E. 2020. Update on human exposure to glyphosate, with a complete review of exposure in children. Environmental Health, 19, article 115. Published 12 November 2020. 26 references

Krimsky, S. 2021. Can Glyphosate-Based Herbicides Contribute to Sustainable Agriculture?  Sustainability 13 (4) 2337. 105 references

da Silva, K.A., Beltrame Nikola, V., Tavares Dudas, R., Demetrio, W.C., dos Santos Maia, L., Cunha, L., Bartz, M.L.C., Brown, G.G., Pasini, A., Kille, P., Ferreira, N.G.C., Ribas de Oliveira, C.M., 2021. Pesticides in a case study on no-tillage farming systems and surrounding forest patches in Brazil. Nature, Scientific Reports 11, 9839 (published 10th May 2021). 110 references

van Bruggen, A.H.C., Finckh, M.R., He, M., Ritsema, C.J., Harkes, P., Knuth, D., Geissen, V. 2021. Indirect Effects of the Herbicide Glyphosate on Plant, Animal and Human Health Through its Effects on Microbial Communities.Frontiers in Environmental Science 9:2021 (18th October 2021) 250 references

Klatyik, S., Simon, G., Olah, M., Mesnage, R., Antoniou, M.N., Zaller, J.G., Szekacs, A. 2023. Terretstrial ecotoxicity of glyphosate, its formulations, and co-formulants: evidence from 2010 to 2023. Environmental Sciences Europe. Open access, published 08.07.2023. 280 references

PROBLEMS FOR HUMANS

Antibiotic resistance

Liu, Y-B., Long, M-X., Yin, Y-J., Si, M-R., Zhang, L., Lu, Z-Q., Wang, Y., Shen, X-H. 2013. Physiological roles of mycothiol in detoxification and tolerance to multiple poisonous chemicals in Corynebacterium glutamicum. Archives of Microbiology 195 (6) 419-429. 48 references 

Kurenbach, B., Gibson, P.S., Hill, A.M., Bitzer, A.S., Silby, M.W., Godsoe, W., Heinemann, J.A. 2017. Herbicide ingredients change Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium and Escherichia coli antibiotic responses. Microbiology, online 17 November 2017 doi: 10.1099/mic.0.000573 40 references

Liao, H., Li X., Yang, Q., Bai,Y., Cui, P., Wen, C., Liu, C., Chen, Z., Tang, J., Che, J., Yu, Z., Geisen, S., Zhou, S., Friman, V-P., Zhu, Y-G. 2021. Herbicide Selection Promotes Antibiotic Resistance in Soil Microbiomes. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 38 (6) 2337-2350. 75 references

van Bruggen, A.H.C., Finckh, M.R., He, M., Ritsema, C.J., Harkes, P., Knuth, D., Geissen, V. 2021. Indirect Effects of the Herbicide Glyphosate on Plant, Animal and Human Health Through its Effects on Microbial Communities. Frontiers in Environmental Science, Toxicology, Pollution and the Environment. published 18th October 2021. 250 references

Cancer risks

De Roos, A.J., Blair, A., Rusiecki, J.A., Hoppin, J.A., Svec, M., Dosemeci, M., Sandler, D.P., Alavanja, M.C., 2005. Cancer Incidence among Glyphosate-Exposed Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health study. Environmental Health Perspectives 113 (1) 49-54. 56 references

Eriksson, M., Hardell, L., Carlberg, M., Akerman, M., 2008. Pesticide exposure as risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma including histopathological subgroup analysis. International Journal of Cancer 123: 1657-1663. 41 references

Samsel, Anthony & Seneff, Stephanie 2013. Glyphosate, pathways to Modern Diseases II: Celiac Sprue and Gluten Intolerance. Interdisciplinary Toxicology 6 (4) 159-184. 271 references

Thongprakalsang, S., Thiantanawat, A., Rangkadilok N., Suriyo, T., Satayavivad, J., 2013. Glyphosate induces human breast cancer cells growth via oestrogen receptors. Food & Chemical Toxicology 59: 129-136

Alavanja, M.C.R., Ross, M.K., Bonner, M.R., 2013. Increased Cancer Burden Among Pesticide Applicators and Others Due to Pesticide Exposure. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 63 (2): 120-142. 186 references

Séralini, G-E, Clair, E., Mesnage, R., Grass, S., Defarge, N., Malatesta, M., Hannequin, D., Spirouz de Vendômois, J., 2014. Republished study: long-term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize.  Environmental Sciences Europe. 75 references.

Ho, M.W., 2014. Glyphosate and Cancer. Institute of Science in Society Report 26.3.2014. 34 references

Schinasi, L., Leon, M.E., 2014. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Occupational Exposure to Agricultural Pesticide Chemical Groups and Active Ingredients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 11 (4): 4449-4527. 77 references

International Agency for Research into Cancer, 2015. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Vol.112 (2015) Some Organophosphate Insecticides and Herbicides. GlyphosateAuthors: Guyton, K.Z., Loomis, D., Grosse, Y., Ghissassi, F. E., Benbrahim-Tallaa, L., Guha, N., Scoccianti, C., Mattock, H., Straif, K.  on behalf of the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph Working Group, IARC, Lyon, France. Summary published in the Lancet Oncology, Vol. 16, no.5, pp 490-491, May 2015. 16 references

Samsel, A., Seneff, S. 2015. Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases IV: Cancer and related pathologies. Journal of Biological Physics and Chemistry 15 (3) 121 - 159. 246 references

Zhang, L., Rana, I., Shaffer, R.M., Taioli, E., Sheppard, L., 2019. Exposure to Glyphosate-Based Herbicides and Risk for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Meta-Analysis and Supporting Evidence. Mutation Research / Reviews in Mutation Research, available online 10.02.2019. 124 references

Leon, M.E., Schinasi, L.H., Lebailly, P., Freeman, L.E.B., Nordby. K-C., Ferro, G., Monnereau, A., Brouwer, M., Tual, S., Baldi, I., Kjaerham, K., Hofmann, J.N., Kristensen, P., Koutros, S., Straif, K., Kromhout, H., Schuz. J. 2019. Pesticide use and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoid malignancies in agricultural cohorts from France, Norway and the USA: a pooled analysis from the AGRICOH consortium. International Journal of Epidemiology. 53 references

Duforestel, M., Nadaradjane, A., Bougras-Cartron, G., Briand, J., Olivier, C., Frenel, J-S., Vallette, F.M., Lelièvre, S.A., Cartron, P.-F. 2019. Glyphosate Orimes Mammary Cells for Tumorigenesis by Reprogramming the Epigenome in a TET3-Dependent Manner. Frontiers in Genetics, September 2019. 48 references

Portier, C.J., 2020. A comprehensive analysis of the animal carcinogenicity data for glyphosate from chronic exposure rodent carcinogenicity studies. Environmental Health. 19, 18. Published online, Open Access, 12th February 2020. 100 references

Mesnage,R., Ibragim,M., Mandrioli,D., Falcioni,L., Tibaldi,E., Belpoggi,F., Brandsma,I., Bourne,E., Savage,E., Mein,C.A., Antoniou,M.N. 2022. Comparative Toxicogenomics of Glyphosate and Roundup Herbicides by Mammalian Stem Cell-Based Genotoxicity Assays and Molecular Profiling in Sprague-Dawley Rats. Toxicological Sciences, Volume 186, Issue 1, March 2022, pp 83–101, 75 references.

