Glyphosate herbicides, scientific evidence

Published in Poisons Beware

An overview of the scientific evidence for claims that glyphosate-based herbicides are or are not safe.

Herbicide in a Hvar field Herbicide in a Hvar field Photo: Vivian Grisogono

EVIDENCE INDICATING THAT GLYPHOSATE-BASED HERBICIDES ARE NOT SAFE

In this list, most of the scientific papers cited have been published in peer-reviewed journals. Where possible, online links to the articles are given. Almost all the articles carry numerous references to previous scientific research.

Because there has been controversy over the safety or otherwise of glyphosate, there have been calls for more rigorous research, such as: Landrigan, P.J., Belpoggi, F. 2018. The need for independent research on the health-effects of glyphosate-based herbicides. Environmental Health 17: 51. 17 references.

In response to this need, the independently funded Ramazzini Institute initiated The Global Glyphosate Study in 2016, producing their first peer-reviewed papers from their pilot studies in 2018, which showed adverse effects from glyphosate at previously accepted 'safe doses'..

Overviews

Cox, C., 1995. Glyphosate Fact Sheets: Part 1: Toxicology. Journal of Pesticide Reform. 15 (3) Fall 1995. Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides, Eugene, OR. 50 references. 

Ho, M-W., Sirinathsinghji, E., 2012. Why Glyphosate should be banned - a review of its hazards to health and the environment. Permaculture Research Institute. (Institute of Sc ience in Society Special Report) 107 references

Earth Open Source, 2012. Roundup and Birth Defects (overview, with industry responses)

Mason, Rosemary, 2013. Glyphsoate Destructor of Human Health and Biodiversity. GMO Evidence

Friends of the Earth, June 2013. Concerns about Glyphosate's Approval. Friends of the Earth Europe (www.foeeurope.com).

Robinson, C., 2014. The glyphosate toxicity studies you're not allowed to see. GMWatch

Vandenberg, L.N., Blumberg, B., Antoniou, M.N., Benbrook, C.M., Carroll, L., Colborn, T., Everett, L.G., hansen, M., Landrigan, P.J., Lanphear, B.P., Mesnage, R., vom Saal, F.S., Welshons, W.V., Myers, J.P. 2016. Is it time to reasses current safety standards for glyphosate-based herbicides? Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, (BMJ Journals) 71 (6) 55 references

Clausing, P., Robinson, C., and Burtscher-Schaden, H. 2018. Pesticides and public health: An analysis of the regulatory approach to assessing the carcinogenicity of glyphosate in the European Union. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 20 references

Landrigan, P.J., Belpoggi, F. 2018. The need for independent research on the health effects of glyphosate-based herbicides. Environmental Health , 17:51. 17 references

Defrage, N., Spiroux de Vendomois, J., Séralini, G.E., 2018. Toxicity of formulants and heavy metals in glyphosate-based herbicides and other pesticides. Science Direct: Toxicology Reports. 5: 156-163. 71 references

Antibiotic resistance

Kurenbach, B., Gibson, P.S., Hill, A.M., Bitzer, A.S., Silby, M.W., Godsoe, W., Heinemann, J.A. 2017. Herbicide ingredients change Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium and Escherichia coli antibiotic responses. Microbiology, online 17 November 2017 doi: 10.1099/mic.0.000573 40 references

Cancer risks

De Roos, A.J., Blair, A., Rusiecki, J.A., Hoppin, J.A., Svec, M., Dosemeci, M., Sandler, D.P., Alavanja, M.C., 2005. Cancer Incidence among Glyphosate-Exposed Pesticide Applicators in the Agricultural Health study. Environmental Health Perspectives 113 (1) 49-54. 56 references

Eriksson, M., Hardell, L., Carlberg, M., Akerman, M., 2008. Pesticide exposure as risk factor for non-Hodgkin lymphoma including histopathological subgroup analysis. International Journal of Cancer 123: 1657-1663. 41 references

Samsel, Anthony & Seneff, Stephanie 2013. Glyphosate, pathways to Modern Diseases II: Celiac Sprue and Gluten Intolerance. Interdisciplinary Toxicology 6 (4) 159-184. 271 references

Thongprakalsang, S., Thiantanawat, A., Rangkadilok N., Suriyo, T., Satayavivad, J., 2013. Glyphosate induces human breast cancer cells growth via oestrogen receptors. Food & Chemical Toxicology 59: 129-136

Alavanja, M.C.R., Ross, M.K., Bonner, M.R., 2013. Increased Cancer Burden Among Pesticide Applicators and Others Due to Pesticide Exposure. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians 63 (2): 120-142. 186 references

Séralini, G-E, Clair, E., Mesnage, R., Grass, S., Defarge, N., Malatesta, M., Hannequin, D., Spirouz de Vendômois, J., 2014. Republished study: long-term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize.  Environmental Sciences Europe. 75 references.

