Pesticides and their adverse effects

Scientific evidence of the dangers surrounding chemical pesticides commonly used on Hvar and in other parts of Croatia.

PART 1: BACKGROUND

Our listing in Part 2 of this information sheet is in alphabetical order and consists of the active ingredients in pesticides by category: 1. insecticides, 2. synergist, 3. fungicides, 4. limacide (molluscicide), 5. rodenticides, 6. herbicides. For each substance we identify the following: the type of poison; known possible adverse effects; approval status in the European Union (EU) and Croatia; commercial products containing the active substance approved for use in Croatia; and the scientific and official sources of information regarding the active substance.

Quick check:

You can check on the current state of approval for pesticides as follows:

Pesticides Europe ('Plant Protection Products'): EU Pesticides Database;

Croatian Phytosanitary Institute (FIS): https://fis.mps.hr/trazilicaszb/

Biocides, Europe: European Chemicals Agency (ECHA);

Croatian Ministry of Health (MIZ) : Registar biocidnih pripravaka – kolovoz 2022 (Biocidal products listed, August 2022).

For more details on the approval processes for pesticides and biocides, see 'Pesticides, Laws and Permits'.

For a brief resume of the flaws in the approvals process and pesticide use, please see 'Pesticides: Why Not?)

Note re authorizations of chemical pesticides: we believe that the separation of chemical poisons into 'plant protection products' and 'biocides' (see 'Pesticides, Laws and Permits' for more details) leads to confusion about which substances are and are not officially approved. More damagingly, it gives rise to situations where biocides which are banned as 'plant protection' products are used over fields and gardens with crops such as vines, olives, other fruits and vegetables, and so enter the food chain despite being banned. This happens regularly throughout Croatia because of the Pest Suppression Programme.

Approvals in the EU. To check the EU status of the active substances in 'plant protection' products, you should refer to the EU Pesticides Database ('Search Active substances, safeners and synergists'). Each entry includes links to the latest legislation relating to the listed pesticides. On the page 'Active substances, safeners and synergists' enter the name of the plant protection substance you are interested in into the box marked 'Filter results': the main details of approval or otherwise will appear underneath the box.

Please note that the URL (internet link) for the EU database is changed every so often: if the link from this article does not work, you should be able to access the database by using your search engine and typing in EU Pesticides Database.

The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) records approvals of biocidal active substances and products. Its website is the primary source of information about the laws governing biocidal pesticides and their approval processes. You can check its list of substances which are approved, banned or under review on the ECHA website page: mouse over Information on chemicals' in the header; then click on 'Biocidal active substances', under 'BPR' in the submenu; click on 'biocidal active substances' under the heading 'Information on biocides'; click 'search' in the next field, and type the name of the substance in the box marked 'Substance name', click the 'search' button below right; the substance, if identified, will come up as a special listing at the bottom of the page. It will show one or more versions of the substance, giving various details, including approval status; to the right of the entry is a box linking to authorized products based on the active substance; second from right is an 'eye' symbol which opens up the factsheet about the substance..

Note: the names under which pesticide products are marketed in Croatia may not appear on the EU/ECHA listings. The EU and ECHA listings of approved substances do not always agree.

Approvals in Croatia.

'Plant Protection Products' The Croatian Phytosanitary Institution - Fitosanitarni informacijski sustav (FIS) lists the 'plant protection' pesticides approved for use in the Republic of Croatia. It used to have a separate listing of products whose approval has been withdrawn, but that no longer exists in 2021. There are two further sources of information about pesticides in Croatia: 'Agroklub' and 'Agrobase Croatia'. Note: the three Croatian sources sometimes offer conflicting information about approved and banned pesticides.

The search page of the Croatian Ministry of Agriculture's Phytosanitary Information Institution (FIS), which carries the list of approved 'plant protection' pesticides in Croatia, is in English, but details of the pesticides come up in Croatian.

To use the search page, click on 'Pesticide' under 'Search engine', then type in the name of the product in the box labelled Trade Name of 'Plant Protection Product'; if it is registered for use in Croatia, it will appear as a pop-up under the Trade Name box; there may be different varieties of the product using the same name, so you can click on the one you want to enter it into the Trade Name box; then click on the 'search' button at the bottom of the page (if you leave the general name in the box, any varieties will be shown when you have clicked on the search button); click on the product as shown under the search button to find all its details. If no product shows up from the search, it means it is not approved.

To check on registered active ingredients of pesticide products, click on 'Pesticide', then enter the name of the substance in the box 'Active substance included' (do not enter a product name). The search will reveal any products in the FIS listing which contain the chosen substance. Products which are still isted, but whose registration has been withdrawn are highlighted in grey. Click on the number next to a product to see its details. Once the product page is open, any other products containing the same active ingredient will be listed at the right side of the page, making it easy to check through the products one after the other without having to return to the search engine page.

Biocides. In 2016, the Croatian Ministry of Health (MIZ) issued a list of biocidal pesticides which were allowed to be released in the Croatian market up to September 1st 2015 (NN 15/2016, link in Croatian). The Ministry of Health still controls the register of biocidal pesticides allowed in the Croatian market. Applications to be included in the Register of products which can be marketed in Croatia are made to the Minsitry of Health (link in Croatian).

The Ministry of Health's list consists of a spreadsheet, not a database. It is updated at intervals, but it is not always clear whether particular products are still authorized. The August 2022 version carries a warning in red letters at the top of the document that in some cases inclusion in the list is invalid, if all the conditions of approval have not been met. This is confusing. For instance, the 2021 list included some products whose active ingredients were not approved by the ECHA, such as Muhomor AZ (758 on the Ministry list), whose active ingredient Azamethiphos is banned by both the EU and the ECHA;  Neopitroid Premium Plus (2781), which contains Prallethrin, a substance still under review by the ECHA as at May 2023, and Permex 22E (869), which contains Tetramethrin, also still under review as at the beginning of 2023. Another source of confusion arises when a product is sold with different formulations under the same name, such as the insecticide QuickBayt (932), which in August 2022 was approved with the active ingredient imidacloprid, while the version containing imidacloprid combined with tricosene (musculare), QuickBayt®, was not authorized. The August 2022 list contained some products without details of their approval date, such as Sprej Despar protiv muha i mrava (1088), active ingredients d-phenothrin, d-allethrin and tetramethrin.e

Note: after August 2022, the list of products on the Ministry of Health website was not updated until after February 2024.

Biocides are regularly sprayed over large areas of Croatia including land used for crop cultivation as part of the Pest Control Programme, giving rise to the risk that banned substances will enter the food chain (see our article 'Poisoning Paradise - a Wake-Up Call' for a description of the problems).

Residues in the food chain. Residues of 'plant protection' and biocidal products are allowed to some degree in the food chain, although 'safe' levels are set mainly according to tests on single substances, whereas the majority of pesticide products consist of more than one active poison. No conclusive testing has ever been done to ascertain the dangers of cocktails of poisons from all sources in the food chain. (See the section  'Maximum Residual Levels' in our article 'Pesticides, Laws and Permits' for further details).

Note: in our text, DDD (which stands for 'Dezinfekcija, dezinsekcija, deratizacija') refers to the Croatian National Pest Control Programme, which is carried out continuously throughout the country. In our overview of active substances and related products, the MIZ and FIS entries are given with the numbers as they appear on the listings.

For an alphabetical listing of pesticide products commonly used in the country, please refer to our article Pesticide Products in Croatia.

Insects are a vital part of the natural chain. Photo: Vivian Grisogono

PART 2: PESTICIDES, ACTIVE INGREDIENTS

1. INSECTICIDES. - ECHA APPROVAL CODE PT18 (Insecticides, acaricides, products to control other arthropods)
 
4,4'-DDD, (p,p'-DDD) Organochlorine insecticide. Metabolite of insecticide DDT; component of commercial mixtures of DDT. Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane
Possible adverse effects: Very toxic to aquatic life, the aquatic environment, also with long-lasting effects. In humans: suspected carcinogen, endocrine disruptor; highly toxic if swallowed or inhaled; can cause reproduction and developmental effects, neurotoxicant; respirqatory tract irritant; toxic in contact with skin; skin irritant; chronic exposure may cause atrophy of the adrenal cortex and liver damage; may cause symptoms including anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dermatitis, apathy from mild dulling of interest to profound psychotic depression, gynecomastia, hematuria, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and lassitude
EU / ECHA (July 2023) 4,4'-DDD not approved
DDT legislation, bans. DDT was banned in the United States in 1972. Its use in agriculture was partially banned in the EU in December 1978, with a total ban in March 1983. The Stockholm Convention, signed on May 22nd 2001 entered into force on May 17th 2004, and committed the signatories to banning or limiting the use of Persistent Organic Pollutants, including DDT; however, limited use against malaria was still allowed, with a register available to the public of signatories who produce and / or use DDT.Sources:
PubChem 2004/2023 p.p'DDD
Pesticide Properties Database DDD 2023
HVAR 2023: Chemical analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory of hair samples revealed the presence of 4,4'-DDD in the following people:
1. female (b. 1964) living in Vrisnik, sample taken on 15/06/2023, analysed on 17/07/2023.
2. male (b. 1964) living in Hvar., sample taken on 17/06/2023, analysed on 17/07/2023.
 
4,4-DDE (p.p'-DDE) Organochlorine pesticide; metabolite
Chemical transformation product formed by the dehydrhalogenation of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane). 4,4-DDE has insecticidal properties but no significant commercial applications.
Possible adverse effects: Very persistent in soil, high bioconcentration; highly toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates, In humans: possible carcinogen, endocrine disruptor; highly toxic if swallowed or inhaled; can cause reproduction and developmental effects, neurotoxicant; toxic in contact with skin; skin irritant.
EU / ECHA (July 2023) 4,4'-DDE not approved
DDT legislation, bans. DDT was banned in the United States in 1972. Its use in agriculture was partially banned in the EU in December 1978, with a total ban in March 1983. The Stockholm Convention, signed on May 22nd 2001 entered into force on May 17th 2004, and committed the signatories to banning or limiting the use of Persistent Organic Pollutants, including DDT; however, limited use against malaria was still allowed, with a register available to the public of signatories who produce and / or use DDT.
Sources: - PubChem 2023, p.p'-DDE
- International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, Pesticide Properties DataBase, 2022. DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, DDT dehydrochloride, p.p'-DDE)
- US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2022. ToxGuide TM for DDT, DDE, and DDD.
- US Environmental Protection Agency, 2022. DDT - A Brief History and Status.
- US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2021. DDT, DDE, DDD
- Environmental Protection Agency (USA), 2000, DDE
HVAR 2022: A Pitve female resident (b. 1948) tested positive for 4,4-DDE in a chemical analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory: hair sample taken on 24/11/2022, tested on 08/12/2022.
HVAR 2023: Chemical analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory of a hair sample taken on 15/06/2023, analysed on 17/07/2023 revealed the presence of 4.4'dde in a female living in Vrisnik.
HVAR 2023: Analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory of a hair sample taken on 22/12/2023, analysed on 08/01/2024 revealed the presence of 4,4-DDE in a female (b. 1982) living in Jelsa.
 