Chang, V.C., Andreotti, G., Ospina,M., Parks, C.G., Liu, D.,  Shearer, J.J., Rothman, N., Silverman, D.T., Sandler, D.P., Calafat, A.M., Beane Freeman, L.E., Hofmann, J.N. 2023. Glyphosate exposure and urinary oxidative stress biomarkers in the Agricultural Health Study. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Volume 115, issue 4, April 2023. pp. 394-404. 68 references

Rana, J., Nguyen,P.K., Rigutto, G., Louise, A., Lee, J., Smith, M.T., Zhang, L. 2023. Mapping the key characteristicas of carcinogens for glyphosate and its formulations: A systematic review. Chemosphere Vol 339, October 2023. 164 references

Clausing, P., Knasmueller, S., Portier, C.J., 2023. Glyphosate and Oxidative Stress: ECHA's superficial approach neglects existing hazards. zenoob, published August 28 2023.. 56 references

Reproduction, pregnancy, birth defects, infant mortality and endocrine disruption

Tate, T.M., Spurlock, J.O., Christian, F.A. 1997. Effect of Glyphosate on the Development of Pseudosuccinea columella Snails. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 33 (3) 286-289

Garry, V.F., Harkins, M.E., Erickson, L.L., Long-Simpson, L.K., Holland, S.E., Burroughs, B.L., 2002. Birth Defects, Season of Conception, and Sex of Children Born to Pesticide Applicators Living in the Red River Valley of Minnesota, USA. Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (Suppl 3) 441-449. 69 references

Richard, S., Moslemi, S., Sipahular, H., Benachour, N., Séralini, G-E., 2005. Differential Effects of Glyphosate and Roundup on Human Placenta and Aromatase. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113 (6) 716-720. 38 references

Benachour, N., Sipahular, H., Moslemi, S., Gasnier, C., Travert, C., Séralini, G.E., 2007. Time- and dose-dependent effects of Roundup on Human embryonic and placental cells. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 53 (1): 126-133. 42 references

Gasnier, C., Dumont, C., Benachour, N., Clair, E., Chagnon, M.C., Séralini, G.E. 2009. Glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic and endocrine disruptors in human cell lines. Toxicology 262 (3) : 184-191. 94 references

Romano, R.M.., Romano, M.A., 2010. Prepubertal exposure to commercial formulation of the herbicide glyphosate alters testosterone levels and testicular morphology. Archives of Toxicology. 84 (4) 309-317. 40 references 

Antoniou, M., Ezz El-Din Mostafa Habib, M., Howard, C. V., Jennings, R.C., Leifert, C., Nodari, R.O., Robinson, C., Fagan, J.. June 2011. Roundup and birth defects. Is the public being kept in the dark? Pub. Earth Open Source. 358 references

Antoniou,M., Habib, M.E.M., Howard, C. V., Jennings, R.C., Leifert, C., Nodari, R.O., Robinson, C., Fagan, J. 2012. Teratogenic Effects of Glyphosate-based Herbicides: Divergence of Regulatory Decisions from Scientific Evidence. Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology, S4-006, 97 references

Romano, M.A., Romano, R.M., Santos, L.D., Wisniewski, P., Campos, D.A., de Souza, P.B., Bernardi, M.M., Nunes, M.T., de Oliviera C.A. 2012. Gyphosate impairs male offspring reproductive development by disrupting gonadotropin expression. Archives of Toxicology, 86 (4) 663-673. 56 references

Kruger, M, Schrodl, Wieland, Pedersen, Ib, & Shehata, A. A., 2014. Detection of Glyphosate in Malformed Piglets. Journal of Environmental and Analytical Toxicology, 4:230. 4 references

Young, F., Ho D., Glynn, D., & Edwards, V. 2015. Endocrine disruption and cytotoxicity of glyphosate and roundup in human JAr cells in vitro. Integrative Pharamcology, Toxicology and Genotoxicology. Vol 1 (1) 12-19. 30 references

Parvez, S., Gerona, R. R., Proctor, C., Friesen, M., Ashby, J. L., Reiter, J. L., Lui, Z. & Winchester, P. D. 2018. Glyphosate exposure in pregnancy and shortened gestational length: a prospective Indiana birth cohort study. Environmental Health 2018 17:23. 56 references

Chiu, Y-H., Williams, P.L., Gillman, M., et.al. 2018. Association Between Pesticide Residue Intake From Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables and Pregnancy Outcomes Among Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment With Assisted Reproductive Technology. JAMA Network 178 (1) 17-26.  

Milesi, M.M., Lorenz, V., Pacini, G., Repetti, M.R., Demonte, L.D., Varayoud, J., Luque, E.H. 2018. Perinatal exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide impairs female reproductive outcomes and induces second-generation adverse effects in Wistar rats. Archives of Toxicology, 92 (8) 2629-2643. 94 references

Avila-Vazquez, M., Difilippo, F.S., Mac Lean, B., Maturano, B., Etchegoyen, A. 2018. Environmental Exposure to Glyphosate and Reproductive Health Impacts in Agricultural Population of Argentina. Journal of Environmental Protection, Open Access Scientific Research, Vol. 9, no.3, March 2018. 36 references

Manservisi, F., Lesseur, C., Panzacchi, S., Mandrioli, D., Falcioni, L., Bua, L., Manservigi, M., Spinaci, M., Galeati, G., Mantovani, A., Lorenzetti, S., Miglio, R., Andrade, A.M., Kristensen, D.M., Perry, M.J., Swan, S.H., Chen, J., Belpoggi, F. 2019. The Ramazzini Institute 13-week pilot study glyphosate-based herbicides administered at human-equivalent dose to Sprague Dawley rats: effects on development and the endocrine system. Environmental Health, 18:15. 54 references

Alarcón, R., Rivera, O.E., Ingaramo, P.I., Tschopp, M.V., Dioguardi, G.H., Milesi, M.M., Muños-de-Toro, M., Luque, E.H. 2020 Neonatal exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide alters the uterine differentiation of prepubertal ewe lambs. Environmental Pollution, 265 Part B, October 2020, 114874. Available online 22 March 2021.

Muños, J.P., Bleak, T.C., Calaf, G.M., 2020. Glyphosate and the key characteristics of an endocrine disruptor: A review. Chemosphere online 19th October 2020, 128619. 174 references

Dias, M., Rocha, R., Soares, R.R., 2020. Down the River: Glyphosate Use in Agriculture and Birth Outcomes of Surrounding Populations. Latin American and the Caribbean Economic Association, Working Paper Series 0024. 87 references

Lesseur, C., Pirrotte, P., Pathak, K.V., Manservisi, F., Mandrioli, D., Belpoggi, F., Panzacchi, S., Li, Q., Barrett, E.S., Nguyen, R.H.N., Sathyanarayana. S., Swan, S.H., Chen, J. 2021. Maternal urinary levels of glyphosate during pregnancy and anogenital distance in newborns in a US multicenter pregnancy cohort. Environmental Pollution. 280 1 July 2021, 117002.