Ho, M.W., 2014. Glyphosate and Cancer. Institute of Science in Society Report 26.3.2014. 34 references

Schinasi, L., Leon, M.E., 2014. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Occupational Exposure to Agricultural Pesticide Chemical Groups and Active Ingredients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 11 (4): 4449-4527. 77 references

International Agency for Research into Cancer, 2015. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Vol.112 (2015) Some Organophosphate Insecticides and Herbicides. GlyphosateAuthors: Guyton, K.Z., Loomis, D., Grosse, Y., Ghissassi, F. E., Benbrahim-Tallaa, L., Guha, N., Scoccianti, C., Mattock, H., Straif, K.  on behalf of the International Agency for Research on Cancer Monograph Working Group, IARC, Lyon, France. Summary published in the Lancet Oncology, Vol. 16, no.5, pp 490-491, May 2015. 16 references

Zhang, L., Rana, I., Shaffer, R.M., Taioli, E., Sheppard, L., 2019. Exposure to Glyphosate-Based Herbicides and Risk for Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma: A Meta-Analysis and Supporting Evidence. Mutation Research / Reviews in Mutation Research, available online 10.02.2019. 124 references

Pregnancy, birth defects and endocrine disruption

Tate, T.M., Spurlock, J.O., Christian, F.A. 1997. Effect of Glyphosate on the Development of Pseudosuccinea columella Snails. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 33 (3) 286-289

Garry, V.F., Harkins, M.E., Erickson, L.L., Long-Simpson, L.K., Holland, S.E., Burroughs, B.L., 2002. Birth Defects, Season of Conception, and Sex of Children Born to Pesticide Applicators Living in the Red River Valley of Minnesota, USA. Environmental Health Perspectives 110 (Suppl 3) 441-449. 69 references

Richard, S., Moslemi, S., Sipahular, H., Benachour, N., Séralini, G-E., 2005. Differential Effects of Glyphosate and Roundup on Human Placenta and Aromatase. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113 (6) 716-720. 38 references

Benachour, N., Sipahular, H., Moslemi, S., Gasnier, C., Travert, C., Séralini, G.E., 2007. Time- and dose-dependent effects of Roundup on Human embryonic and placental cells. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 53 (1): 126-133. 42 references

Gasnier, C., Dumont, C., Benachour, N., Clair, E., Chagnon, M.C., Séralini, G.E. 2009. Glyphosate-based herbicides are toxic and endocrine disruptors in human cell lines. Toxicology 262 (3) : 184-191. 94 references

Romano, R.M.., Romano, M.A., 2010. Prepubertal exposure to commercial formulation of the herbicide glyphosate alters testosterone levels and testicular morphology. Archives of Toxicology. 84 (4) 309-317. 40 references 

Antoniou, M., Ezz El-Din Mostafa Habib, M., Howard, C. V., Jennings, R.C., Leifert, C., Nodari, R.O., Robinson, C., Fagan, J.. June 2011. Roundup and birth defects. Is the public being kept in the dark? Pub. Earth Open Source.358 references

Antoniou,M., Habib, M.E.M., Howard, C. V., Jennings, R.C., Leifert, C., Nodari, R.O., Robinson, C., Fagan, J. 2012. Teratogenic Effects of Glyphosate-based Herbicides: Divergence of Regulatory Decisions from Scientific Evidence. Journal of Environmental & Analytical Toxicology, S4-006, 97 references

Romano, M.A., Romano, R.M., Santos, L.D., Wisniewski, P., Campos, D.A., de Souza, P.B., Bernardi, M.M., Nunes, M.T., de Oliviera C.A. 2012. Gyphosate impairs male offspring reproductive development by disrupting gonadotropin expression. Archives of Toxicology, 86 (4) 663-673. 56 references

Kruger, M, Schrodl, Wieland, Pedersen, Ib, & Shehata, A. A., 2014. Detection of Glyphosate in Malformed Piglets. Journal of Environmental and Analytical Toxicology, 4:230 4 references

Young, F., Ho D., Glynn, D., & Edwards, V. 2015. Endocrine disruption and cytotoxicity of glyphosate and roundup in human JAr cells in vitro. Integrative Pharamcology, Toxicology and Genotoxicology. Vol 1 (1) 12-19. 30 references

Parvez, S., Gerona, R. R., Proctor, C., Friesen, M., Ashby, J. L., Reiter, J. L., Lui, Z. & Winchester, P. D. 2018. Glyphosate exposure in pregnancy and shortened gestational length: a prospective Indiana birth cohort study. Environmental Health 2018 17:23. 56 references

Chiu, Y-H., Williams, P.L., Gillman, M., et.al. 2018. Association Between Pesticide Residue Intake From Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables and Pregnancy Outcomes Among Women Undergoing Infertility Treatment With Assisted Reproductive Technology. JAMA Network 178 (1) 17-26.  