ABAMECTIN (See Emamectin) Combination of Avermectin B1a & B1b, growth regulator, insecticide, miticide, nematicide, derived from soil bacterium Streptomyces avermitilis.
Possible adverse effects: extremely toxic to bees, birds; highly toxic to aquatic life: fish, invertebrates, plants, algae and sediment dwelling organisms; toxic to earthworms; highly toxic to humans through skin contact, inhalation or ingestion: can cause problems for reproduction, impairing male fertility; neurological damage including tremors and ataxia; respiratory failure; skin and eye irritation.
EU February 2024 Abamectin approved 01/05/2009 - 31/03/2038. ECHA: Approved PT18 01/07/2013 - 30/06/2023, approval expired.
Approvals: ECHA February 2024.: 1 authorization  [February 2023, 20 authorizations]. Croatia FIS, February 2024, 4 approved products (708) Vertimec O18EC approved 12/06/2006.- 30/04/2024, registration expiring, last sales date 31/10/2024, last usage date 31/10/2025; (970) Vertimec Pro approved 18/05/2016.-30/04/2024, registration expiring, last sales date 31/10/2024, last usage date 31/10/2025 ; (365) Kraft 18EC approved 31/01/2007 - 31/12/2023; (1091) Apache approved 13/07/2017-30/04/2024; (1272) Voliam Targo (abamectin, chlorantraniliprol) approved 26/02/2020-30/04/2024, registration expiring, last sales date 31/10/2024, last usage date 31/10/2025. MIZ: (August 2022): no approved products based on Abamectin, Emamectin or Avermectin listed.
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. 2023. Abamectin
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2023. Abamectin
- University of California, Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program. Abamectin
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Vertimec 018EC and Kraft 18EC (10.05.2019, 19.06.2019)
2022: Vertimec 018EC used on the palms in the Jelsa Council region.
 
ACETAMIPRID. Neonicotinoid
Possible adverse effects: Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment; highly toxic to honeybees if mixed with piperonyl butoxide or propiconazole; harmful for populations of pollinating insects; harmful to birds and earthworms; dangerous for the environment; in humans:- toxic if swallowed; can be fatal if inhaled; skin irritant
EU February 2024: Acetamiprid approved 01/03/2018 - 28/02/2033.ECHA: Approved, PT18, 01/02/2020 - 31/01/2027.
Products: Mospilan 20SP, Mospilan 20SG, Acelan 20SP; Volley; Wizzaard; Macho 60FS.
Product approvals: ECHA FDebruary 2024, 1 authorization. Croatia FIS February 2024: 2 approved products: (777) Mospilan 20SG approved 07/10/2015-30/04/2025. (920) Mospilan 20SP approved 30/10/2015-30/04/2025. MIZ: (August 2022): 11 acetamiprid products listed: Forth mamac za mrave approved  24/03/2017; Muholov approved 20/12/2018; Strike insekcticid protiv mrava approved 28/12/2016; Strike insekticidna naljepnica protiv muha approved 30/03/2017; Strike mamac za mrave approved 21/10/2016; Strike univerzalni insekticid approved 28/12/2016; Strike univerzalni insekticid koncentrat approved 16/2/2017; Lexan 83SG approved 17/03/2010: Moschina approved 05/02/2010; Sugarkill Gold approved 17/03/2010; Mospilan 20SG, Mospilan 20SP, Acelan 20SPVolleyWizzaardMacho 60FS not approved
Sources: - Iwasa, T., Motoyama, N., Ambrose, J.T., Roe, R.M. 2004. Mechanism for the differential toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticides in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Crop Protection 23: 371-378
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. 2023. Acetamiprid
- Cayman Chemical 2018. Safety Data Sheet: Acetamiprid
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2023. Acetamiprid
USED ON HVAR: Mospilan used by vegetable-growers (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Mospilan 20 SP (24.05.2019, 14.06.2019, 19.06.2019, 26.06.2019).
 
ALLETHRIN, d-ALLETHRIN, d-TRANS ALLETHRIN (Esbiothrin)PRALLETHRIN,  Synthetic pyrethroids
Possible adverse effects: Very toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; toxic to honey-bees and earthworms; moderately toxic to birds; harmful to humans if swallowed or inhaled.
EU February 2024 : Allethrin, Bioallethrin (trans-Allethrin) not approved; d-Trans-Allethrin, d-Allethrin, Prallethrin not listed.. ECHA: Allethrin, trans-Allethrin (bioallethrin) not listed, d-Trans Allethrin (Esbiothrin) not approved; d-Allethrin not approved; Prallethrin under evaluation as at February 2024.. Croatia FIS: not approved. 
Products: Neopitroid Premium (allethrin, permethrin and piperonyl butoxide); Neopitroid Premium Plus (permethrin, prallethrin with piperonyl butoxide); Neopitroid EC100, (prallethrin, cypermethrin); Unitox aerosol protiv muha i komaraca, (allethrin with deltamethrin & piperonyl butoxide);
Product approvals: EU, ECHA, Croatia FIS: February 2024, No approved products  MIZ: (August 2022): c. 69 products containing Prallethrin listed: 1243 Biokill Extra (prallethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin), approved 24/06/2014; 1383 Raid sprej protiv gmuzećih insekata (prallethrin, IR-trans phenothrin), approved 10/06/2015; 1384 Raid sprej protiv muha i komaraca (prallethrin, IR-trans phenothrin), approved 10/06/2015; 1397 Bengal spirale (prallethrin), approved 19/06/2015; 1398 Bengal tekućina (prallethrin), approved 19/06/2015; 1399 Bengal tablete (prallethrin), approved 23/06/2015; 1752 Bado ose i stršljene (prallethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 21/04 /2022; 1769 Bengal sprej protiv svih insekata (prallethrin), approved 08/05/2017; 1780 Bio Kill Extra micro-fast (prallethrin), approved 05/09/2017; 1781 Bio Kill Extra Micro-Fast (prallethrin), approved 28/09/2017; 1819 Biosekt univerzalni insekticid (prallethrin, permethrin), approved 16/02/2022; 1872 Bombex ® Farumy ® (prallethrin), approved 31/05/2016; 1892 Bros električni aparat + tablete protiv komaraca II (prallethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 27/09/2018; 1893 Bros električni aparat + tekućina protiv komaraca za djecu (prallethrin), approved 24/01/2018; 1894 Bros električni aparat + tekućina protiv komaraca / tekućina protiv komaraca za električni aparat 1, (prallethrin), approved 01/02/2018; 1901 Bros Spirale protiv komaraca i mušica I (prallethrin), approved 27/09/2016; 1904 BROS Sprej protiv osa i stršljena I (prallethrin, piperonyl butoxide) approved 07/01/2020; 1915 Bugster EC (prallethrin, cypermethrin), approved 18/02/2019; 1985 CleanKill Extra Micro-Fast (prallethrin), approved 18/02/2021; 1986 Clean Kill Original Plus (prallethrin), approved 18/02/2021; 2059 Cyparbio caps (prallethrin, cypermethrin), approved 04/03/2019; 2133 Despar Električni uređaj i tekući refil za zaštitu od komaraca i muha (prallethrin), approved 28/04/2022; 2135 Despar tablete za zaštitu od komaraca i tigrastih komaraca u kućanstvu (prallethrin), approved 23/03/2022; 2136 Despar Tekući refil za el. uređaj za zaštitu od komaraca i muha (prallethrin), approved 23/03/2022; 2265 Effect Microtech CS PRO (prallethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 01/07/2020; 2269 Effect Protect Uložak za el. isparivač protiv komaraca (prallethrin), approved 25/03/2020; 2331 Forth Uložak za el isparivač protiv komaraca (prallethrin), approved 13/05/2016; 2342 Fulmin protiv komaraca (prallethrin), approved 01/04/2021; 2384 Good Night Mosquito Coil - spirala protiv komaraca (prallethrin), approved 06/05/2020; 2557 Killtox tablete za el. aparat protiv komaraca (prallethrin), approved 03/06/2016; 2558 Killtox tekućina za električni aparat protiv komaraca (prallethrin), approved 03/06/2016; 2774 Neo Alfa + Turbo (prallethrin, cypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 09/02/2022; 2778 Neopitroid EC 100 (prallethrin, cypermethrin), approved 06/05/2019; 2781 Neopitroid Premium Plus (prallethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 29/06/2022; 2805 Nooze liquido antizanzare plus (prallethrin), approved 19/07/2019; 2806 Nooze spirali antizanzare plus (prallethrin), approved 05/12/2019; 2842 Orphea spirala protiv komaraca (prallethrin), approved 31/01/2022; 2905 Phobi Aurodil Super PB+ (prallethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 09/02/2022; 2922 Pitroid tablete protiv komaraca (prallethrin), approved 08/09/2016; 2923 Pitroid spirale citronella (prallethrin), approved 02/01/2027; 2924 Pitroid spirale neutral (prallethrin), approved 08/09/2016; 2925 Pitroid tekuće punjenje (prallethrin), approved 02/01/2017; 3019 Raid spirale protiv komaraca (prallethrin), approved 17/12/2015; 3022 Raid sprej protiv muha i komaraca, miris cvijeta naranče (prallethrin), approved 29/09/2017; 3023 Raid sprej protiv muha i komaraca, miris eukaliptisa (prallethrin), approved 12/01/2016; 3025 Raid tekućina za el. aparatić, miris cvijeta naranče (prallethrin), approved 31/01/2018; 3026 Raid tekućina za el. aparatić, miris eukaliptisa (prallethrin), approved 04/01/2016; 3027 Raid tekućina za el. aparatić, miris lavande (prallethrin), approved 02/01/2017; 3028 Raid tekućina za el. aparatić, miris ruže i sandalovine (prallethrin), approved 18/06/2020; 3029 Raid® sprej za ose i stršljene (prallethrin), approved 07/02/2022; 3318 Strike spirale protiv komaraca (prallethrin), approved 30/03/2017; 3350 Tekućina za komarce - Fumisect (prallethrin), approved 18/06/2020; 3427 Universal Pitroid (prallethrin, cyclopropane carboxylate), approved 26/05/2020; 138 Bayer Garden tekućina za aparat protiv komaraca (prallethrin), approved 28/09/2011; 139 Bayer Garden ulošci za aparat protiv komaraca (prallethrin), approved 28/09/2011; 156 Bio Kill Extra (prallethrin, lamba-cyhalothrin), approved 04/02/2014; 225 BROS el aparat + tekućina protiv komaraca / BROS tekućina protiv komaraca (prallethrin), approved 05/02/2011; 226 BROS el aparat + tekućina protiv komaraca za djecu stariju od jedne godine (prallethrin), approved 28/09/2013; 235 BROS sprej protiv moljaca (prallethrin, d-phenothrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 26/07/2012; 236 BROS sprej protiv muha i komaraca (prallethrin, d-phenothrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 25/07/2012; 498 Fulmine tablete protiv komaraca (prallethrin), approved 20/02/2012; 679 Laminirane tablete K plus ZAZ protiv muha i komaraca 30/1 (prallethrin), approved 21/03/2014; 711 Mercator el. isparivač protiv kom. s uloškom / Mercator uložak za el. isparivač protiv komaraca (prallethrin), approved 16/07/2012; 950 Raid Silver tekućina za elaparat (prallethrin), approved 19/03/2010; 958 Refill Despar tekući za el. aparat za 45 noći (prallethrin), approved 21/05/2014; 1081 Spirala K Plus ZAZ protiv kom. 10/1 (prallethrin), approved 21/03/2014; 1117 Sting (prallethrin, permethrin), approved 09/12/2010; 1140 Tablete Despar protiv komaraca 30 kom (prallethrin), approved 21/05/2014; 1155 Tekuće punjenje plus ZAZ protiv komaraca i malih insekata (prallethrin), approved 21/03 /2014.
d-Allethrin: 14 products listed; 2425 Hit flying insect killer (d-allethrin), approved 29/04/2020; 227 BROS Fenjer protiv komaraca / BROS tablete za fenjer protiv komaraca (d-allethrin, piperonyl butoxide) 03/10/2012; 237 BROS štapići protiv komaraca (d-allethrin), approved 15/12/2011; 497 Fulmine spirale protiv komaraca (d-allethrin), approved 20/02/2012; 878 Pitroid spirale citronella (d-allethrin), approved 12/06/2009; 879 Pitroid spirale citronella neutral (d-allethrin), approved 12/06/2009; 944 Raid laminirane tablete za el. aparat (d-allethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 14/07/2010; 951 Raid spirale protiv komaraca new (d-allethrin), approved 14/07/2010; 1082 Spirale Despar protiv komaraca (d-allethrin), approved 21/05/2014; 1083 Spirale Despar protiv komaraca 10/1 citronella (d-allethrin), approved 21/05/2014; 1087 Sprej Despar protiv muha i komaraca (d-allethrin, d-phenothrin), approved 21/05/2014; 1088 Sprej Despar protiv muha i komaraca (d-allethrin, d-tetramethrin), no approval date; 1089 Sprej despar protiv žohara i mrava (d-allethrin, d-phenothrin), approved 21/05/2014; 1090 Sprej Despar protiv žohara i mrava (d-allethrin, d-phenothrin, d-tetramethrin), no approval date. trans-Allethrin, d-trans Allethrin: 4 products listed: 140 Baygon el.aparatić s tabletama (d-cis trans allethrin), approved 02/11/2011; 668 Komtoks (bioallethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 10/07/2013; 945 Raid lanterna punjenje za svjetiljku protiv komaraca (d-cis trans allethrin), approved 14/07/2010; 952 Raid sprej muhe i komarci (d-cis, trans allethrin), approved 10/10/2011.
Allethrin: one, 1186. Unitox aerosol protiv muha i komaraca listed (allethrin, deltamethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 30/12/2013. Neopitroid Premium approved July 2011, banned 2022.
Sources:
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. 2023. Allethrin
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database, 2023: Allethrin
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database 2006/2023. Prallethrin
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2007 / 2023. Bioallerthrin (Esbiothrin, Trans-Allethrin)
USED ON HVAR: 2018. Neopitroid Premium was used for insect suppression in the Sućuraj area on July 3rd and August 11th 2018.
USED IN NORTHERN CROATIA: DDD programme, Neopitroid Premium was used, for instance, for aerial spraying in the Vukovar-Srijem County (2014) and Osijek-Baranja County (2019); fogging actions in Velika Gorica and Glina (2021).
HVAR 2022. Neopitroid Premium was used for blanket insect spraying around the Jelsa Municipality on July 27th 2022.
HVAR 2022A Pitve female resident (b. 1948) tested positive for Allethrin in a chemical analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory: hair sample taken on 24/11/2022, tested on 08/12/2022.
HVAR 2023A Jelsa female resident (b. 1987) tested positive for Allethrin in a chemical analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory: hair sample taken on 06/11/2023, tested on 01/12/2023.
HVAR 2023. Neopitroid Premium was used for blanket insect spraying around the Jelsa Municipality on June 19th 2023.
HVAR 2023. Neopitroid Premium Plus was used for blanket insect spraying around the Jelsa Municipality on July 18th and August 21st 2023.
 