Silver, M.K., Fernandez, J., Tang, J., McDade, A., Sabino, J.,  Rosario, Z., Vega, C.V., Alshawabkeh, A., Cordero, J.F., Meeker, J.D. 2021.Degradate, Aminomethylphosphonic Acid (AMPA), and Prteterm Birth: A nested Case-Control Study in the PROTECT Cohort (Puerto Rico). Enviropnmental Health Perspectives, published 19th May 2021. 78 references (incorporated into the text.)
 
Serra,L., Estienne, A., Vasseur, C., Froment, P., Dupont, J. 2021. Review: Mechanisms of Glyphosate and Glyphosate-Based Herbicides Action in Female and Male Fertility in Human and Animal Models. Cells 10 (11) 3079, November 2021. 113 references
 
Gerona, R.R., Reiter, J.L., Zakharevich, I., Proctor, C., Ying, J., Mesnage, R., Antoniou, M., Winchester, P.D. 2022. Glyphosate exposure in early pregnancy and reduced fetal growth: a prospective observational study of high-risk pregnancies. Environmental Health 21. Article 95. Published 11th October 2022. 44 references
 
Hyland, C., Spivak, M., Sheppard, L., Lanphear, B.P., Antoniou, M., Ospina, M., Calafat, A.M., Curl, C.L. 2023. Urinary Glyphosate Concentrations among Pregnant Participants ina Randomized, Crossover Trial of Organic and Conventional Diets. Envirnomental Health Perspectives vol.131, 7, Open Access pub. 26.07.2023. 87 references
 
Vasseur, C., Serra, L., El Balkhi, S., Lefort, G., Ramé C., Froment, P., Dupopnt, J.  2024. Glyphosate presence in human sperm: First report and positive correlation with oxidative stress in an infertile French population. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Vo. 278, 15th June 2024. 116410. 100 references

DNA damage and genotoxic effects

Prasad, S., Srivastava, S., Singh, M., Shukla, Y., 2009. Clastogenic Effects of Glyphosate in Bone Marrow Cells of Swiss Albino Mice. Journal of Toxicology (2009) 308985. 39 references

Koller, V.J., Fürhacker, M., Nersesyan, A., Mišik, M., Eisenbauer, M., Knasmueller, S., 2012. Cytotoxic and DNA-damaging properties of glyphosate and Roundup in human-derived buccal epithelial cells. Archives of Toxicology 86 (5): 805-813. 47 references

Townsend, M., Peck, C., Meng, W., Heaton, M., Robison, R., O'Neill, K. 2017. Evaluation of various glyphosate concentrations on DNA damage in human Raji cells and its impact on cytotoxicity. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 85: 79-85.

Kwiatkowska, M., Reszka, E., Wozniak, K., Jablonska, E., Michalowicz, J., Bokowska, B. 2017. DNA damage and methyltaion induced by glyphosate in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (in vitro study). Food and Chemical Toxicology 105: 93-98. 

Santovito, A., Ruberto, S, Gendusa, C., Cervella, P. 2018. In vitro evaluation of genomic damage induced by glyphosate on human lymphocytes. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. Vol. 25, Issue 34, pp 34693-34700. (Online October 2018) 37 references

Benbrook, C.M., 2018. How did the US EPA and IARC reach diametrically opposed conclusions on the genotoxicity of glyphosate-based herbicides? Environmental Sciences Europe, 31:2 (online 14th January 2019. 70 references

Long-term trans-generational risks

Kubsad, D., Nilsson, E.E., King, S.E., Sadler-Riggleman, I., Beck, D., skinner, M.E. 2019. Assessment of Glyphosate Induced Epigenetic Transgenerational Inheritance of Pathologies and Sperm Epimutations: Generational Toxicology. Scientific Reports, 9, Article no: 6372. (published 23rd April 2019. 100 references

Maamar, M.B., Beck, D., Nilsson, E.E., Kubsad, D., Skinner, M.K., 2020. Epigenome-wide association study for glyphosate induced transgenerational sperm DNA methylation and histone retention epigenetic biomarkers for disease. Epigenetics 10.1080/15592294.2020.1853319. 41 references

Male infertility, reproductive effects

Clair, E., Mesnage, R., Travert, C., Séralini, G.E., 2012. A glyphosate-based herbicide induces apoptosis in mature rat cells in vitro, and testosterone decrease at lower levels. Toxicology in vitro 26: 269-279. 61 references

de Liz Oliveira Cavalli, V.L., Cattani, D., Heinz Rieg, C.E., Pierozan, P., Zanatta, L., Parisotto, E.B., Filho D.W.., Mena Barreto Silva, F.R., Pessoa-Pureur, R., Zamoner, A., 2013. Roundup disrupts male reproductive functions by triggering calcium-mediated cell death in rat testis and Sertoli cells. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 65: 335-346. 80 references

Liu, J-B., Wang, Z-Y., Wang, L. 2022. Glyphosate damages blood-testis barrier via NOX1-triggered oxidative stress in rats: Long-term exposure as a potential risk for male reproductive health. Environment International 159, 15 January 2022, 107038. 68 references

Lung problems and Asthma

Avila-Vázquez, M., Difilippo, F., Mac Lean, B., Maturano, E. 2020. Risk of asthma and environmental exposure to glyphosate in an ecological study. Authorea. August 13, 2020. 30 references

Sidthilaw, S., Sapbamrer, R., Pothirat, C., Wunnapuk, K, Khacha-ananda, S. 2022. Effects of exposure to glyphosate on oxidativ stress, inflammation and lung function in maize farmers, Northern Thailand. BMC Public Health, Article no. 1343. 49 References

Gut bacteria / microbiome disruption

Brewster, D.W., Warren, J.,Hopkins, W.E., 1991. Metabolism of glyphosate in Sprague-Dawley rats: Tissue distribution, identification, and quantification of glyphosate-derived materials following a single oral dose. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 17: 43-51

Shehata, A. A., Schrödl, W., Aldin, A. A., Hafez, H. M., Krüger, M., 2012. The effect of Glyphosate on potential pathogens and beneficial members of poultry microbiotica in vitro. Current Microbiology, 9th December 2012. 59 references

Samsel, Anthony & Seneff, Stephanie 2013. Glyphosate, pathways to Modern Diseases II: Celiac Sprue and Gluten Intolerance. Interdisciplinary Toxicology 6 (4) 159-184. 271 references

Schrödl, W., Krüger, S., Konstantinova-Müller, T., Shehata, A., Rulff, R., Krüger, M., 2014. Possible Effects of Glyphosate on Mucorales Abundance in the Rumen of Dairy Cows in Germany. Current Microbiology 69 (6) 817-823. 40 references 

Mao, Q, Manservisi, S., Panzacchi, S., Mandrioli, D., Menghetti, I., Vornoli, A., Buia, L., Falcioni, L., Lesseur, C., Chen, J., Belpoggi, F., Hu, J. 2018. The Ramazzini Institute 13-week pilot study on glyphosate and Roundup administered at human-equivalent dose to Sprague Dawley rats: effects on the microbiome. Environmental Health, 17:50. 80 references

Mesnage, R., Teixeira, M.,Mandrioli, D., Falcioni, L., Ducarmon, Q.R., Zwittink, R.D., Amiel, C., Panoff, J-M., Belpoggi, F., Antoniou, M.N. 2019. Shogun metagenomics reveal glyphosate alters the gut microbiome of Sprague-Dawley rats by inhibiting the shikimate pathway. bioRxiv - preprint (prior to peer review) posted 11th December 2019. 74 references