Milesi, M.M., Lorenz, V., Pacini, G., Repetti, M.R., Demonte, L.D., Varayoud, J., Luque, E.H. 2018. Perinatal exposure to a glyphosate-based herbicide impairs female reproductive outcomes and induces second-generation adverse effects in Wistar rats. Archives of Toxicology, 92 (8) 2629-2643. 94 references

Avila-Vazquez, M., Difilippo, F.S., Mac Lean, B., Maturano, B., Etchegoyen, A. 2018. Environmental Exposure to Glyphosate and Reproductive Health Impacts in Agricultural Population of Argentina. Journal of Environmental Protection, Open Access Scientific Research, Vol. 9, no.3, March 2018. 36 references

Manservisi, F., Lesseur, C., Panzacchi, S., Mandrioli, D., Falcioni, L., Bua, L., Manservigi, M., Spinaci, M., Galeati, G., Mantovani, A., Lorenzetti, S., Miglio, R., Andrade, A.M., Kristensen, D.M., Perry, M.J., Swan, S.H., Chen, J., Belpoggi, F. 2019. The Ramazzini Institute 13-week pilot study glyphosate-based herbicides administered at human-equivalent dose to Sprague Dawley rats: effects on development and the endocrine system. Environmental Health, 18:15. 54 references

DNA damage and genotoxic effects

Prasad, S., Srivastava, S., Singh, M., Shukla, Y., 2009. Clastogenic Effects of Glyphosate in Bone Marrow Cells of Swiss Albino Mice. Journal of Toxicology (2009) 308985. 39 references

Koller, V.J., Fürhacker, M., Nersesyan, A., Mišik, M., Eisenbauer, M., Knasmueller, S., 2012. Cytotoxic and DNA-damaging properties of glyphosate and Roundup in human-derived buccal epithelial cells. Archives of Toxicology 86 (5): 805-813. 47 references

Townsend, M., Peck, C., Meng, W., Heaton, M., Robison, R., O'Neill, K. 2017. Evaluation of various glyphosate concentrations on DNA damage in human Raji cells and its impact on cytotoxicity. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 85: 79-85.

Kwiatkowska, M., Reszka, E., Wozniak, K., Jablonska, E., Michalowicz, J., Bokowska, B. 2017. DNA damage and methyltaion induced by glyphosate in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (in vitro study). Food and Chemical Toxicology 105: 93-98. 

Santovito, A., Ruberto, S, Gendusa, C., Cervella, P. 2018. In vitro evaluation of genomic damage induced by glyphosate on human lymphocytes. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. Vol. 25, Issue 34, pp 34693-34700. (Online October 2018) 37 references

Benbrook, C.M., 2018. How did the US EPA and IARC reach diametrically opposed conclusions on the genotoxicity of glyphosate-based herbicides? Environmental Sciences Europe, 31:2 (online 14th Janaury 2019. 70 references

Male infertility

Clair, E., Mesnage, R., Travert, C., Séralini, G.E., 2012. A glyphosate-based herbicide induces apoptosis in mature rat cells in vitro, and testosterone decrease at lower levels. Toxicology in vitro 26: 269-279. 61 references

de Liz Oliveira Cavalli, V.L., Cattani, D., Heinz Rieg, C.E., Pierozan, P., Zanatta, L., Parisotto, E.B., Filho D.W.., Mena Barreto Silva, F.R., Pessoa-Pureur, R., Zamoner, A., 2013. Roundup disrupts male reproductive functions by triggering calcium-mediated cell death in rat testis and Sertoli cells. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 65: 335-346. 80 references

Gut bacteria disruption

Brewster, D.W., Warren, J.,Hopkins, W.E., 1991. Metabolism of glyphosate in Sprague-Dawley rats: Tissue distribution, identification, and quantification of glyphosate-derived materials following a single oral dose. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 17: 43-51