ALPHA-CYPERMETHRIN (ALPHAMETHRIN). Synthetic pyrethroid.
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to fish, most aquatic organisms and honeybees; extremely toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects; toxic to earthworms; possible human carcinogen; can cause organ damage, respiratory irritation, irreversible eye damage; serious water pollutant.
EU February 2024: alpha-cypermethrin, (also beta-cypermethrin, zeta-cypermethrin) not approvedECHA February 2024: alpha-cypermethrin (αCypermethrin) approved, PT18, 01/07/2016 - 30/06/2026; beta-cypermethrin, zeta-cypermethrin not approved
Alpha-cypermethrin products: Fastac 10 EC, Neopitroid Alfa, Antec, Contest, Fendona, Littac, Tenopa.
Product approvals: ECHA February 2024: αCypermethrin 15 authorizations.
Croatia FIS February 2024: No approved products. Fastac 10EC, Fastac 10SC; Neopitroid Alfa, Antec, Contest, Fendona, Littac, Tenopa not approved. MIZ: (August 2022), 1 product listed: (1297) Alfasect, approved 27/12/2014.
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. 2023. Alpha-cypermethrin.
- El Okda, E-S., Abdel-Hamid, M. A-A., Hamdy, A.M. 2017. Immunological and genotoxic effects of occupational exposure to alpha-cypermethrin pesticide. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health. Vol 30 (4) 603-615.
- Bej, S., Mukherjee, D., Saha, N.C. 2015. Acute toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin to oligochaete worm, Branchiura sowerbyi (Beddard 1982) along with their behavioural reJune 2023sponses. International Journal of Scientific Research. 1:12, 325- 326.
- Wast, N., Gupta, A.K., Prakash, M.M., Gaherwal, S. 2014. Toxic Effect of Alphamethrin 10 EC on Freshwater Fish, Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1859). World Applied Sciences Journal 30 (6): 782-786.
- Kemabonta, K., Akinhanmi, F.O. 2013. Toxicological Effects of Chlorpyrifos, Dichlorvos and Alpha Cypermethrin on Adult Albino Mice, Mus Musculus. Production, Agriculture and Technology. 9 (2): 1-17.
- Sarikaya, R., 2009. Investigation of Acute Toxicity of Alpha-Cypermethrin on Adult Nile Tilapia (Oreochromos niloticus L.). Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 9: 85-89
USED ON HVAR: Fastac EC has been used against fruit fly, especially in olive groves, by many individual agriculturalists. (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Fastac 10EC (14.06.2019, 19.06.2019)
HVAR 2022. Neopitroid Alfa was used for blanket insect spraying around the Jelsa Municipality on June 28th 2022.
 
ALUMINIUM PHOSPHIDE insecticide, acaricide, rodenticide, fumigant
Possible adverse effects: Highly damaging to the environment, especially the aquatic environment; highly inflammable: in contact with water releases gases capable of spontaneous combustion; extremely toxic to humans, can be fatal if swallowed or inhaled; harmful through skin contact; can cause serious eye damage; damages the nervous system, causing delirium, coma and loss of consciousness; can cause cardiovascular disturbances (including dysrhythmia, transient atrial fibrillation, left ventricular failure); if ingested, can cause abdominal pain, vomiting, severe thirst and renal failure.
EU February 2024:  Aluminium Phosphide approved 01/09/2009-30.11.2026; ECHA February 2024: Aluminium Phosphide approved PT14 rodenticides 01/09/2011-31/07/2024; approved PT18 (insecticides, acaricides and products to control other arthropods) 01/02/2012-31/07/2024; approved PT20 (control of other vertebrates) 01/07/2015-30/06/2025.(renewal applications in progress for all categories).
Approved products: ECHA, February 2024: PT14 10 product approvals; PT18 3 product approvals; PT20 1 product approval;  Croatia FIS, February 2024, 7 approved products (all listed as insecticides): 491 Phostoxin kuglice  approved 15/09/2005-31/12/2028; 492 Phostoxin pelete approved 20/06/2005-31/12/2028; 493 Phostoxin tablete  approved 30/08/2005-31/12/2028; 1343 Gastoxin Pellet approved 16/02/2021-31/08/2028; 1529 Quickphos 3G Tablets approved 08/03/2023-31/08/2024; 1564 Quickphos 0.6 G pellets approved 03/05/2023-31/08/2024; 1587, Qickphos Bags approved 08/08/2023-31/08/2024.. MIZ (August 2022) no approved products    
- PubChem 2023: Aluminium Phosphide
- Gurjar, M., Baronia, A.K., Azim, A., Sharma, K. 2011. Managing aluminium phosphide poisonings. Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock, 4 (3): 378-384 (Jul-Sept 2011), 82 references
- Sedaghattalab, M. 2022. Treatment of critical aluminium phosphide (rice tablet) poisoning with high-dose insulin: a case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports. 16, article number 192 (2022), 10 references
 
AQUATAIN AMF. Silicone-based liquid larvicide (film over the surface of standing water causes pupae and larvae to suffocate)
Possible adverse effects: can damage non-target organisms which depend on the water surface for respiration and movement.
EU: European Commission exempted Aquatain from registration due to its mode of action.
USED ON HVAR: DDD programme, 2017 Stari Grad region 9 litres, 23-25 May; Jelsa region 16 litres, 19-22 May 2017.
 
AVERMECTIN (see Abamectin)
 
AZAMETHIPHOS. Organophosphate, designed for use on target areas, not for spraying in the air; mainly used against flies in enclosed spaces, on horses, cattle, pigs and chickens.
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; toxic to birds; acutely toxic to humans if swallowed or inhaled; can cause headache, weakness, nervousness, sweating, vomiting and difficulty swallowing. Exposure to extremely high levels may result in muscular twitching, eye pain, slurred speech, colic, hyper-salivation, heart complaints, breathing difficulties, convulsions and unconsciousness; also causes eye and skin irritation on contact
EU / ECHA February 2024: Azamethiphos not approved.
Products: Muhomor; Desintec NeoEx, Twenty 1 WP, Aeroxon sredsvto protiv muha (leptir i bubamare), BROS naljepnica protiv muha
Product approvals: ECHA February 2024: no approved products. Croatia FIS February 2024: No approved products. Muhomor not approved  MIZ: (August 2022) , 10 Azamethiphos products approved: 26. Aeroxon sredsvto protiv muha approved 05/11/2012. 231 BROS naljepnica protiv muha approved 27/12/2012; 484. Fly Select, approved 03/07/2013; 758. Muhomor AZ, approved 25th May 2014; 1184. Twenty 1 WP approved 21/04/2011; 1277. S-Budget ljepjiva traka za muhe, approved 09/10/2014; 1281 LD 100 A, approved 13/10/2014; 1608. Alphi / Twenty i WP, approved 10/04/2019; 2129. Desintec NeoEx approved 07/02/2017; 2130 Desintec NeoEx 10%, approved 07/02/2017.,  
Sources: - Pub Chem Open Chemistry Database: 2023. Azamethiphos
- European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products 1999. Azamethiphos, Summary Report.
- Scottish Environment Protection Agency. Azamethiphos. Scottish Pollutant Release Directory.
- University of Hertfordshire. Azamethiphos. Veterinary Substances Database.
- Pesticides Action Network (PAN) Europe. 2006. What substances are banned and authorized in the EU market?
- Muhomor. 2017. Muhomor je insekticid topiv u vodi. Djelatna tvar: Azametifos u koncentraciji 10%. Genera, Jedna kompanija za Jedno zdravlje.
USED ON HVAR Muhomor used against flies around rubbish bins and rubbish dumps 2017: Hvar Town and surrounds, (with Microfly) 20th June, (with Microfly) 13th July, 11th August heat-spray fogging in rubbish dumps; 28th September, 12th October fogging in rubbish dumps. Total quantity 40.5 kg; Stari Grad and surrounds, Muhomor 33 kg, Jelsa Council area 31.5 kg, May, July, August, September 2017. 2018: around Hvar Town, 25th July, 16th August, 4th September - total quantity 9 kg.
Organophosphates were not approved under the Insect Control Programme of Measures and Implementation Plans issued by the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute in 2017 and 2018, yet Muhomor was used on Hvar in both years, also in 2019.
 
BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS subsp. ISRAELENSIS (Bti);  BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS subsp. kurstaki. Soil bacterium.
Possible adverse effects: can interfere with reproduction in birds; can cause eye and skin irritation in humans and animals; may disturb essential wetland organisms; long-term use perhaps causes loss of biodiversity in the environment.
EU February 2024: Bt subsp. israelensis Serotype H14, strain AM65-52 approved 01/05/2009 - 30/06/2038; Bt subsp. kurstaki, strain ABTS-351, Bt subsp. kurstaki, strain EG2348, Bt subsp. kurstaki, strain PB54, Bt subsp. kurstaki, strain SA11, Bt subsp. kurstaki, strain SA12, all approved 01/05/2009-30/06/2038. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain QST 713 approved 01/02/2007-30/06/2038; Bacillus amyloliquefaciens AH2 approved 27/09/2021-27/09/2036; Bacillus amyloliquefaciens IT45 approved 27/02/2022-27/02/2037; Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24 approved 01/06/2017-01/06/2032; Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum D747 approved 01/04/2015-31/03/2025; Bacillus firmus l-1582 approved 01/10/2013-30/09/2023 - approval expired; Bacillus pumius QST 2808 approved 01/09/2014-31/08/2024; Bacillus subtilis strain IAB/B503 approved 20/10/2019-20/10/2034; Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Aizawai strain ABTS-1857 approved 01/05/2009-30/06/2038; Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Aizawai strain GC-91 approved 01/05/2009-15/08/2024. Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Tenebrionis strain NB 176 (TM 14 1) and delta entoxin of Bacillus thuringiensis not approvedECHA PT18 February 2024: Bt subsp. israelensis Serotype H14, strain AM65-52 approved, PT18 01/10/2013 - 31/03/2026; Bt subsp. israelensis, strain SA3A approved 01/07/2016 - 30/06/2026; Bt subsp. kurstaki, strain ABTS-351 approved 01/03/2017 - 28/02/2027. Bacillus sphaericus 2362 strain ABTS-1743 approved 01/07/2016-30/06/2026.  Bacillus sphaericus, Bt subsp. israelensis serotype H14 no longer approved.
Product: Belthirul (previously Baturad WP, Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, SOJ: PB 54)
Product approvals:  ECHA February 2024: Bt subsp. israelensis Serotype H14, strain AM65/52 -11 authorizations; Bt subsp. kurstaki, strain ABTS-351 1 related authorized biocidal product. Bacillus sphaericus 2362 strain ABTS-1743 1 related authorized product. Bt subsp. israelensis, strain SA3A no related authorized biocidal products;
Croatia FIS, February 2024 , 10 approved products: Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, SOJ: ABTS 351, Zbirka kulture br. ATCC SD-1275 3 products (78) Biobit WP 16/08/2001-31/12/2028; (267) Foray 48 B 25/05/2006-31/12/2028; (1314) Dipel DF 23/09/2020-30/04/2024; Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, SOJ: PB 54, Zbirka kulture: br. CECT 7209 1 product, (58) Belthirul (Baturad) approved 03/12/2004.-30/04/2029; Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki, SOJ: EG 2348, Zbirka kulture: br. NRRL B-18208 1 product, (1309) Lepinox Plus 10/08/2020-30/04/2024.Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (previously subtilis) soj QST 713 (1280) Serenade ASO approved 01/04/2020-30/04/2024; Bacillus pumilus soj QST 2808 (1281) Sonata approved 02/04/2020-31/08/2025; Bacillus amyloliquefaciens soj FZB24 (1429) Taegro approved 15/12/2021-30/06/2033; Bacillus amyloliquefaciens soj MBI 600 (1553) Serifel approved 29/03/2023-16/09/2027. Bacillus subtilis soj IAB/BSO3 (1566) Fungisei approved 05/05/2023-20/10/2035. MIZ: August 2022: No approved products, Baturad not approved
Sources: - Washington State Department of Health. Mosquito Larvicide - Bti.
- Siegel, J.P., Shadduck, J.A. 1990. Mammalian Safety of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis. in: de Barjac, H., Sutherland, D.J. eds, Bacterial Control of Mosquitoes and Blackflies. pub. Unwin Hymen, London, pp. 202- 2017 
- Lacey, L.A., Merritt, R.W. c.2001. The Safety of Bacterial Microbial Agents Used for Control of Blackfly and Mosquito Control in Aquatic Environments. (PDF document. Authors affiliated to USA Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory and Michigan State University respectively.)
- Poulin, B., Lefebre, G., Paz, L., 2010. Red flag for green spray: adverse trophic effects of Bti on breeding birds. Journal of Applied Ecology. Vol.47, Issue 4, 884-889.
- Maletz, S., Wollenweber, M., Kubiak, K., Müller, A., Schmitz, S., Maier, D., Hecker, M., Hollert, H.. 2015. Investigation of potential endocrine disrupting effects of mosquito larvicidal Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) formulations. The science of the total environment. Vol.536, 729-738.
USED ON HVAR: 2017: 22nd September, 2018: 19th September, Baturad was used on 3 hectares of woodland around the Hvar Town region against the Pine Processionary Moth caterpillars, quantity 600 litres each time.
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Baturad WP (14.06.2019)
2019: Baturad (or Decis or Imidan or Rogor) recommended by a well-respected Hvar olive oil producer, to be used in May and June against olive moth (prays oleae, Croatian: maslinin moljac)
 
CARBARYL. Carbamate
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to mammals, aquatic invertebrates, aquatic crustaceans, bees, earthworms. Can be fatal in humans; possible carcinogen and endocrine disruptor; possibly damaging for reproduction and development; can cause cholinesterase inhibition, blurred vision, tears, headaches, memory loss, rhinorrhoea (discharge of thin nasal mucus), salivation; sweating, muscle weakness, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea; tremors, cyanosis, convulsions and skin irritation.
EU, ECHA February 2024: Carbaryl not approved
Product: Sevin. (Combined with limacide Metaldehyde in Lily Miller Slug, Snail and Insect Killer Bait, and for Ortho Bug-Geta Plus.) 
Product approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024 No approved products. MIZ (August 2022): No approved products. Sevin not approved
Sources: - ECHA. Carbaryl Substance Infocard- University of Hertfordshire PPDB, 2023. Carbaryl.
- University of Hertfordshire PPDB, 2023. Carbaryl.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2023. Carbaryl.
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2016. Carbaryl Factsheet.
WAS USED LONG-TERM IN CROATIA, especially for fruit thinning, applied two to three weeks after full flowering of the trees. (Refs: Radivojević et al. 2011. Effect of chemical and hand thinning young apple tree on yield and fruit quality. Proceedings, 46th Croatian and 6th International Symposium on Agriculture, Opatija Croatia, pp 1044-1047. Croatian Agriculture Ministry, article in Croatian). However, it is no longer authorized for this use in Croatia.
 
CHLORPYRIFOS. Organophosphate.
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to honeybees, birds, fish, aquatic organisms; moderately toxic to earthworms, algae and aquatic plants; in humans can cause nausea, dizziness, confusion, and respiratory paralysis and death; causes neurodevelopmental defects in children; can harm mother and foetus during pregnancy; can cause acute muscle paralysis and weakness, also breathing difficulties, depression, and double vision in humans, dogs and cats; overexposure can cause weakness, ataxia (uncoordinated movements), proprioceptive dysfunctions (disturbed awareness of posture and movements), particularly of the hind legs, and paralysis in animals, including dogs and cats.
EU / ECHA February 2024: Chlorpyrifos not approved. First approved in the EU 01/07/2006.
Products: Pyrinex 48 EC, Pyrinex 250 CS, Dursban E48, Nufos
Product approvals: ECHA/Croatia FIS February 2024: No approved products. [FIS: Pyrinex 48 EC was finally banned in Croatia on 31/01/2019; 16/02/2020, registration was withdrawn from all chlorpyrifos products, including Pyrinex 250 CS, Dursban E48, Nufos, with a final sell-by date of 16/03/2020, final use-by date 16/04/2020.] MIZ (August 2022) no approved products.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency 2016. Revised Human Health Risk Assessment on Chlorpyrifos.
- Earthjustice, Pesticide Action Network et al., January 17th 2017. Comments on EPA Proposal to Revoke Chlorpyrifos Tolerances (EPA-HQ-OPP-2015-0653).
- Lulac (11 Petitioners, environmental NGOs including Pesticide Action Network (PANNA), Farmworker Justice GreenLatinos, Learning Disabilities Association of America, Farmworkers Association of Florida) v. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency,  Complaint July 30th 2007, final judgement decision date April 29th 2021: Chlorpyrifos banned for food uses in the United States, except any which the EPA can find safe for workers and children. (EPA final rule revoking all tolerances for the insecticide chlorpyrifos under the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic ACT was delivered in August 2021.) EPA 02/08/2022. Chlorpyrifos; Final Order Denying Objections, Requests for Hearings, and Requests for a Stay of the August 2021 Tolerance Final Rule (Order effective February 28 2022).
- United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive (HSE) 2016. Changes to Authorisations for Products Containing Chlorpyrifos. (Use restricted to spraying brassica seedlings only, all existing stocks of chlorpyrifos to be destroyed) - Note: original link no longer available, text cited in UK Parliament POST: 'Pesticides and health', by Nicole Kennard and Cristiana Vagnoni, p.11.  (POSTbrief 43, September 2021)
- Eng, M.L., Stutchbury, B.J.M., Morrissey, C.A. 2017. Imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos insecticides impair migratory ability in a seed-eating songbird. Scientific Reports, 7., article no. 15176.
- Junquera, P. article updated 2017. CHLORPYRIFOS: SAFETY SUMMARY for VETERINARY USE in DOGS, CATS, HORSES, CATTLE, SHEEP, GOATS, SWINE and POULTRY. Poisoning, intoxication, overdose, antidote. Parasitipedia.net
- Republic of the Philippines Department of Health, Food and Drug Administration, 18th June 2018. Ban on Chlorpyrifos and Dichlorvos for Use in Household/ Urban Pesticide Products, and Household/ Urban Pesticide Products containing Chlorpyrifos and Dichlorvos as Active Ingredients.  FDA Circular No. 2018-008.
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database. 2023. Chlorpyrifos.
- Health and Environment Alliance (HEAL) August 2018. Chlorpyrifos factsheet (with 40 references)
USED ON HVAR: 2016, Pyrinex 48 EC used on bushes and trees in Jelsa's public park preventively against aphids
 
CYPERMETHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid.
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to cats, bees, earthworms, aquatic insects and fish, highly toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects; toxic to a lesser degree to birds.; in humans, classified as a possible cause of cancer; can cause organ damage, skin numbness or burning, respiratory irritation, loss of bladder control, vomiting, loss of co-ordination, coma, seizures, and death; probable reproduction/developmental toxin.
EU February 2024: Cypermethrin approved 01/02/2022 - 31/01/2029, on condition that it is not used when plants of any kind are in flower (legislation 24/11/2021);  ECHA: Approved, PT18, 01/06/2020 - 31/05/2030
Product approvals: ECHA February 2024: 104 authorizations (PT18); Croatia FIS February 2024: 6 approved products (809) Kofumin 308EC (cypermethrin) approved 07/05/2015- 01/02/2025; (876) Cythrin MAX (cypermethrin) approved 23/06/2015 -01/02/2025; (1364) Columbo 0,8 MG (cypermethrin) 28/05/2021-01/ 02/2025; (1418) Picador 1,6 MG (cypermethrin) 06/12/2021-01/02/2025; (1455) Sherpa 100 EW (cypermethrin) 10/03/2022 - 01/02/2025; (1572) Cypgold (cypermethrin) approved 05/01/2023-01/02/2025. (810) Kofumin 77UL, Cymina Aqua, Cymina 10, Cymina Ultra, Cymina Plus, Cipex, Microfly not approved
MIZ August 2022, c.53 products listed, of which only 15 were based on cypermethrin alone, one on alphacypermethrin and two on cypermethrin cis.trans.
64. Amplat (suspension) (cypermethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide) approved 11/03/2010; 65. Amplat (emulsion) (cypermethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide) 11/09/2009; 91. Aquacip (cypermethrin) 29/03/2010; 92. Cymina 10 (cypermethrin) approved 10/02/2011; 25. Aeroxon prah protiv mrava (cypermethrin) approved 07/06/2013; 218. Bogaclean Flea Fogger (cypermethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide, pyrethrins & pyrethroids, S-metropen) approved 31/12/2013; 232. Bros prašak protiv insekata (cypermethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide) approved 03/11/2011; 241. Bros sprej protiv osa i stršljenova (cypermethrin, permethrin, tetramethrin) approved 16/08/2012; 305. Cit-Spritz - (Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium extract, piperonyl butoxide, cypermethrin cis/trans) approved 08/02/2010; 342. Cymina Ultra (cypermethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide) approved 04/02/2011; 343. Cymina Ultra (cypermethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide) approved 04/02/2011;344. Cyperbase (cypermethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide) approved 24/03/2014; 345. Cypesect Caps (cypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide) approved 27/12/2012; 452. Draker 10.2 (cypermethrin, tetramethrin) approved 05/02/2010; 453. Draker RTU (cypermethrin, tetramethrin) approved 02/10/2012; 457. Duracid prašivo cypermethrin approved 01/02/2011; 458. Duracid sprej (cypermethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide) approved 01/02/2011; 480. Final Universal Ungezieferspray (cypermethrin, tetramethrin, permethrin) approved 26/09/2013; 494. Foval CE (cypermethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide) approved 04/11/2010; 495. Foval komarci i muhe (cypermethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide) approved 29/12/2010; 684. LD100 D (cypermethrin) approved 02/07/2013; 749. Mount sprej žohar (cypermethrin, deltamethrin) approved 19/11/2012; 946. Raid Max sprej protiv mrava i žohara (cypermethrin, imiprothrin) approved 29/09/2017; 962. Rotryn 50 (concentrated for emulsion) (cypermethrin) approved 19/04/2010; 963. Rotryn 50 (EC concentrated emulsion) (cypermethrin cis-trans) approved 19/04/2010; 1149. Tator (cypermethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide) approved 25/02/2011; 1224. WACIP 1000 (cypermethrin) approved 12/03/2010; 1297. Alfasect (alpha-cypermethrin) approved 27/12/2014; 1897. BROS prašak protiv mrava III cypermethrin approved 11 9 2017; 1899. Bros prašak protiv muha I (cypermethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide) approved 06/02/2019; 1915. Bugster EC (cypermethrin, prallethrin) approved 22/02/2016; 1965. Chromorel P (cypermethrin) approved 18/02/2019; 1981. Cimetrol Super EW (cypermethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide, piriproxyfen) approved 08/04/2020; 2058. Cyperfum (cypermethrin, chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium extract) approved 04/11/2021; 2059. Cyprabio Caps (cypermethrin, prallethrin) approved 04/03/2019; 2061. Cytrol 10/4 ULV (cypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide) approved 15/01/2020; 2125. Desintec InsektEx Eartag (cypermethrin) approved 08/07/2017; 2240. Draker ONE (cypermethrin) approved 07/01/2020; 2423. Hit Chalk prah protiv žohara (cypermethrin) approved 06/05/2020; 2424, Hit crawling insect killer (cypermethrin, imiprothrin) approved 11/05/2020; 2463. Indusect EC (cypermethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide) approved 07/06/2017; 2464. Indusect ME (cypermethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide) approved 08/06/2017; 2556. Killtec Ultra (cypermethrin, tetramethrin, chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium extract) approved 30/10/2019; 2730. Mirmex GR (cypermethrin) approved 07/01/2020; 2773. Neo Alfa (cypermethrin) 16/01/2018; 2774. Neo Alfa + turbo (cypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide, prallethrin) approved 9 12 2022; 2778. Neopitroid EC 100 (cypermethrin, prallethrin) approved 06/05/2019; 2802. Nooze insetticida liquido microincapsulato (cypermethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide) approved 01/06/2020; 2804. Nooze insetticida liquido spray S&F (cypermethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide) approved 28/02/2020; 3020. Raid sprej protiv mrava i žohara, miris cvijeta naranče (cypermethrin, imiprothrin) approved 29/09/2017; 3021. Raid sprej protiv mrava i žohara, miris eukaliptisa (cypermethrin imiprotrin) approved 18/03/2010; 3038. Ring'O (cypermethrin) approved 20/09/2019; 3346. Tator (cypermethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide) approved 21/02/2019.   Cymina Plus, Cipex10E, Cythrin Max, Microfly not approved.
-U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs. 2016. Chemicals Evaluated for Carcinogenic Potential. Annual Cancer Report.
-Aggarwal, P., Jamshed, N., Ekka, M., Imran A. 2015. Suicidal poisoning with cypermethrin: A clinical dilemma in the emergency department. Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock. 8:2 123-125
-PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2023. Cypermethrin.
- U.S.Environmental Protection Agency 2008. Re-registration Eligibility Decision for Cypermethrin
- World Health Organization 1989. Environmental Health Criteria 82. Cypermethrin.
USED ON HVAR, DDD insect suppression programme: 2017: Hvar Town region, total quantity of Microfly used: 14 kg.  Total quantity of Cipex used: 13 litres. 2017. Stari Grad Cipex total, 8 litres, Microfly 7 kg; Jelsa, Cipex 10 litres, Microfly 5 kg. 2018: Hvar Town region, Cipex total quantity 13 litres; Microfly 10.5L. Stari Grad region: Cipex 2L, Microfly 3L, Jelsa Council area Microfly 4 litres,  Cipex 3 litres
2019, 2020 Microfly used for insect suppression (DDD programme) on Hvar.
2019: Cythrin Max 250EC recommended by a well-respected olive oil producer: Caythrin Max 250EC to be used in May against olive moth (prays oleae, Croatian: maslinin moljac)
2021: Neo Alfa used for insect suppression (DDD programme) on Hvar, according to the initial statement from DDD firm Ekocijan, but  they stated later that the substance used was Neopitroid Alfa.
2022: Neo Alfa used for insect suppression by fogging (DDD programme) on Hvar.
HVAR 2023A Jelsa female resident (b. 1987) tested positive for Cypermethrin in a chemical analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory: hair sample taken on 06/11/2023, tested on 01/12/2023.
 
DELTAMETHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid.
Possible adverse effects: Toxic to bees; highly toxic to cats; extremely toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; toxic to fish; also to aquatic herbivorous insects, causing increased algae; in humans can cause ataxia, convulsions leading to muscle fibrillation and paralysis, dermatitis, oedema, diarrhoea, dyspnoea, headache, hepatic microsomal enzyme induction, irritability, peripheral vascular collapse, rhinorrhoea, serum alkaline phosphatase elevation, tinnitus, tremors, vomiting and death due to respiratory failure. Possible allergic reactions: anaphylaxis, bronchospasm, eosinophilia, fever, hypersensitivity pneumonia, pallor, pollinosis, sweating, sudden swelling of the face, eyelids, lips and mucous membranes, and tachycardia.
EU February 2024:: Approved: 01/11/2003 - 15/08/2026. ECHA: Approved, PT18, 01/10/2013 - 31/03/2026.
Product approvals: ECHA February 2024. 98 authorizations; Croatia FIS February 2024, 20 approved products: (986) Scatto approved 12/07/2016 -31/10/2028; (999) Rotor Super approved 10/08/2016-31/10/2028; (829) Poleci approved 15/01/2014-14/01/2029; (965) Poleci Plus approved 11/05/2016-31/10/2028. (175) Decis 2.5 approved 02/03/2000 - 31/12/2028; (946) Decis 100EC approved 18/03/2016 - 31/10/2028. (909) Decis trap mediteranska voćna muha approved 23/09/2015 - 31/10/2028; (1368) Decis Trap trešnjina muha, approved 10/06/2021-31/10/2028; (740) Eco Trap, approved 29/11/2011-31/10/2028; (944) K-Obiol EC 25 (deltamethrin, piperonyl butoxide) approved 01/03/2016-31/10/2024; (1156) Ritmus, approved 06/06/2018-31/10/2028; 1187) Granprotec, approved 21/12/2018-31/10/2028; (1224) Demetrina 25EC, approved 24/07/2019-31/10/2028; (1360) Grial, approved 20/04/2021-31/10/2028; (1432) Deltagri, approved 20/04/2021-31/10/2028; (1497) Decis Trap Suzukii, approved 01/08/2022-31/10/2023; (1507) Delmur Trap Dacus, approved 28/09/2022-31/10/2024; (1508) Delmur Trap, approved 29/09/2022-31/10/2024; (1579) Decide approved 02/06/2023-31/10/2024; (1609) Decis Trap Maslinina Muha approved 21/11/2023-15/08/2027. Decis 1,25EC, Decis 6,25EC not approved, MIZ: August 2022, ten products listed: (228) Bros insect spray  approved 25/07/2012; (240) Bross approved 11/12/2013; (352) Deltacaps 50 CS approved 04/11/2013; (353) Deltasect approved 31/01/2013: (354) Deltasect 015RTU approved 05/11/2013; (355) Deltasect 1,2 ULV approved 05/11/2013; (669) K-Othrine SC 25 approved 02/10/2009; (749) Mount Sprej žohar approved 19/11/2012; (1021) Somi approved 13/06/2013; (1118) Strike Flow SC 7,5 approved 13/02/2013; (1186) Unitox Aerosol protiv muha i komaraca approved 10/12/2013; Decis 1,25EC, Decis 6,25EC,Decis Trap, Poleci, Poleci Plus, Scatto, Rotor Super not approved
- PubChem, Open Chemistry Database. 2023. Deltamethrin.
- Dai, P-L., Wang, Q., Sun, J-H., Liu, F., Wang, X., Wu, Y-Y., Z. T. 2009. Effects of sublethal concentrations of bifenthrin and deltamethrin on fecundity, grogod.wth, and development of the honeybee Apis mellifera ligustica. Environmental Toxicology. 29-3, 644-649
- Parasitipedia.net. Deltamethrin: Safety Summary for Veterinary Use
ON HVAR: Deltamethrin was on the list of pesticides recommended for use around Hvar Town, Stari Grad and the Jelsa Council area, under the Programme issued by the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute for 2017 and 2018.
2018: Croatian Agriculture-Forestry Advisory Section for the Split-Dalmatian county recommended Deltamethrin and the products Decis 100EC, Decis 2.5EC, Scatto, Rotor Super, and Poleci Plus were recommended for use on Hvar and in other olive-growing areas against fruit-flies in July 2018.
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Scatto and Poleci Plus (14.06.2019, 13.09.2019, 27.09.2019); Decis 2.5 EC, Decis 100 EC, Rotor Super (14.06.2019, 19.06.2019, 13.09.2019, 27.09.2019); Eco Trap (13.09.2019)
 