Barnett, J.,A., Gibson, D.L. 2020. Separating the Empirical Wheat from the Pseudoscientific Chaff: A Critical Review of the Literature Surrounding Glyphosate, Dsybiosis and Wheat-Sensitivity. Frontiers in Microbiology. 25 September 2020. 47 references

Leino, L., Tall, T., Helander, M., Saloniemi, I., Saikkonen, K., Ruuskanen, S., Puighò, P. 2020. Classification of the glyphosate target enzyme (5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase) for assessing sensitivity of organisms to the herbicide. Journal of Hazardous Materials, online November 2020, 124556. 49 references

Mesnage, R., Teixeira, M., Mandrioli, D., Falcioni, L., Ducarmon, Q.R., Zwittink, R.D., Mazzacuva, F., Caldwell, A., Amiel, C., Pannoff, J-M., Belpoggi, F., Antoniou, M.N. 2021. Use of Shotgun Metagenomics and Metabolomics to Evaluate the Impact of Glyphosate or Roundup MON 52276 on the Gut Microbiota and Serum Metabolome of Sprague-Dawley Rats.. Environmental Health Perspectives Vol. 129, no.1 (January 2021) References incorporated in text

Mesnage, R., Calatayud, M., Duysburgh, C., Marzorati, M. and Antoniou, M.N. 2022. Alterations in infant gut microbiome composition and metabolism after exposure to glyphosate and Roundup and/or a spore-based formulation using the SHIME technology. Gut Microbiome. Published online by Cambridge University Press, 26 July 2022. 73 references

Organ damage (especially kidneys and liver)

Jayasumana, C., Gunatilake, S., Senanayake, P., 2014. Glyphosate, Hard Water and Nephrotoxic Metals: Are They the Culprits Behind the Epidemic of Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology in Sri Lanka? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 109 references

Séralini, G-E, Clair, E., Mesnage, R., Gress, S., Defarge, N., Malatesta, M., Hennequin, D., Spiroux de Vendômois, J., 2014. Republished study: long-term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize. Environmental Sciences Europe, 26: 14. 75 references

Tizhe, E.V., Onyebuche, I.I., George, B.D.J., Ambali, S.F., Shallangwa, J.M., 2014. Influence of zinc supplementation on histopathological changes in the stomach, liver, kidney, brain, pancreas and spleen during subchronic exposure of Wistar rats to glyphosate. Comparative Clinical Pathology 23 (5): 1535-1543 (published online October 2013) 32 references

Jayasumana, C., Paranagama, P., Agampodi, S., Wijewardane, C., Gunatilake, S., Siribaddana, S., 2015. Drinking well water and occupatiomal exposure to Herbicides is associated with chronic kidney disease, in Padavi-Sripura, Sri Lanka. Environmental Health 14:6. 41 references

Jayasumana, C., Gunatilake, S., Siribaddana, S., 2015. Simultaneous exposure to multiple heavy metals and glyphosate may contribute to Sri Lankan agricultural nephropathy. BMC Nephrology 16:103. 47 references

Mesnage, R., Arno, M., Costanzo, M., Malatesta, M., Séralini, G.-E., Antoniou, M.N. 2015. Transcriptome profile analysis reflects rat liver and kidney damage following chronic ultra-low dose Roundup exposure. EnvironmentalHealth 14:70. 44 references

Mesnage, R., Renney, G., Séralini, G.-E., Ward, M., & Antoniou, M. N. 2017. Multiomics reveal non-fatty liver disease in rats following chronic exposure to an ultra-low dose of Roundup herbicide. Nature.com - Scientific reports 7, article number 39328. Published online 9th January 2017. 53 references

Ford, B., Bateman, L.A., Gutierrez-Palominos, L., Park, R., Nomura, D.K. 2017. Mapping Proteome-wide Targets of Glyphosate in Mice. Cell Chemical Biology. 33 references

Gunatilake, S., Seneff, S., Orlando, L. 2019. Glyphosate's Synergistic Toxicity in Combination with Other Factors as a Cause of Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Origin. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 16 (15): 2734. 167 references

Trasande, L., India-Aldana, S., Trachtmn, H., Kannan, K., Morrison, D., Christakis, D.A., Whitlock, K., Messito, M.J., Gross, R.S., Karthikraj, R., Sathyanarayana, S. 2020. Glyphosate Exposures and Kidney Injury Biomarkers in Infants and Young Children. Environmental Pollution 256: 113334. Published online October 23rd 2019 doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113334. 46 references

Qi, L., Dong, Y-M., Chao, H., Zhao, P., Ma, S-L., Li, G., 2023. Glyphosate-based herbicide disrupts energy metabolism and activates inflammatory response through oxidative stress in mice liver. Chemosphere vol. 315 February 2023, 137751. 64 references

Eskenazi, B., Gunier, R.B., Rauch, S., Kogut, K., Perito, E.M., Mendez, X., Limbach, C., Holland, N., Bradman, A., Harley, K.G., Mills, P.J., Mora, A.M. 2023. Association of Lifetime Exposure to Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid (AMPA) with Liver Inflammation and Metabolic Syndrome at Young Adulthood: Findings from the CHAMACOS Study. Environmental Health Perspectives vol.131 no.3. March 2023. 93 references

Dietary intake, exposure. Glyphosate present in human and animal urine, also human breast milk

Hoppe, H-W., 2013. Determination of Glyphosate residues in Human urine samples from 18 European countries. Study of 182 urine samples carried out at the Medical Laboratory Bremen, Germany, sponsored by BUND & FoE

Krüger, M., Schledorn, P., Schrödl, W., Hoppe, H-W., Lutz, W., Shehata, A.A., 2014.Detection of Glyphosate Residues in Animals and Humans. Journal of Environmental and Anayltical Toxicology4: 210. 30 references

Schrödl, W., Krüger, S., Konstantinova-Müller, T., Shehata, A., Rulff, R., Krüger, M., 2014. Possible Effects of Glyphosate on Mucorales Abundance in the Rumen of Dairy Cows in Germany. Current Microbiology 69 (6) 817-823. 40 references

Honeycutt, Z., Rowlands, H., 2014. Glyphosate testing report:Findings in American Mothers' Breast Milk, Urine and Water. Research conducted by Moms Across America & Sustainable Pulse. 6 references, plus listing of ten relevant scientific papers with online links.