Shehata, A. A., Schrödl, W., Aldin, A. A., Hafez, H. M., Krüger, M., 2012. The effect of Glyphosate on potential pathogens and beneficial members of poultry microbiotica in vitro. Current Microbiology, 9th December 2012. 59 references

Samsel, Anthony & Seneff, Stephanie 2013. Glyphosate, pathways to Modern Diseases II: Celiac Sprue and Gluten Intolerance. Interdisciplinary Toxicology 6 (4) 159-184. 271 references

Samsel, Anthony, Seneff, Stephanie, 2013. Glyphosate's Suppression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Amino Acid Biosynthesis by the Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Modern Diseases. Entropy 15: 1416-1463. 286 references

Schrödl, W., Krüger, S., Konstantinova-Müller, T., Shehata, A., Rulff, R., Krüger, M., 2014. Possible Effects of Glyphosate on Mucorales Abundance in the Rumen of Dairy Cows in Germany. Current Microbiology 69 (6) 817-823. 40 references 

Mao, Q, Manservisi, S., Panzacchi, S., Mandrioli, D., Menghetti, I., Vornoli, A., Buia, L., Falcioni, L., Lesseur, C., Chen, J., Belpoggi, F., Hu, J. 2018. The Ramazzini Institute 13-week pilot study on glyphosate and Roundup administered at human-equivalent dose to Sprague Dawley rats: effects on the microbiome. Environmental Health, 17:50. 80 references

Organ damage

Jayasumana, C., Gunatilake, S., Senanayake, P., 2014. Glyphosate, Hard Water and Nephrotoxic Metals: Are They the Culprits Behind the Epidemic of Chronic Kidney Disease of Unknown Etiology in Sri Lanka? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 109 references

Séralini, G-E, Clair, E., Mesnage, R., Gress, S., Defarge, N., Malatesta, M., Hennequin, D., Spiroux de Vendômois, J., 2014. Republished study: long-term toxicity of a Roundup herbicide and a Roundup-tolerant genetically modified maize. Environmental Sciences Europe, 26: 14. 75 references

Tizhe, E.V., Onyebuche, I.I., George, B.D.J., Ambali, S.F., Shallangwa, J.M., 2014. Influence of zinc supplementation on histopathological changes in the stomach, liver, kidney, brain, pancreas and spleen during subchronic exposure of Wistar rats to glyphosate. Comparative Clinical Pathology 23 (5): 1535-1543 (published online October 2013) 32 references

Jayasumana, C., Paranagama, P., Agampodi, S., Wijewardane, C., Gunatilake, S., Siribaddana, S., 2015. Drinking well water and occupatiomal exposure to Herbicides is associated with chronic kidney disease, in Padavi-Sripura, Sri Lanka. Environmental Health 14:6. 41 references

Jayasumana, C., Gunatilake, S., Siribaddana, S., 2015. Simultaneous exposure to multiple heavy metals and glyphosate may contribute to Sri Lankan agricultural nephropathy. BMC Nephrology 16:103. 47 references

Mesnage, R., Renney, G., Séralini, G.-E., Ward, M., & Antoniou, M. N. 2017. Multiomics reveal non-fatty liver disease in rats following chronic exposure to an ultra-low dose of Roundup herbicide. Nature.com - Scientific reports 7, article number 39328. Published online 9th January 2017. 53 references

Ford, B., Bateman, L.A., Gutierrez-Palominos, L., Park, R., Nomura, D.K. 2017. Mapping Proteome-wide Targets of Glyphosate in Mice. Cell Chemical Biology. 33 references

Dietary intake, exposure. Glyphosate present in human and animal urine, also human breast milk

Hoppe, H-W., 2013. Determination of Glyphosate residues in Human urine samples from 18 European countries. Study of 182 urine samples carried out at the Medical Laboratory Bremen, Germany, sponsored by BUND & FoE

Krüger, M., Schledorn, P., Schrödl, W., Hoppe, H-W., Lutz, W., Shehata, A.A., 2014.Detection of Glyphosate Residues in Animals and Humans. Journal of Environmental and Anayltical Toxicology4: 210. 30 references

Schrödl, W., Krüger, S., Konstantinova-Müller, T., Shehata, A., Rulff, R., Krüger, M., 2014. Possible Effects of Glyphosate on Mucorales Abundance in the Rumen of Dairy Cows in Germany. Current Microbiology 69 (6) 817-823. 40 references

Honeycutt, Z., Rowlands, H., 2014. Glyphosate testing report:Findings in American Mothers' Breast Milk, Urine and Water. Research conducted by Moms Across America & Sustainable Pulse. 6 references, plus listing of ten relevant scientific papers with online links.