DIFLUBENZURON. Benzamide insecticide, Insect Growth Regulator (Disruptor) (IGR).
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to freshwater and marine invertebrates; moderately toxic to fish and earthworms; slightly toxic to birds; affected haemoglobin in animal studies; can cause breathing difficulties in humans; direct contact can be harmful to skin and eyes; metabolites are possible human carcinogens.
EU February 2024: Diflubenzuron not approved as from 31/12/2020. ECHA: Approved, PT18, 01/02/2015 - 31/01/2025.
Approvals: ECHA, February 2024: 10 authorizations. Croatia FIS February 2024, No approved products, Dimilin SC48 no longer approved, Flubex not approved MIZ:August 2022, 4 products listed: (404) Dimilin SC 15 approved 10/08/2009;  (405) Dimilin SC48 approved 14/01/2010, (403) Dimilin GR2, approved 10/08/2009; (403) Dimilin TB2, approved 10/08/2009; Flubex not approved
Sources: - United States Environmental Protection Agency 1997. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (R.E.D.): Diflubenzuron.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database, updated 2021. Diflubenzuron.
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database, updated 2021. Diflubenzuron.
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Diflubenzuron
USED ON HVAR: DDD programme, for larvicidal actions, Flubex, 2016: Hvar Town and surrounds, May and October 2016. Stari Grad and surrounds, April and October 2016; Jelsa Council area, April-May and October 2016. 2017: Jelsa Council area: Dimilin used for larvicide, rainwater drains & septic tanks, June & July 2017. 2018: Dimilin used in the Hvar Town region, 13th June, 3rd July, 5.5 kg. Dimilin used in Vrboska on the road to Soline bathing beach (at the request of residents), in Jelsa around the Park and in the rainwater drains in the centre of Jelsa, 13th June & 25th July 2018, 5 kg.
2019, 2020: Dimilin used in the Jelsa Council region
 
DIMETHOATE. Organophosphate.
Possible adverse effects. Very toxic to bees and aquatic organisms; possibly toxic to wildlife, including birds, and livestock: possible endocrine disruptor; in humans: can cause unconsciousness and death; possible human carcinogen (USEPA); inhalation, swallowing or excess skin contact can cause breathing difficulties, headache, dizziness, tiredness, slurred speech, blurred vision, a lack of coordination, sweating, slow or rapid heart beat, convulsions, incontinence; when swallowed, can also cause vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, faecal incontinence; long-term exposure may lead to impaired memory, depression, irritability, confusion and insomnia.
EU / ECHA February 2024: Dimethoate not approved
Products: Phosphamide, Rogor 40, Calinogor, Chromogor, Cygon, Perfekthion, Fosfamid 40, Aadimethoal.
Product approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024 /MIZ (August 2022): no approved dimethoate-based products listed; Calinogor, Fosfamid 40, Aadimethoal, Rogor 40, Chromogor, Perfekthion not approved.
Sources: - World Health Organisation 1989. International Programme on Chemical Safety: Environmental Health Criteria for Dimethoate.
- Scottish Environment Protection Agency. Dimethoate.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database, updated 2021. Dimethoate.
- University of Hertfordshire 2021. Pesticide Properties Database: Dimethoate.
USED ON HVAR: Rogor was used by farmers cultivating olives and other crops (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
Dimethoate and the products Calinogor, Chromogor, Perfekthion, Rogor 40 were recommended for use on Hvar and in other olive-growing areas against fruit-flies by the Croatian Agriculture-Forestry Advisory Section for the Split-Dalmatian County, in July 2018.
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Caligonor, Chromogor, Perfekthion (14/06/2019, 13/09/2019) and Rogor 40 (14/06/2019, 19/06/2019, 13/09/2019, 27/09/2019).
2019: Rogor, also in combination with the attractant Buminal, recommended by a well-respected Hvar olive oil producer for use variously against olive moth (prays oleae, Croatian: maslinin moljac), olive fruit fly (bactrocera oleae, Croatian: maslinova muha), leopard moth (Zeuzera pyrina, Croatian: granotoč) and weevils (otiorhyncus, Croatian: Skorovača) in May, June, July, August, and September; Rogor (or Baturad) to be used in May against olive psyllid (euphyllura olivina, Croatian maslinova buha)
 
EMAMECTIN BENZOATE. Semisynthetic derivative of avermectin.
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to bees, birds, aquatic life, aquatic environment, algae; in humans: highly toxic through swallowing, inhalation and skin contact; can cause organ damage, serious eye irritation or damage; muscle tremors, muscle incoordination, vomiting, pulmonary oedema, unconsciousness; skin allergies.
EU February 2024: Emamectin approved 01/05/2014 - 30/11/2024. (Emamectin benzoate not listed) ECHA: Emamectin, Emamectin Benzoate not approved
Product approvals: ECHA February 2024: no approved products. Croatia FIS: February 2024, Emamectin Benzoate 3 approved products: (1202) Revive II authorized 19/03/2019 - 30/04/2025; (738) Affirm approved 04/11/2011-04/11/2028, (1148) Affirm Opti approved 26/03/2018-30/04/2025. Proclaim not approved .MIZ: (August 2022) , No approved products, Affirm Opti, Revive II, Proclaim not approved
Sources: - United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2014. Emamectin Benzoate 4.0% Tree Injection, Label Amendment.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database 2023. Emamectin
- University of Hertfordshire, Pesticide Properties Database 2023. Emamectin benzoate
- EU National Assessment, Evaluator FRANCE. 2018. Revive, Registration Report
USED ON HVAR Affirm used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc. (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019, 2021: Jelsa local Council: Revive used on palm trees in Jelsa Park 12.04.2019. and 09/09/2021.
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Affirm Opti, especially against caterpillars in fruit trees (17th May 2019, 26.06.2019)
 
FIPRONIL. Pyrazole
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to honeybees and other pollinators, birds, mammals, dragonflies, aquatic crustaceans, sediment dwelling organisms, moderately toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates and earthworms. In humans: possible carcinogen (USEPA); highly toxic if inhaled or swallowed; thyroid, kidney and liver toxicant; neurotoxicant; skin and eye irritant; can cause headache, dizziness, sweating, nausea, vomiting, agitation and seizures
EU February 2024: Fipronil not approved  ECHA: Fipronil approved 01/10/2013 - 30/09/2023, approval expired
Product approvals: ECHA February 2024 : 7 authorizations still showing; Croatia FIS February 2024: no approved products. MIZ: August 2022, 1 product listed: (1329) BROS Prašak protiv mrava 1 (fipronil, silicon dioxide) approved 27/02/2015
Sources:- PubChem National Library of Medicine, 2022. Fipronil
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties DataBase 2022. Fipronil-
- Jinguji, H., Ohtsu, K., Ueda, T., Goka, K. 2018. Effects of short-term, sublethal fipronil and its metabolite on dragonfly feeding activity. PLOS ONE published July 11 2018
ON HVAR 2023. Chemical analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory of a hair sample taken on 25/05/2023, analysed on 21/06/2023 revealed the presence of Fipronil in a female (b.1975) living near Vrboska.
 
FIPRONIL SULFONE. Pyrazole; primary metabolite of Fipronil; chemical transformation substance
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to honeybees, fish, aquatic invertebrates, aquatic crustaceans, sediment dwelling organisms; fipronil sulfone is more persistent in organisms than fipronil itself; In humans: toxic if swallowed; fipronil sulfone toxicity is more severe in mammals or human cells than fipronil-induced toxicity
Sources:- PubChem National Library of Medicine, 2022. Fipronil sulfone
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties DataBase, 2022. Fipronil Sulfone
- Kim Y. A., Yoon, Y.S., Kim H.S., Jeon, S.J., Cole, E., Lee, J., Kho, Y., Cho, Y.H. 2019. Distribution of fipronil in humans, and adverse health outcomes of in utero fipronil sulfone exposure in newborns. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol 222, issue 3 pp 524-532
HVAR 2022: A Pitve female resident (b. 1948) tested positive for Fiproil sulfone in a chemical analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory: hair sample taken on 24/11/2022, tested on 08/12/2022.
HVAR 2023: Chemical analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory of a hair sample taken on 25/05/2023, analysed on 21/06/2023 revealed the presence of Fipronil Sulfone in a female (b.1975) living near Vrboska.
 