Mills, P.J., Kania-Korwel, I., Fagan, J., et al. 2017. Excretion of the Herbicide Glyphosate in Older Adults between 1993 asnd 2016. JAMA Network (Journal of the American Medical Association) 318 (16) 1610-1611

Neural damage, Neurotoxicity

Paganelli, A., Gnazzo, V., Acosta, H., Lopez, S.L., & Carrasco, A.E., 2010. Glyphosate-based herbciides produce teratogenic effects on vertebrates by impairing retinoic acid signalling. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 18: 23 (10): 1586 - 95, 99 references

Cattani, D., de Liz Oliveira Cavalli V.L., Rieg, C.E.H., Dominques, J.T., Dal-Cim, T., Tasca, C.I., Barreto Silva, F.R.M., Zamoner, A., 2014. Mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity induced by glyphosate-based herbicide in immature rat hippocampus: involvement of glutamate excitoxicity. Toxicology 320 (5): 34-45. 53 references

Samsel,A., Seneff,S. 2015. Glyphosate pathways to modern diseases III: Manganese, neurological diseases, and associated pathologies. Surgery Neurology International, 6:45. 8 references

Winstone, J.K., Pathak, K.V., Winslow, W., Piras, I.S., White, J., Sharma, R., Huentelman, M.J., Pirrotte, P., Velasquez, R. 2022. Glyphosate infiltrates the brain and increases pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα: implications for neurodegenerative disorders. Journal of Neuroinflammation 19, 193. 77 references

Costas-Ferreira, C., Duran, R., Faro, L.R.F. 2022. Toxic effects of glyphosate on the nervous system: a systematic review. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 23 9 4605. 209 references

Hsiao, C.C., Yang, A-M., Wang, C., Lin, C-Y. 2023. Association between glyphosate exposure and cognitive function, depression, and neurological diseases in a representative sample of US adults: NHANES 2013-2014 analysis.  Environmental Research vol. 237, Part 1, 15.11.2023. 59 references

Yang, A-M., Chu, P-L., Wang, C., Lin, C-L. 2023. Association between urinary glyphosate levels and serum neurofilament light chain in a representative sample of US adults: NHANES 2013 - 2014. Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology, publioshed September 6th 2023. 54 references

Parkinson’s disease

Barbosa E.R., da Costa, L., Bacheschi, L.A., Scaff, M., Leite, C.C., 2001. Parkinsonism after glycine-derivate exposure. Movement Disorders 16 (3): 565-568

Wang, G., Fan, X-N., Tan, Y-Y., Cheng, Q., Chen, S-D. 2011. Parkinsonism after chronic occupational exposure to glyphosate. Parkinsonism & Related Disorders (Letter to Editor) 17(6): 486-487 (2011). 5 references

Caballero, M., Amiri, S., Denney, J.T., Monsivais, P., Hystad, P. 2018. Estimated Residential Exposure to Agricultural Chemicals and Premature Mortality by Parkinson's Disease in Washington State. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 15 (12) 2885. 40 references

Autism

de Cock, M., Maas, Y.G., van de Bor, M., 2012. Does perinatal exposure to endocrine disruptors induce autism spectrum and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders? Review. Acta Paediatrica 101 (8): 811-888. 55 references

von Ehremstein, O.S., Ling, C., Cui, X., Cockburn, M., Park, A.S., Yu F., Wu, J. 2019. Prenatal and infant exposure to ambient pesticides and autism spectrum disorder in children: population based case-control study. British Medical Journal; 364:1962. 80 references

ANIMALS

Talyn, B., Muller, K., Mercado, C., Gonzalez, B, Bartels, K. 2023. The Herbicide Glyphosate and Its Forumlations Impact Animal Behavior across Taxa.  Agrochemicals 2023, 2 (3) 367-408. Pub. 10.07.2023. 223 references

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS
Cox, C., 1995. Glyphosate, Part 2: Human Exposure and Ecological Effects. Journal of Pesticide Reform 15 (4) 78 references

Hébert, M-P., Fugère, V., Gonzalez, A. 2018. The overlooked impact of rising glyphosate use on phosphorus loading in agricultural watersheds. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment. 59 references

Kruse-Plaß, M., Hofmann, F., Wosniaok, W., Schlechtriemen, U., Kohlschlütter, N. 2021. Pesticides and pesticide-related products in ambient air in Germany. Environmental Sciences Europe, 33, article number 114. 46 references

WATER, FISH, AQUATIC ORGANISMS

Folmar, L.C., Sanders, H.O., Julin, A.M. 1979. Toxicity of the herbicide glyphosate and several of its formulations to fish and aquatic invertebrates. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 8 (3) 269-278. 9 references

Popp, M., Hann, S., Mentler, A., Fuerhacker, M., Stingeder, G., Koellensperger, G., 2008. Determination of glyphosate and AMPA in surface and waste water using high-performance ion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction celll  mass spectrometry (HPIC-ICP-DRC-MS). Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 391 (2): 695-699. 16 references

Cummings,M., Bullerjahn, G.S. 2009. Phosphate Utilization by Great Lakes (Cyanobacteria). Vermont Government Agency (Poster)

Bullerjahn,G.S. 2010. Glyphosate loadings in Lake Erie Watersheds. Final report for LEPF Award 09-357. (Data collected through field studies)

Strickland,T., Fisher, L., Korleski, C. / Phosphorus Task Force. 2010. Ohio Lake Erie Phosphorus Task Force Final Report. Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. 126 references. (p.41, 4.2.1.6. Glyphosate as a Source of Phosphorus)

Sanchis,J., Kantiani, L., Llorca, M., Rubio, F., Ginebreda, A., Fraile, J., Garrido, T., Farré, M., 2012. Determination of glyphosate in groundwater samples using an ultrasensitive immunoassay and confirmation by on-line solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 402 (7) 2336-2345. 25 references

Shiogiri, N.S., Paulino, M.G., Carraschi, S.P., Baraldi, F.G., da Cruz, C.,Fernandes, M.N., 2012. Acute exposure of a glyphosate-herbicide affects the gills and liver of the Neotropical fish, Piaractus mesopotamicus. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 34 (2) 388-396

Nwani, C.D., Nagpure, N.S., Kumar, R., Kushwaha, B., Lakra, W.S., 2013. DNA damage and oxidative stress modulatory effects of glyphosate-based herbicide in freshwater fish Channa punctatus. environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 36 (2) 539-547. 15 references

Ruiz-Toledo, J., Castro, R., Rivéro-Perez, N., Bello-Mendoza, R., Sánchez, D., 2014. Occurrence of Glyphosate in Water Bodies Derived from Intensive Agriculture in a Tropical Region of Southern Mexico. Bulletin of Envirnomental Contamination and Toxicology 93 (3): 289-293. 47 references

Mercurio, P., Flores, F., Mueller, J.F., Carter, S., Negri, A.P., 2014. Glyphosate persistence in seawater. Marine Pollution Bulletin 85 (2) 385-390. 53 references

Wang, C., Lin X., Li,L., Lin, S., 2016. Differential Growth Responses of Marine Phytoplankton to Herbicide Glyphosate. PLoS One. 86 references

Roy, N.M., Carneiro, B., Ochs, J. 2016. Glyphosate induces neurotoxicity in zebrafish. Environmental Toxicology and Pharamcology, 42: 45-54. 

Hébert, M.-P., Fugère, V., Gonzalez, A. 2018. The overlooked impact of rising glyphosate use on phosphorus loading in agricultural watersheds. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment (The Ecological Society of America) 17 (1): 48 - 56. 59 references 

Bruno Bastos Gonçalves, Percilia Cardoso Giaquinto, Douglas dos Santos Silva, Carlos de Melo e Silva Neto, Amanda Alves de Lima, Adriano Antonio Brito Darosci, Jorge Laço Portinho, Wanessa Fernandes Carvalho and Thiago Lopes Rocha, 2019.  Ecotoxicology of Glyphosate-Based Herbicides on Aquatic Environment. 108 references. Open access peer-reviewed chapter, from 'Biochemical Toxicology' by Ince M., Ince, O.K., Ondrasek, G., pub. July 2020, open access e-book. 