Mills, P.J., Kania-Korwel, I., Fagan, J., et al. 2017. Excretion of the Herbicide Glyphosate in Older Adults between 1993 asnd 2016. JAMA Network (Journal of the American Medical Association) 318 (16) 1610-1611

Neural damage, Neurotoxicity

Paganelli, A., Gnazzo, V., Acosta, H., Lopez, S.L., & Carrasco, A.E., 2010. Glyphosate-based herbciides produce teratogenic effects on vertebrates by impairing retinoic acid signalling. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 18: 23 (10): 1586 - 95, 99 references

Cattani, D., de Liz Oliveira Cavalli V.L., Rieg, C.E.H., Dominques, J.T., Dal-Cim, T., Tasca, C.I., Barreto Silva, F.R.M., Zamoner, A., 2014. Mechanisms underlying the neurotoxicity induced by glyphosate-based herbicide in immature rat hippocampus: involvement of glutamate excitoxicity. Toxicology 320 (5): 34-45.

Parkinson’s disease

Barbosa E.R., da Costa, L., Bacheschi, L.A., Scaff, M., Leite, C.C., 2001. Parkinsonism after glycine-derivate exposure. Movement Disorders 16 (3): 565-568

Autism

de Cock, M., Maas, Y.G., van de Bor, M., 2012. Does perinatal exposure to endocrine disruptors induce autism spectrum and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders? Review. Acta Paediatrica 101 (8): 811-888. 55 references

ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS
Cox, C., 1995. Glyphosate, Part 2: Human Exposure and Ecological Effects. Journal of Pesticide Reform 15 (4) 78 references

WATER, FISH, AQUATIC ORGANISMS

Folmar, L.C., Sanders, H.O., Julin, A.M. 1979. Toxicity of the herbicide glyphosate and several of its formulations to fish and aquatic invertebrates. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 8 (3) 269-278. 9 references

Popp, M., Hann, S., Mentler, A., Fuerhacker, M., Stingeder, G., Koellensperger, G., 2008. Determination of glyphosate and AMPA in surface and waste water using high-performance ion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma dynamic reaction celll  mass spectrometry (HPIC-ICP-DRC-MS). Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 391 (2): 695-699. 16 references

Cummings,M., Bullerjahn, G.S. 2009. Phosphate Utilization by Great Lakes (Cyanobacteria). Vermont Government Agency (Poster)

Bullerjahn,G.S. 2010. Glyphosate loadings in Lake Erie Watersheds. Final report for LEPF Award 09-357. (Data collected through field studies)

Strickland,T., Fisher, L., Korleski, C. / Phosphorus Task Force. 2010. Ohio Lake Erie Phosphorus Task Force Final Report. Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. 126 references. (p.41, 4.2.1.6. Glyphosate as a Source of Phosphorus) 

Sanchis,J., Kantiani, L., Llorca, M., Rubio, F., Ginebreda, A., Fraile, J., Garrido, T., Farré, M., 2012. Determination of glyphosate in groundwater samples using an ultrasensitive immunoassay and confirmation by on-line solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry 402 (7) 2336-2345. 25 references

Shiogiri, N.S., Paulino, M.G., Carraschi, S.P., Baraldi, F.G., da Cruz, C.,Fernandes, M.N., 2012. Acute exposure of a glyphosate-herbicide affects the gills and liver of the Neotropical fish, Piaractus mesopotamicus. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 34 (2) 388-396

Nwani, C.D., Nagpure, N.S., Kumar, R., Kushwaha, B., Lakra, W.S., 2013. DNA damage and oxidative stress modulatory effects of glyphosate-based herbicide in freshwater fish Channa punctatus. environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 36 (2) 539-547. 15 references

Ruiz-Toledo, J., Castro, R., Rivéro-Perez, N., Bello-Mendoza, R., Sánchez, D., 2014. Occurrence of Glyphosate in Water Bodies Derived from Intensive Agriculture in a Tropical Region of Southern Mexico. Bulletin of Envirnomental Contamination and Toxicology 93 (3): 289-293. 47 references

Mercurio, P., Flores, F., Mueller, J.F., Carter, S., Negri, A.P., 2014. Glyphosate persistence in seawater. Marine Pollution Bulletin 85 (2) 385-390. 53 references

Wang,C., Lin X., Li,L., Lin, S., 2016. Differential Growth Responses of Marine Phytoplankton to Herbicide Glyphosate. PLoS One. 86 references

Roy, N.M., Carneiro, B., Ochs, J. 2016. Glyphosate induces neurotoxicity in zebrafish. Environmental Toxicology and Pharamcology, 42: 45-54. 