Fugère, V., Hébert, M-P., Barbosa da Costa N., Xu, C.C.Y., Barrett, R.D.H., Beisner, B.E., Bell, G., Fussmann, G.F., Shapiro B.J., Yargeau, V., Gonzalez, A. 2020. Community rescue in experiemntal phytoplankton communities facing severe herbicide pollution. Nature Ecology and Evolution, 1134-5. 81 references

Sánchez, J.A.A., Barros, D.M., Bistoni, M. de los Angeles, Ballesteros, M.L., Roggio, M.A., Martins, C De Gaspar Martinez. 2021. Glyphosate-based herbicides affect behavioural patterns of the livebearer Jenynsia multidentata. Environmental Science and Pollution Rsearch. Published 12th February 2021. 85 references

da Costa, N.B., Hébert, M-P., Fugère, V., Terrat, Y., Fussmann, G.F., Gonzalez,A., Shapiro, J. 2022. A glyphosate-based herbicide cross-selects for antibiotic resistance genes in bacterioplankton communities. ASM journals (American Society for Microbiology) 56 references

SOIL, SOIL ORGANISMS

Correia, F.V., Moreira, J.C., 2010. Effects of Glyphosate and 2,4-D on Earthworms (Eisenia foetida) in Laboratory Tests. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 85 (3): 264-268
 
Gaup-Berghausen M,  Hofer M,  Rewald B, Zaller JG 2015. Glyphosate-based herbicides reduce the activity and reproduction of earthworms and lead to increased soil nutrient concentrations. Scientific Reports Nature.com 5: 12886. Published online 05.08.2015. 47 references 
 ASM journals (American Society for Microbiology) 56 references
 
Bento, C.P.M., Yang, X., Gort, G., Xue, S., van Dam, R., Zomer, P., Mol, H.G.J., Ritsema, C.J., Geissen, V., 2016. Persistence of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in loess soil under different combinations of temperature, soil moisture and light/darkness. Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 572, 301-311
 
Aristilde, L., Reed, M.L., Wilkes,R.A., Youngster, T., Kukurugya, M.A., Katz, V., Sasaki, C.R.S. 2017. Glyphosate-Induced Specific and Widespread Perturbations in the Metabolome of Soil Pseudomonas Species. Fronteirs in Environmental Science (20th June 2017).  42 references
 
Kremer, R.J. 2017. Soil and Environmental Health After Twenty Years of Intensive Use of Glyphosate. Advances in Plants and Agriculture Research 6 (5): 00224. DOI: 10.15406/apar.2017.06.00224; Online PDF: MedCrave, (7th March 2017). 14 references
 
Silva, V., Mol, G.J., Zomer, P., Tienstra, M., Ritsema, C.J., Geissen, V., 2018. Pesticide residues in European agricultural soils - A hidden reality unfolded. Science of the Total Environment, 653: 1532-1545. (25.02.2019). 49 references, plus 39 references relating to supplementary material
 
Kanissery, R., Gairhe, B., Kadyampakeni, D., Batuman, O., Alferez, F. 2019. Glyphosate: Its Environmental Persistence and Impact on Crop Health and Nutrition. MDPI Plant Protection and Biotic Interactions Section. 83 references
 
Liao, H., Li, X., Yang, Q., Bai, Y., Cui, P., Wen, C., Liu, C., Chen, Z., Tang, J., Che, J., Yu, Z., Geisen, S., Zhou, S., Friman, V-P., Zhu, Y-G. 2021. Herbicide Selection Promotes Antibiotic Resistance in Soil Microbiomes. Molecular Biology and Evolution. msab029. published 16 February 2021. 75 references

da Silva, K.A., Nicola, V.B., Dudas, R.T., Demetrio, W.C., dos Santos Maia, L., Cunha, L., Bartz, M.L.C., Brown, G.G., Pasini, A, Kille, P., FGerreira, N.G.C., de Oliveira, C.M.R. 2021. Pesticides in a case study on no-tillage farming systems and surrounding forest patches in Brazil. Nature, Scientific Reports 11, article number 9839, published 10th May 2021. 110 references

Naraine, A., Sweeney, I., Aker, R., Shanbhag, V., Dawson-Scully, K. 2021. Roundup and Glyphosate Exposure Elicits Proconvulsant Behaviour in C.elegans. Federation of American Societies for Environmental Ecoloy (FASEB)  Vol. 35, issue 51, article first published 14th May 2021.

Owagboriaye, F., Mesnage, R., Dedeke, G., Adegboyeda, T., Aladesida, A., Adeleke, M., Owa, S., Antoniou, M.N. 2021. Impacts of a glyphosate-based herbicide on the gut microbiome of three earthworm species (Alma millsoni, Eudrilus eugeniae, and Libyodrilus violaceus): A pilot study. Toxicology Reports 8 (2021) 753-758. 52 references

TREES

Feucht, J.R. 1988. Herbicide injuries to trees - symptoms and solutions. Journal of Arboriculture 14 (9) 215-219 (page 217). 8 references

PLANTS

Hawkes, T.R., Lorraine-Colwill, D.F., Williams, P.H., Warner, S.A.J., Sutton, P.B., Powles, S.B., Preston, C., 1999. Resistance to Glyphosate in a Population of Lolium Rigidum. Plant Biotechnology and in vitro Biology in the 21st Century. Current Plant Science and Biotechnology in Agriculture. 36: 491-494 10 references

Bott, S., Tesfamariam, T., Candan, H., Cakmak, I., Römheld, V., Neumann, G., 2008. Glyphosate-induced impairment of plant growth and micronutrient status in glyphosate-resistant soybean (Plant and Soil 312 (1-2): 185-194

Fernandez, M.R., Zentner, R.P., Basnyat, P., Gehl, D., Selles, F., Huber, D., 2009. Glyphosate associations with cereal diseases caused by Fusarium spp. in the Canadian prairies. European Journal of Agronomy 31: 133-143. 63 references 

Kremer, R.J., Means, N.E., 2009. Glyphosate and glyphosate-resistant crop interactions with rhizosphere microorganisms. European Journal of Agronomy 31 (3) 153-161. 

Johal, G.S., Huber, D.M., 2009. Glyphosate effects on diseases of plants. European Journal of Agronomy 31 (3): 144-152. 72 references

Fuchs, B., Saikkonen,K., Helander,M. 2020. Glyphosate-Modulated Biosynthesis Driving Plant Defense and Species Interasctions. Trends in Plant Science, 26, issue 4, 312-313 (April 2021). Open Access published 02/12/2020.  86 references

Botteri, N., Wood, L.J., Werner, J.R. 2021. Glyphosate remains in forest plant tissues for a decade or more. Forest Ecology and Management vol.493, published 1st August 2021. 53 references

Golt, A.R., Wood, L.J., 2021. Glyphosate-Based Herbicides Alter the Reproductive Morphology of Rosa acicularis (Prickly Rose). Frontiers in Plant Science. 45 references

BEES

Goodwin, R.M., and McBrydie, H.M. 2000. Effect of Surfactants on Honey Bees, New Zealand Plant Protection 53 (August 1, 2000): 230–234.