Hébert, M.-P., Fugère, V., Gonzalez, A. 2018. The overlooked impact of rising glyphosate use on phosphorus loading in agricultural watersheds. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment (The Ecological Society of America) 17 (1): 48 - 56. 59 references 

SOIL, SOIL ORGANISMS

Correia, F.V., Moreira, J.C., 2010. Effects of Glyphosate and 2,4-D on Earthworms (Eisenia foetida) in Laboratory Tests. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 85 (3): 264-268
 
Gaup-Berghausen M,  Hofer M,  Rewald B, Zaller JG 2015. Glyphosate-based herbicides reduce the activity and reproduction of earthworms and lead to increased soil nutrient concentrations. Scientific Reports Nature.com 5: 12886. Published online 05.08.2015. 47 references 
 
Bento, C.P.M., Yang, X., Gort, G., Xue, S., van Dam, R., Zomer, P., Mol, H.G.J., Ritsema, C.J., Geissen, V., 2016. Persistence of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in loess soil under different combinations of temperature, soil moisture and light/darkness. Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 572, 301-311
 
Aristilde, L., Reed, M.L., Wilkes,R.A., Youngster, T., Kukurugya, M.A., Katz, V., Sasaki, C.R.S. 2017. Glyphosate-Induced Specific and Widespread Perturbations in the Metabolome of Soil Pseudomonas Species. Fronteirs in Environmental Science (20th June 2017).  42 references
 
Kremer, R.J. 2017. Soil and Environmental Health After Twenty Years of Intensive Use of Glyphosate. Advances in Plants and Agriculture Research 6 (5): 00224. DOI: 10.15406/apar.2017.06.00224; Online PDF: MedCrave, (7th March 2017). 14 references

TREES

Feucht, J.R. 1988. Herbicide injuries to trees - symptoms and solutions. Journal of Arboriculture 14 (9) 215-219 (page 217). 8 references

PLANTS

Hawkes, T.R., Lorraine-Colwill, D.F., Williams, P.H., Warner, S.A.J., Sutton, P.B., Powles, S.B., Preston, C., 1999. Resistance to Glyphosate in a Population of Lolium Rigidum. Plant Biotechnology and in vitro Biology in the 21st Century. Current Plant Science and Biotechnology in Agriculture. 36: 491-494 10 references

Fernandez, M.R., Zentner, R.P., Basnyat, P., Gehl, D., Selles, F., Huber, D., 2009. Glyphosate associations with cereal diseases caused by Fusarium spp. in the Canadian prairies. European Journal of Agronomy 31: 133-143. 63 references 

Kremer, R.J., Means, N.E., 2009. Glyphosate and glyphosate-resistant crop interactions with rhizosphere microorganisms. European Journal of Agronomy 31 (3) 153-161. 

Johal, G.S., Huber, D.M., 2009. Glyphosate effects on diseases of plants. European Journal of Agronomy 31 (3): 144-152. 72 references

 Bott, S., Tesfamariam, T., Candan, H., Cakmak, I., Römheld, V., Neumann, G., 2008. Glyphosate-induced impairment of plant growth and micronutrient status in glyphosate-resistant soybean (Plant and Soil 312 (1-2): 185-194

BEES

Gill, R.J., Ramos-Rodriguez, O., Raine, N.E., 2012 Combined pesticide exposure severely affects individual- and colony-level traits in bees. Nature 491: 105-108. 40 references, 20 supplementary references

Herbert, L.T., Vázquez, D.E., Arenas, A., Farina, W.M., 2014. Effects of field-realistic doses of glyphosate on honeybee appetite behaviour. Journal of Experimental Biology 217: 3457-3464. 52 references

Balbuena M.S., Tison, L., Hahn, M-L., Greggers, U., Menzel, R., Farina, W.M. 2015. Effects of sublethal doses of glyphosate on honeybee navigation. Journal of Experimental Biology 218. 2799-2805. 47 references

Motta, E.V.S., Raymann, K., Moran, N.A. 2018. Glyphosate perturbs the gut microbiotica of honey bees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) of the United States of America, published online ahead of print, September 24 2018. 47 references

BUTTERFLIES

Sirinathsinghji, E., 2011. Glyphosate and Monarch Butterfly Decline. Report for the Institute of Scientists in Society, 19/9/2011.

Pleasants, J.M., Oberhauser, K.S., 2012. Milkweed loss  in agricultural fields because of herbicide use: effect on the monarch butterfly population. Insect Conservation and Diversity 6 (2): 135-144. 33 references

GASTROPODS

Tate, T.M., Spurlock, J.O., Christian, F.A. 1997. Effect of Glyphosate on the Development of Pseudosuccinea columella Snails. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 33 (3) 286-289

Glyphosate-based herbicide in a Hvar vineyard. Photo: Vivian Grisogono

EVIDENCE FOR GLYPHOSATE SAFETY

?

Great doubts have been cast on the integrity of scientists and others who write in support of Glyphosate. As the agro-chemical business yields huge profits worldwide, there is much at stake. it is not surprising if the companies are prepared to pay for support, nor that some people of iinfluence may accept payment in return for their backing.

When Glyphosate came up for review by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, no scientific papers from peer-reviewed journals were included in the review document. The few published papers listed in the bibliography dealt largely with laboratory protocols. Otherwise the vast majority of the 'supporting evidence' consisted of unpublished papers sponsored by the agro-chemical companies who were seeking reregistration of the product.

EPA Reregistration Decision: Glyphosate. EPA 738-R-93-014. September 1993, page 2. Bibliography: 281 entries, comprising 7 published papers, 228 unpublished papers submitted by Monsanto, 38 unpublished papers from other sources, 4 letters and 4 official statements / documents.

Despite extensive research, I have not found any convincing scientific evidence for Glyphosate's safety. After all, how can any poison be safe? The slightest doubt should be enough to put a stop to its use, in accordance with the Precautionary Principle.

If any reader comes across genuinely independent scientific papers published in peer-reviewed journals which put forward a reasoned case for the safe use of Glyphosate in the environment, we will consider adding them to this list of references.

© Vivian Grisogono 2016: this record is frequently updated 

You are here: Home poisons be aware Glyphosate herbicides, scientific evidence

Eco Environment News feeds

  • Report looks at 16 conflict areas and calls for military to stop targeting water resources

    Diarrhoea and other diseases related to poor sanitation are bigger killers of children in areas of conflict than violence and war itself, a report has found, highlighting the need for improved infrastructure as a way of helping civilian populations afflicted by warfare.

    Children under five are more than 20 times more likely to die from diarrhoeal diseases than from direct violence, according to Unicef. Henrietta Fore, the organisation’s executive director, said: “The reality is there are more children who die from lack of access to safe water than by bullets.”

    Continue reading...

  • Failure to protect wildlife, cut pollution and increase funding have left nature in ‘deep crisis’

    The UK will miss almost all the 2020 nature targets it signed up to a decade ago, according to a report by the government’s official advisers.

    The nation is failing to protect threatened species; end the degradation of land; reduce agricultural pollution; and increase funding for green schemes, the assessment concludes. It also says the UK is not ending unsustainable fishing; stopping the arrival of invasive alien species; nor raising public awareness of the importance of biodiversity.

    Continue reading...

  • The ‘Dieselgate’ scandal was suppressed for years – while we should have been driving electric cars. By Beth Gardiner

    John German had not been looking to make a splash when he commissioned an examination of pollution from diesel cars back in 2013. The exam compared what came out of their exhaust pipes, during the lab tests that were required by law, with emissions on the road under real driving conditions. German and his colleagues at the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) in the US just wanted to tie up the last loose ends in a big report, and thought the research would give them something positive to say about diesel. They might even be able to offer tips to Europe from the US’s experience in getting the dirty fuel to run a little cleaner.

    But that was not how it turned out. They chose a Volkswagen Jetta as their first test subject, and a VW Passat next. Regulators in California agreed to do the routine certification test for them, and the council hired researchers from West Virginia University to then drive the same cars through cities, along highways and into the mountains, using equipment that tests emissions straight from the cars’ exhausts.

    Continue reading...

  • Rob Stewart’s followup to his 2006 feature shines a light on human cruelty – and gains power from the fate of its maker

    In the 2006 eco-doc Sharkwater, Canadian activist film-maker Rob Stewart gave us a heartfelt plea to save the planet’s sharks. He was on a mission to reduce overfishing and rehabilitate the creatures’ reputation as stone-cold killers – if only we could love sharks as much as we love cuddly pandas we’d do more to protect them. Back then, you couldn’t help feeling that Stewart wanted us to love him too, with all the shots of himself in tiny Speedos. Watching the sequel, I experienced a sharp stab of self-reproach. Stewart died in a diving accident while shooting this film – he was 37. Sharkwater: Extinction has been scrappily put together from footage he’d already shot.