Gill, R.J., Ramos-Rodriguez, O., Raine, N.E., 2012 Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees. Nature 491: 105-108. 40 references, 20 supplementary references

Boily, M., Sarrasin, B., DeBlois, C., Aras, P., Chagnon, M. 2013. Acetylcholinesterase in honey bees (Apis mellifera) exposed to neonicotinoids, atrazine and glyphosate: laboratory and field experiments, Environmental Science and Pollution Research 20, 5603–5614 (2013). 45 references

Herbert, L.T., Vázquez, D.E., Arenas, A., Farina, W.M., 2014. Effects of field-realistic doses of glyphosate on honeybee appetite behaviour. Journal of Experimental Biology 217: 3457-3464. 52 references

Balbuena, M.S., Tison, L., Hahn, M-L., Greggers, U., Menzel, R., Farina, W.M., 2015. Effects of sublethal doses of glyphosate on honeybee navigation, Journal of Experimental Biology 218 (17) 2799-2805. 47 references

Motta, E.V.S., Raymann, K., Moran, N.A. 2018. Glyphosate perturbs the gut microbiotica of honey bees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) of the United States of America, published online ahead of print, September 24 2018. 47 references

Motta, E.V.S., Raymann, K., Moran, N.A. 2018. Glyphosate perturbs the gut microbiota of honey bees, Journal of Applied Biological Sciences. 115 (41) 10305–10310. 47 references

Abraham, J., Senami Benhotons, G., Krampah, I., Tagba J., Amissah, C., Dwomoh Abraham, J. 2018. Commercially formulated glyphosate can kill non-target pollinator bees under laboratory conditions, Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata 186 (8) 695-702

Vázquez, D.E., Ičina, N., Pagano, E.A., Zavala, J.A., Farina, W.M. 2018. Glyphosate affects the larval development of honey bees depending on the susceptibility of colonies, PLoS ONE 13 (October 9 2018) e0205074. 67 references

Blot, N., Veillat, L., Rouzé, R., Delatte, H. 2019. Glyphosate, but not its metabolite AMPA, balters the honeybee gut microbiota, PLoS ONE 14 (4) e0215466. 58 references

Farina, W.M., Balbuena, M.S., Herbert, L.T., Mengoni Gonalons, C., Vasquez, D.E. 2019. Effects of the herbicide glyphosate on honey bee sensory and cognitive abilities: Individual impairments with implications for the hive, Insects, 10 (19) 354. 85 references

Zgurzynski, M., and Lushington, G. 2019. Glyphosate Impact on Apis mellifera Navigation: A Combined Behavioral and Cheminformatics Study. Pharmacology and Toxicology 7 (8) (July 2019): 806-824. 41 references

Daisley, B.A., Chmiel, J.A., Pitek, A.P., Thompson, G.J., Reid, G. 2020. Missing Microbes in Bees: How Systematic Depletion of Key Symbionts Erodes Immunity. Trends in Microbiology (2020) 28 (12), 1010-1021, 103 references

El Agrebi, N., Tosi, S., Wilmart, O., Scippo, M-L., de Graaf, D.C., Saegerman, C., 2020. Honeybee and consumer’s exposure and risk characterisation to glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) and its degradation product (AMPA): Residues in beebread, wax, and honey, Science of The Total Environment, Volume 704, 20th February 2020, 135312. ISSN 0048-9697.

Faita, M.R., Cardozo, M.M., Amandio, D.T.D. 2020. Glyphosate-based herbicides and Nosema sp. microsporidia reduce honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) survivability under laboratory conditions. Journal of Apicultural Research 59 332–342, 81 references

Ledoux, M.L., Hettiarachchy, N., Yu, A., Howard, L., Sun-Ok, L. 2020. Penetration of glyphosate into the food supply and the incidental impact on the honey supply and bees, Food Control (2020) 109: 106859. 86 references

Motta, E.V.S. Moran, N.A. 2020. Impact of glyphosate on the honey bee gut microbiota: effects of intensity, duration, and timing of exposure, ASM Journals, mSystems vol. 5 no. 4 (28 July 2020) 59 references

Vázquez, D.E., Balbuena M.S., Chaves, F., Gora, J., Menzel, R., Farina, W.M. 2020. Sleep in honey bees is affected by the herbicide glyphosate, Scientific Reports 10 (29 June 2020) 10516.

Luo, Q-H., Gao, J., Liu, C., Ma, Y-Z., Zhou, Z-Y., Dai, P-L., Hou, C-S., Wu, Y-Y., Diao, Q-Y. 2021. Effects of a commercially formulated glyphosate solutions at recommended concentrations on honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) behaviours, Scientific Reports 11 (2021) 2115, 54 references

Straw, E.A., Carpentier, E.N., Brown, M.J.F. 2021. Roundup causes high levels of mortality following contact exposure in bumble bees. Journal of Applied Ecology 06.04.2021. 61 references

Almasri, H., Tavares, D.A., Tchamitchian, S., Pélissier, M., Sené, D., Cousin, M., Brunet, J-L., Belzunces, L.P., 2021. Toxicological status changes the
susceptibility of the honey bee Apis mellifera to a single fungicidal spray application, Environmental science and Pollution Research. 28, 42807–42820 (6th April 2021), 94 references.

Graffigna, S., Marrero, H.J., Torretta, J.P. 2021. Glyphosate commercial formulation negatively affects the reproductive success of solitary wild bees in a Pampean agroecosystem, Apidologie, 52, 272–281 (2021). 48 references

Battisti, L., Potrich, M., Sampaio, A.R., de Castillo Ghisi, N., Costa-Maia, F., Abati, R., Bueno dos Reis Martinez, C.Sofia,S.H. 2021. Is glyphosate toxic to bees? A meta-analytical review, Science of the Total Environvironment 767 (1st May 2021) 145397

Straw, E.A., Carpentier, E.N., Brown, M.J.F. 2021 Roundup causes high levels of mortality following contact exposure in bumble bees, Journal of Applied Ecology. 58 (06 April 2021) 1167–1176, 61 references

Motta,E.V.S., Powell, J.E., Moran, N.A. 2022. Glyphosate induces immune dysregulation in honey bees, Animal Microbiome 4 (2022) 16. 77 references

Tan, S., Li, G., Liu, Z., Wang, H., Guo, X., Xu, B. 2022. Effects of glyphosate exposure on honeybees. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 90. 3792. 106 references

Dai, P., Yan, Z., Ma, S., Yang, Y., Wang, Q., Hou, C., Wu, Y., Liu, Y., Diao, Q. 2018. The Herbicide Glyphosate Negatively Affects Midgut Bacterial Communities and Survival of Honey Bee during Larvae Reared in Vitro, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. (2018), 66, 29, 7786–7793

da Silva, P.C., Goncalves, B., Franceschinelli, E., Brito, P. et al., 2022. Glyphosate-Based Herbicide Causes Cellular Alterations to Gut Epithelium of the Neotropical Stingless Bee Melipona quadrifasciata quadrifasciata (Hymenoptera: Meliponini), Neotropical Entomology (15 Nov 2022) 51(6):860-868. 19 references

Tan, S., Li, G., Liu, Z., Wang, H., Guo, X., Xu, B. 2022. Effects of glyphosate exposure on honeybees, Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacolpgy. 90 (February 2022) 103792.Weidenmüller,A., Meltzer, A., Neupert, S.,

Schwartz, A., Kleineidam, C. 2022. Glyphosate impairs collective thermoregulation in bumblebees, Science 376 issue 6597 (2 July 2022) 1122–1126.85 references 

Zioga, E., White, B.,Stout, J.C. 2022. Glyphosate used as desiccant contaminates plant pollen and nectar of non-target plant species, Heliyon, vol. 8 issue 12 e12179 (December 07 2022). 163 references

Wang, B., Habermehl, C., Jiang, L. 2022. Metabolomic analysis of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) response to glyphosate exposure, Molecular Omics, issue 7, 2022

Helander, M., Lehtonen, T.K., Saikkonen, K., Despains, L., Nyckees, D., Antinoja, A., Solvi, C., Loukola, O.J. 2023. Field-realistic acute exposure to glyphosate based herbicide impairs fine-color discrimination in bumblebees, Science of the Total Environment, (2023) 857(Pt 1):159298. 40 references

Motta,E.V.S. Moran, N.A. 2023. The effects of glyphosate, pure or in herbicide formulation, on bumble bees and their gut microbial communities. Science of the Total Environment. 872: 162102.