    And there are some striking images here. Since the first film, many countries have banned “finning” ­– the practice of hacking off the fins then tossing the shark’s body back into the sea. But it still happens. In Costa Rica, Stewart uses a drone to film a warehouse packed with them. Shark fin soup is a delicacy in China, which drives the illegal market. And it’s not just finning that’s the problem. In California, he captures upsetting footage of a graceful thresher shark tangled up in a mile-long net intended for swordfish.

    Continue reading...

  • World Water Day study highlights lethal nature of unsafe sanitation and hygiene for children, especially under-fives

    Children under five who live in conflict zones are 20 times more likely to die from diarrhoeal diseases linked to unsafe water than from direct violence as a result of war, Unicef has found.

    Analysing mortality data from 16 countries beset by long-term conflict – including Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria and Yemen – the UN children’s agency also found that unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene kills nearly three times more children under 15 than war.

    Continue reading...

  • Science agency says scourge of wandering trad could be slowed by fungus, which they have called its ‘natural pathogen’

    Australia’s national science agency will release a Brazilian leaf smut fungus to target and kill an invasive weed that covers large parts of the continent’s east coast.

    Researchers from the CSIRO say the scourge of wandering trad could be slowed by the introduction of the Kordyana brasiliensis fungus, which they have called its “natural pathogen”.

    Continue reading...

  • While the ultimate goal is to stop plastics from entering the water in the first place, cleanup projects play an important role

    Somewhere in Hilo, on Hawaii’s Big Island, a team of scientists and engineers are tending to The Ocean Cleanup’s 600-metre-long rubbish-herding device, after its maiden voyage to the Great Pacific garbage patch was cut short in December 2018, because it fractured into two pieces.

    The project has had its fair share of problems since it was unveiled in May 2017 and has been criticised by marine scientists and environmental groups for its potential negative environmental impact. However, some still herald The Ocean Cleanup for having a positive effect on plastic pollution.

    Continue reading...

  • The latest study warning us to eat less meat has brought angry sceptics out in droves. But who should we believe?

    Sometimes, particularly when looking at the weekend newspapers, it can seem that our obsession with food and health has reached a pitch of pure hysteria. “Eat!” screams one headline. “Diet!” shouts another. Cut out carbohydrates, suggests one report. Carbs are good for you, says a different one. Lower your fat intake. No, fat’s healthy, sugar’s the problem. Coffee raises the risk of heart disease. But it lowers the risk of diabetes. And so on, until you just want to ditch the papers and watch The Great British Bake Off or MasterChef.

    Food, how to cook it, what it does to you and what growing or rearing it does to the planet are issues that crowd the media. And yet, as the clamour grows, clarity recedes. An estimated 820 million people went hungry last year, according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation. A third of all people were vitamin-deficient. Two billion were classified as overweight and 600 million as obese. It’s also estimated that 1bn tonnes of food are wasted every year – a third of the total produced. A plethora of academic reports concerning food consumption and production have been published in recent years. The latest and arguably the most far-reaching is Food in the Anthropocene:the Eat-Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems, which was conducted over three years by 37 senior scientists from around the world and published earlier this year.

    Continue reading...

  • Scientists say a drastic cut in meat consumption is needed, but this requires political will

    It has been known for a while that the amount of animal products being eaten is bad for both the welfare of animals and the environment. People cannot consume 12.9bn eggs in the UK each year without breaking a few.

    But the extent of the damage, and the amount by which people need to cut back, is now becoming clearer. On Wednesday, the Lancet medical journal published a study that calls for dramatic changes to food production and the human diet, in order to avoid “catastrophic damage to the planet”.

    Continue reading...

  • The continent’s largest land mammal plays crucial role in spiritual lives of the tribes

    On 5,000 hectares of unploughed prairie in north-eastern Montana, hundreds of wild bison roam once again. But this herd is not in a national park or a protected sanctuary – they are on tribal lands. Belonging to the Assiniboine and Sioux tribes of Fort Peck Reservation, the 340 bison is the largest conservation herd in the ongoing bison restoration efforts by North America’s Indigenous people.

    The bison – or as Native Americans call them, buffalo – are not just “sustenance,” according to Leroy Little Bear, a professor at the University of Lethbridge and a leader in the bison restoration efforts with the Blood Tribe. The continent’s largest land mammal plays a major role in the spiritual and cultural lives of numerous Native American tribes, an “integrated relationship,” he said.

    Continue reading...

Eco Health News feeds

Eco Nature News feeds