Nouvian, M., Foster, J.J., Weidenmüller, A., 2023. Glyphosate impairs aversive learning in bumblebees. Science of The Total Environment vol. 898, 10.11.2023. 72 references

BUTTERFLIES

Sirinathsinghji, E., 2011. Glyphosate and Monarch Butterfly Decline. Report for the Institute of Scientists in Society, 19/9/2011.

Pleasants, J.M., Oberhauser, K.S., 2012. Milkweed loss  in agricultural fields because of herbicide use: effect on the monarch butterfly population. Insect Conservation and Diversity 6 (2): 135-144. 33 references

Taylor, O. R. Jr, Pleasants, J.M., Grundel, R., Pecoraro, S.D., Lovett, J.P., Ryan, A. 2020. Evaluating the Mogration Mortality Hypothesis Using Monarch Tagging Data. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution. (Online 07.08.2020) 49 references

Vazquez, D.E., Villegas Martinez, L.E., Medina, V., Latorre-Estivalis, J.M., Zavala, J.A., Farina, W.M., 2023. Glyphosate affects larval gut microbiota and metamorphosis of honey bees with differences between rearing procedures. Environmental Pollution vol.334, 01.10.2023. 99 references

OTHER INSECTS

Kiefer, J.S.T., Batsukh, S., Bauer, E., Hiroba, B., Weiss, B., Wierz, J.C., Fukatsu, T., Kaltenpoth, M., Engl, T. 2021. Inhibition of a nutritional endosymbiont by glyphosate abolishes mutualistic benefit on cuticle synthesis in Oryzaephilus surinamensis. Communications Biology 4, article no. 554. published 11th May 2021. 123 references

Smith, D.F.Q., Camacho, E., Thakur, R., Barron, A.J., Deng, Y., Dimopoulos, G., Broderick, N.A., Casadevall, A. 2021. Glyphosate inhibits melanization and increases susceptibility to infection in insects. PLOS Biology. published 12th May 2021. 139 references

GASTROPODS

Tate, T.M., Spurlock, J.O., Christian, F.A. 1997. Effect of Glyphosate on the Development of Pseudosuccinea columella Snails. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 33 (3) 286-289

Glyphosate-based herbicide in a Hvar vineyard. Photo: Vivian Grisogono

EVIDENCE FOR GLYPHOSATE SAFETY

?

Great doubts have been cast on the integrity of scientists and others who write in support of Glyphosate. As the agro-chemical business yields huge profits worldwide, there is much at stake. it is not surprising if the companies are prepared to pay for support, nor that some people of iinfluence may accept payment in return for their backing.

EPA Reregistration Decision: Glyphosate. EPA 738-R-93-014. September 1993, page 2. Bibliography: 281 entries, comprising 7 published papers, 228 unpublished papers submitted by Monsanto, 38 unpublished papers from other sources, 4 letters and 4 official statements / documents. When glyphosate came up for review by the United States Environmental Protection Agency in 2009-2010, "the Agency required the pesticide registrants to conduct additional studies to support updated human health and ecological risk assessments". Not suršrisingly, the onclusion remained that glyphosate use was 'safe'. 

In 2017 a campaign titled 'Stop Glyphosate' was launched as a European Citizens' Initiative petition titled 'Ban glyphosate and protect people and the environment from toxic pesticides'. In less than six months the petition garnered well over the 1 million signatures needed for consideration by the European Commission. However, the request for a ban was rejected out of hand.

On October 13th 2021, an open letter signed by 41 concerned civil society groups, including Eco Hvar, was sent to the EU Commission urging the Commission to stop using unreliable industry studies in the renewal assessment procedure for glyphosate.

Despite extensive research, I have not found any convincing independent scientific evidence for Glyphosate's safety. After all, how can any poison be safe? The slightest doubt should be enough to put a stop to its use, in accordance with the Precautionary Principle. If any reader comes across genuinely independent scientific papers published in peer-reviewed journals which put forward a reasoned case for the safe use of Glyphosate in the environment, we will consider adding them to this list of references.

© Vivian Grisogono 2016: this record is frequently updated, last update May 2024

 

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Eco Environment News feeds

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    Kyla Orr and Martin Welch of KelpCrofters check the crop from their boat

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    Deep in the Norwegian mountains, amid a vast expanse of bright snow and howling winds, Toralf Mjøen throws a piece of meat into a fenced enclosure and waits for a pair of dark eyes to appear from the snowy den.

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  • Pennsylvania families worry about rising cases of rare cancer with well pads near homes and stalled House bills

    One evening in 2019, Janice Blanock was scrolling through Facebook when she heard a stranger mention her son in a video on her feed. Luke, an outgoing high school athlete, had died three years earlier at age 19 from Ewing’s sarcoma, a rare bone cancer.

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  • Having created a watchdog for the environment, the government took its teeth out and muzzled it. Can public outrage rouse the Environment Agency to action?

    When Helen Nightingale joined the National Rivers Authority, the predecessor to the Environment Agency, in 1991, she thought of her work as a calling. She had been fascinated by nature since she was a child, when she used to poke around in the earth on her father’s allotment, looking for worms and beetles. In her job, Nightingale spent most of her time walking along the rivers in Lancashire and Merseyside, taking water samples and testing oxygen levels. She was responsible for protecting rivers, and she often learned about sewage and pesticide pollution from members of the public who called a dedicated hotline. “They’d phone you up and say, ‘There’s something wrong.’ And you would go out straight away,” she recalled. “You stood a much better chance of figuring out what was wrong if you could get there quickly.”

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Eco Health News feeds

Eco Nature News feeds

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    Though the underground world is incredibly rich — harboring more than half of Earth’s biodiversity — soils, and the critters that live in them, are understudied. And that lack of understanding might be the biggest problem facing soil invertebrates, Quaglia writes. If we don’t know how species contribute to the ecosystem, we don’t know what will happen if they’re lost.

    “Soil has been like a black box,” Leticia Pérez-Izquierdo, researcher at the Basque Center for Climate Change and co-author of the study, told The New York Times. “And we’re now starting to open it.”

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    Further reading:

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  • On an expedition to Bolivia's Zongo Valley, a team of researchers recently discovered 20 species completely new to science, and rediscovered several species that had not been seen for decades.