IMIDACLOPRID. Neonicotinoid.
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to bees, birds, also aquatic life and aquatic environments, with long-lasting effects; can affect reproduction and development in humans; possibly associated with autism spectrum disorder; moderately toxic to mammals, fish and earthworms; persists in soil.
EU February 2024: Imidacloprid not approved as from 01/01/2020.. ECHA: Imidacloprid approved, PT18, 01/07/2013 - 31/12/2025.
Products: Quick Bayt (imidacloprid with tricosene), Quick Bayt (imidacloprid), Quick Bayt spray (imidacloprid); Bros duo protiv muha 1 (imidacloprid with silicon dioxide); Bros zamka za mrave II; Maxforce Quantum; Admire, Advantage, Kohinor, Merit, Confidor, Hachikusan, Premise, Prothor, Winner,
Product approvals: ECHA PT18, February 2024: 80 authorizations; Croatia FIS February 2024: , No approved products, Quick Bayt not approved. MIZ: (August 2022): 5 imidacloprid products listed: (932) Quick Bayt (imidacloprid) approved 10/08/2009; (933) Quick Bayt spray (imidacloprid)  approved 10/08/2009; (1402) Bros duo protiv muha 1 (imidacloprid, silicon dioxide) approved 01/07/2015; (1908) Bros zamka za mrave II(imidacloprid, geraniol) approved 29/09/2017; (696) Maxforce Quantum approved 03/10/2011; Quick Bayt (imidacloprid with tricsene) not approved
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database 2021. Imidacloprid.
- University of Hertfordshire, Pesticides Properties Database. 2021. Imidacloprid.
- Baines, D., Wilton, E., Pawluk, A., de Gorter, M., Chomistek, N. 2017. Neonicotinoids act like endocrine disrupting chemicals in newly-emerged bees and winter bees. Scientific Reports 7: article number 10979
- Eng, M.L., Stutchbury, B.J.M., Morrissey, C.A. 2017. Imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos insecticides impair migratory ability in a seed-eating songbird. Scientific Reports, 7., article no. 15176.
- Pisa, L.W., Amaral-Rogers, V., Belzunces, L.P., Bonmatin, J.M., Downs, C.A., Goulson, D., Kreutzweiser, D.P., Krupke, C., Liess, M., McField, M., Morrissey, C.A., Noome, D.A., Settele, J., Simon-Delso, N., Stark, J.D., Van der Sluijs, J.P., Van Dyck, H., Wiemers, M. 2015. Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22: 1: 68-102.
- Zhang, E., Nieh, J.C. 2015. The neonicotinoid imidacloprid impairs honey bee aversive learning of simulated predation. Journal of Experimental Biology, 218: 3199-3205
USED ON HVAR: DDD programme, Quick Bayt® (imidacloprid with Tricosene) used on rubbish tips. 2018: Hvar Town region, July 3rd, 2 kg.; Stari Grad region, 3rd July, 25th July, 15th August, 6th September 2018, 2kg.
2017: Quick Bayt insecticde was used in the Sućuraj region, with thiamethoxam incorrectly listed as its active ingredient in the report to the Sućuraj council (certificate / potvrda 52177, dated 04/06/2017)
2020: Quick Bayt used around the Jelsa Council region (DDD programme)
HVAR 2022: A Pitve resident (fem. b. 1948) tested positive for Imidacloprid in a chemical analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory; hair sample taken on 24(11/2022, tested on 08/12/2022.
HVAR 2023. Chemical analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory of hair samples revealed the presence of Imidacloprid in the following people:
1. female (b.1975) living near Vrboska, sample taken on 25/05/2023, analysed on 21/06/2023.
2. female (b. 1964), living in Vrisnik, sample taken on 15/06/2023, analysed 17/07/2023.
3. male (b. 1964) living in Hvar, sample taken on 17/06/2023, analysed on 17/07/2023.
4. male (b.2019) living in Pitve, sample taken on 26/06/2023, analysed on 17/07/2023.
5. female (b.1988) living in Pitve, sample taken on 26/06/2023, analysed on 17/07/2023.
 
IMIPROTHRIN synthetic pyrethroid
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to bees, aquatic organisms, fish; poisonous to cats, also other animals; in humans: possible carcinogen; can cause organ damage, toxic if swallowed or inhaled; respiratory tract irritant; possible reproduction / development effects; possible skin and eye irritant.
EU February 2024: Imiprothrin not approved. ECHA February 2024: Imiprothrin approved, PT18, 01/07/2019 - 30/06/2029
Products: Raid Max sprej protiv mrava i žohara (cypermethrin, imiprothrin); Hit crawling insect killer (cypermethrin, imiprothrin); Raid sprej protiv mrava i žohara, miris cvijeta naranče (cypermethrin, imiprothrin); Raid sprej protiv mrava i žohara, miris eukaliptisa (cypermethrin, imiprothrin)
Product approvals: ECHA February 2024 1 authorization. Croatia FIS: February 2024,  no approved products; MIZ, August 2022, 5 products listed: (946) Raid Max sprej protiv mrava i žohara approved 29/09/2017; (2424) Hit crawling insect killer approved 11/05/2020; (3020) Raid sprej protiv mrava i žohara, miris cvijeta naranče approved 29/09/2017; (3021) Raid sprej protiv mrava i žohara, miris eukaliptisa approved 18/03/2010; (136) Bayer Garden protiv gmizućih insekata (imiprothrin, cyphenothrin), approved 27/09/2011,
Sources: -PubChem Open Chemistry Database, 2023: Imiprothrin
- University of Hertfordshire, Pesticide Properties Database, 2023: Imiprothrin
 
LINDANE Organochloride insecticide; Organochloride acaricide, Organochloride rodenticide; veterinary substance
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to honeybees and other bee species; highly toxic to aquatic life and aquatic environments, with long-lasting effects; in humans, highly toxic, can be fatal if inhaled,  swallowed or absorbed through the skin; carcinogen; endocrine disruptor; possible harmful reproduction and development effects; can cause harm to breast-fed babies; skin irritant, eye irritant; can causwe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, seizures, muscle tremors; may cause damage to organs from prolonged or repeated exposure.
EU / ECHA  February 2024: Lindane not approved. FIS February 2024 Lindane products not approved. MIZ (August 2022) Lindane products not approved
Products: Lindane products have been banned in most countries. However it seems that shampoos and lotions for treating lice, scabies etc. might still be available, especially in the United States. The Lindane Education and Research Network lists products which have registered with the United States Environment Protection Agency (EPA), but the information is undated and it is not clear if the products are still marketed. Pharmaceutical use of Lindane was supposedly banned in the U.S. 2015 but some Lindane products still appear in United States websites,: eg Cleveland Clinic website 2023; Medscape website 2023. According to the Mayo Clinic (2023), Lindane shampoo is still available but only with a doctor's prescription. Depite being banned in the European Union, "Its persistence, bioacumulative and toxic properties, spillages from former production sites and the illegal dumping of HCH-waste, have given rise to serious concerns.." *
Sources.
PubChem 2023. Lindane
PPDB 2023. Lindane
Actylis, USA 2019. Lindane Safety Data Sheet
European Environment Agency. Lindane
* European Parliament Directorate General for Internal Policies. 2016. Lindane (persistent organic pollutant) in the EU. Study for the PETI Committee.
HVAR 2023: Chemical analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory of hair samples revealed the presence of Lindane in the following people:
1. female (b.1964), living in Vrisnik, sample taken on 15/06/2023, analysed 17/07/2023.
2. male (b. 1964) living in Hvar, sample taken on 17/06/2023, analysed on 17/07/2023.
 
MALATHION - organophosphate insecticide, acaricide, veterinary substance
EU: February 2024: approved 01/05/2010-31/07/2026. ECHA: malathion not approved
Possible adverse effects: GHS Hazard Statements H302: Harmful if swallowed [Warning Acute toxicity, oral]; H317: May cause an allergic skin reaction [Warning Sensitization, Skin]; H400: Very toxic to aquatic life [Warning Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard]; H410: Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects [Warning Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term hazard]
Plus: highly toxic to bees. In humans: possible carcinogen; endocrine disruptor; neurotoxicant; may be fatal if swallowed and enters airways; causes skin irritation; causes serious eye irritation;
?reproduction / development effects.
Flammable liquid and vapour: Exposure to fumes from a fire or to liquid causes headache, blurred vision, constricted pupils of the eyes, weakness, nausea, cramps, diarrhea, and tightness in the chest. Muscles twitch and convulsions may follow. The symptoms may develop over a period of 8 hours.
FIS: February 2024: no approved products, MIZ: (August 2022) no approved products
Sources:
PubChem 2023. Malathion
PPDB 2023. Malathion
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Washington DC. 2022. Malathion amended label
Winfield Safety Data Sheet 17/03/2015. Malathion 5.
ON HVAR 2023: Analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory of a hair sample taken on 26/06/2023, analysed on 17/07/2023 revealed the presence of malathion in a female (b. 1988) living in Pitve.
 
MIREX (obsolete) Organochlorine insecticide, flame retardant
EU / ECHA  (January 2024): Mirex not approved.
Possible adverse effects:
H400 (100%): very toxic to aquatic life [Warning Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard]; H410 very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects; can harm aquatic freshwater invetebrates, algae; can harm honeybees; persistent organic pollutant; in humans: H351 (100%): suspected of causing cancer [Warning Carcinogenicity;]H361 (93.62%): suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child [Warning Reproductive toxicity]; H362 (87.23%): may cause harm to breast-fed children [Reproductive toxicity, effects on or via lactation]; H301 toxic if swalloed; H302 harmful if swallowed; H311 toxic in contact with skin; H312 harmful in contact with skin; can cause damage in endocrine system, neurological system, renal system, eyes.
Precautionary Statement Codes
P203, P260, P262, P263, P264, P270, P273, P280, P301+P316, P301+P317, P302+P352, P316, P317, P318, P321, P330, P361+P364, P362+P364, P391, P405, and P501
(The corresponding statement to each P-code can be found on this link: GHS Classification page.)
FIS January 2024 / MIZ: (August 2022) no approved products
Sources:
PubChem 2005/2024.Mirex
PPDB 2023. Mirex
ECHA substance infocard: Mirex
ON HVAR 2023: Analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory of a hair sample taken on 22/12/2023, analysed on 08/01/2024 revealed the presence of mirex in a female (b. 1982) living in Jelsa.
 
PERMETHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid.
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to bees, sea organisms, fish; poisonous to cats, also other animals; in humans: classified as a potential carcinogen; linked to Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; can cause neurological damage, also problems in the immune and endocrine systems.
EU February 2024: Permethrin not approved. (European Commission Review Report, 13 July 2000, p.114). Fom the Assessment: "Based on the information available and the proposed conditions of use it was further concluded that a risk to aquatic organisms exposed to permethrin cannot be excluded. In conclusion from the assessments made on the basis of the submitted information, no plant protection products containing the active substance concerned is expected to satisfy in general the requirements laid down in Article 5 (1) (a) and (b) of Council Directive 91/414/EEC. Technical evidence has been provided indicating that limited further use of permethrin in forestry could be allowed whilst research is ongoing in order to find efficient alternatives providing that appropriate risk mitigation measures are taken."  ECHA February 2024: Permethrin approved, PT18, 01/05/2016 - 30/04/2026
Products: Permex 22E (with tetramethrin & piperonyl butoxide); Neopitroid EC 20 PRO (with piperonyl butoxide); Neopitroid prah Pro (with piperonyl butoxide); Neopitroid Premium Plus (with prallethrin); Neopitroid Premium (with D-Allethrin and Piperonyl Butoxide); household fly-killer sprays such as Sanmex Fly and Wasp Killer (with Tetramethrin); Raid sprej protiv mrava i žohara, miris naranče; Raid spray for flies and mosquitoes (with Tetramethrin).
Product approvals: ECHA February 2024: 54 authorizations (PT18); Croatia FIS February 2024: no approved products. Permex 22E and Neopitroid Premium not approved. MIZ (August 2022): c. 78 listed products.(141) Baygon protector sprej protiv mrava i žohara (permethrin, pyrethrins & pyrethroids), approved 06/06/2010; (163) Biokill (permethrin), approved 11/03/2010; (164) Biotoll neopremin (permethrin - cis-trans 25-75), approved 19/05/2009; (241) Bros sprej protiv osa i stršljena (permethrin, cypermethrin, tetramethrin), approved 16/08/2012; (331) Coopex dimni generator (permethrin), approved 10/09/2009; (465) Effect insekticid protiv osa i stršljenova (aerosol) (permethrin, tetramethrin), approved 10/05/2011; (466) Effect microtech CS (permethrin, tetramethrin), approved 26/09/2013; (467) Effect ultimum (permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 15/04/2014; (468) Effect univerzalni insekticid aerosol (permethrin, tetramethrin), approved 21/05/2009; (471) Entox insekticidni aerosol (permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 13/06/2011; (477) Fentin aerosol (permethrin), approved 19/01/2010; (479) Final fliegen turbo spray (permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 26/09/2013; (480) Final universal ungezieferspray (permethrin,tetramethrin, cypermethrin), approved 26/09/2013; (493) Forth Univerzalni insekticid (permethrin), approved 24/03/2014; (653) Killtox insekticid (permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 05/10/2010; (668) Komtoks (permethrin, bioallethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 10/07/2013; (723) Microsene (permethrin, cis-trans, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 17/03/2010; (724) Microsene (permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 11/09/2009; (747) Mount sprej (permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 27/04/2012; (748) Mount sprej aqua (permethrin, tetramethrin), approved 19/11/2012; (869) Permex 22E (permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 26/04/2012; (872) Pertrin S (permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 20/03/2010; (880) Pitroid spray protiv gmizućih kukaca (permethrin, tetramethrin), approved 20/04/2009; (881) Pitroid spray protiv letećih kukaca (permethrin, tetramethrin), approved 20/04/2009; (882) Pitroid total spray (permethrin, d-phenothrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 22/05/2009; (954) Raid spray protiv muha i komaraca (permethrin, tetramethrin), approved 18/03/2010; (955) Raid tarme protiv moljaca cedar (permethrin), approved 23/06/2010; (956) Raid tarme protiv moljaca lavanda (permethrin), approved 23/06/2010; (1055) Smartline insekticid sprej (permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 23/05/2011; (1117) Sting (permethrin, prallethrin), approved 09/12/2010; (1130) Super Birtox insekticid aerosol (permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 24/06/2010; (1161) Terminator X insekticidni posip (permethrin), approved 01/02/2011; (1163) Terminator X univerzalni insekticid (permethrin), approved 09/12/2010; (1244) Bio Kill (permethrin), approved 24/06/2014; (1249) Insekticid Joker Bun (permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 26/06/2014; (1342) Biotip insekticidno prašivo (permethrin), approved 05/03/2015; (1352) Bitox insecticide spray 400ml (permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 10/04/2015; (1355) Insekticid dvostruko djelovanje (permethrin, tetramethrin, d-phenothrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 20/04/2015; (1371) Insekticid Tam Tam (permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 07/05/2015; (1563) Agritox (permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 30/04/2018; (1574) Akvacid (permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 24/05/2016; (1778) Bifent Fogger Plus (permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl), approved 23/05/2019; (1819) Biosekt univerzalni insekticid 500ml (permethrin, prallethrin), approved 15/02/2022; (1896) Bros prašak protiv mrava II (permethrin, silicon dioxide / diatomaceous earth), approved 01/04/2016; (1898) Bros prašak protiv mrava IV (permethrin, geraniol), approved 04/04/2018; (1902) Bros sprej protiv gmizućih insekata I (permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 06/02/2019; (1904) Bros sprej protiv osa i stršljena I (permethrin, prallethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 07/01/2020; (2265) Effect Microtech CS Pro (permethrin, prallethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 01/07/2020; (2270) Effect Ultimum Pro (permethrin, teteramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 19/06/2020; (2295) Faracid (permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 06/02/2019; (2296) Faracid + (permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 14/09/2017; (2301) Flash 23 - sprej protiv pužećih kukaca (permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 14/02/2017; (2302) Flash 23 sprej protiv gmizućih insekata (permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 22/07/2021; (2318) Flytrin 6.14 (permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 20/05/2021; (2339) Froxynol 250 (permethrin, N-(3-Aminopropyl)-N-dodecylpropane-1.3-diamine), approved 07/01/2020; (2465) Indusect micro (permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 08/06/2017; (2507) Inz-Eco mosquito trap (permethrin, pyriproxyfen, tetramethrin), approved 17/11/2020; (2625) LD 100 G (permethrin), approved 23/6/2017; (2743) Mr. Kill sprej protiv muha i drugih insekata (permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide, pyrethrins & pyrethroids), approved 13/02/2017; (2775) Neo Starr (permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 17/11/2017; (2779) Neopitroid EC 20 Pro (permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 08/01/2016; (2780) Neopitroid prah PRO (permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 22/02/2016; (2781) Neopitroid Premium Plus (permethrin, prallethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 29/06/2022; (2788) New Spraymaster (permethrin, chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium extract, piperonyl butoxide), approved 05/06/2019; (2789) New Spraymaster ONE SHOT (permethrin, chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium extract, piperonyl butoxide), approved 29/05/2019; (2803) Nooze insetticida spray (permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 11/03/2020; (2891) Pertrin RTU (permethrin), approved 06/04/2016; (2905) Phobi aurodil super PB+ (permethrin, prallethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 09/02/2022; (2966) Profissimo sprej protiv insekata (permethrin, tetramethrin), approved 12/06/2018; (3247) Speed Stop insekticidna pjena protiv mrava i žohara 300ml (permethrin, tetramethrin), approved 10/03/2020; (3261) Sprej protiv mrava i žohara / Ant and crawling spray (permethrin, tetramethrin), approved 09/05/2017; (3262) Sprej protiv muha i osa / Fly and wasp killer (permethrin, tetramethrin), approved 09/05/2017; (3313) Stop insekticid sprej za leteće i gmižuće inskete (permethrin, transphenothrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 30/04/2018; (3317) Strike protiv osa, stršljena i azijskih stršljena (permethrin, d-trans-tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 31/01/2017; (3321) Strike® univerzalno insekticidno sredstvo za posipanje (permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 24/02/2017; (3351) Terminator X Insekticidno prašivo (permethrin), approved 15/04/2016; (3352) Terminator X Univerzalni insketicid (permethrin), approved 15/04/2016; (3426) Universal (permethrin, chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium extract), approved 22/03/2019.  Neopitroid Premium no longer approved
Sources: - ECHA Permethrin Substance Infocard
- PubChem 2023. Permethrin
- Alavanja, M.C.R., Hoffmann, J.N., Lynch, C.F., Hines, C.J., Barry, K. H., Barker, J., Buckman, D.W., Thomas, K., Sandler, D. P., Hoppin, J.A., Koutros, S., Andreotti, G., Lubin, J.H., Blair, A., Beane Freeman, L.E. 2014. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Risk and Insecticide, Fungicide and Fumigant Use in the Agricultural Health Study. PLoS One (US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health) 9 (10): e109332.
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. August 2009. Permethrin Facts.
- Hoffmann, M., Meléndez, J.L., Ruhman, M.A., 2008. Risks of Permethrin Use to the Federally Threatened California Red-legged Frog (Rana aurora draytonii) and Bay Checkerspot Butterfly (Euphydryas editha bayensis), and the Federally Endangered California Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus), Salt Marsh Harvest Mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris), and San Francisco Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia). Environmental Fate and Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs, Washington, D.C. 20460
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2007. Permethrin & Resmethrin (Pyrethroids), Toxicity and Exposure Assessment for Children's Health. TEACH Chemical summary.
-World Health Organization. 2006. "International Program on Chemical Safety, Environmental Health Criteria 92: Permethrin."
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) for Permethrin."
- U.S. Centers for Disease Control (ATSDR). 2003. "Toxicological Profile for Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids."
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2002. "TRI Explorer: Providing Access to EPA's Toxic Release Inventory Data."
- International Cat Care. Permethrin Poisoning in Cats.
USED ON HVAR: DDD programme, for adult insect suppression: 2016: Permex 22E- Hvar Town and its surrounds, June, July x2, August, October; Stari Grad and its environs, June, July, August; Jelsa Council area, July x2, August 2016. 2017: Hvar Town and surrounds Permex 22E 25th May, 20th June; 13th July; 11th August, 28th September, 12th October. Permex 22E total: 22 litres; Stari Grad and surrounds 17-18th May, 14th July, 11th August, 26th September, total 10 litres; Jelsa Council region, 12th July, 10th August, 27th September 2017, 9 litres. 2018: Hvar Town region, 24th July 2018, quantity 3 kg; Stari Grad region, 26th July, 15th August, 6th September, 3L; Jelsa region, 25th July, 14th August, 5th September 2018, 4L. 2019, 2020, Permex22E used in the insect suppression fogging programme on Hvar (Hvar Town, Stari Grad, Jelsa).
2018. Neopitroid Premium was used for insect suppression in the Sućuraj area on July 3rd and August 11th 2018.
USED IN NORTHERN CROATIA: DDD programme, Neopitroid Premium was used, for instance, for aerial spraying in the Vukovar-Srijem County (2014) and Osijek-Baranja County (2019); fogging actions in Velika Gorica and Glina (2021).
HVAR 2021, 2022: Chemical analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory of hair samples tested on 19/02/2021 and 08/12/2022 revealed significant quantities of Permethrin in a Pitve resident (fem. b.1948).
HVAR 2022. Neopitroid Premium was used for blanket insect spraying around the Jelsa Municipality on JuLY 27th 2022.
HVAR 2023. Neopitroid Premium was used for blanket insect spraying around the Jelsa Municipality on June 19th 2023.
HVAR 2023. Analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory of hair samples revealed the presence of Permethrin in the following people:
1. female (b. 1964), living in Vrisnik, sample taken on 15/06/2023, analysed 17/07/2023.
2. male (b. 1964) living in Hvar, sample taken on 17/06/2023, analysed on 17/07/2023.
3. female (b.1988) living in Pitve, sample taken on 26/06/2023, analysed 17/07/2023.
HVAR 2023. Neopitroid Premium Plus was used for blanket insect spraying around the Jelsa Municipality on August 21st 2023.
 
PHENOTHRIN, d-PHENOTHRIN, CYPHENOTHRIN, IR-TRANS PHENOTHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroids
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to cats, bees and aquatic organisms; in humans, can cause dizziness, salivation, headache, fatigue, diarrhoea, irritability to sound and touch.
EU February 2024.: Phenothrin, d-phenothrin, cyphenothrin, IR-trans pheniothrin not approved;  ECHA February 2024: IR-trans phenothrin approved 01/09/2015 - 31/08/2025; Cyphenothrin approved 01/02/2020 - 31/01/2030. Phenothrin, d-phenothrin not approved
Products: Sumithrin, Raid, Enforcer Flea Killer, Enforcer BedBug spray, Enforcer Flying Insect Killer, Enforcer Wasp and Hornet Killer, Ortho Max Flying Insect Killer, Anvil.
Approvals: ECHA February 2024 Cyphenothrin, two authorizations (PT18); IR-trans phenothrin, 34 authorizations (PT18, February 2024); Croatia FIS, February 2024: No approved products. MIZ: (August 2022): 21 listed products, 2 without approval dates; 2 based on phenothrin alone, 12 on d-phenothrin, 4 on cyphenothrin, 2 on IR-trans-phenothrin, 1 on R-trans-phenothrin: 101 Aroxol sprej protiv muha i komaraca (phenothrin, tetramethrin) approved 11/03/2013; 136 Bayer Garden protiv gmižućih insekata (cyphenothrin, imiprothrin) approved 27/09/2011; 137 Bayer Garden protiv letećih insekata (d-phenothrin, d-tetramethrin) approved 27/09/2011; 224 Bros 007 za mrave i puzeće insekte (cyphenothrin) approved 13/02/2012; 230 Bros mamac za faraonske mrave (cyphenothrin) approved 14/02/2012; 235 Bros sprej protiv moljaca (d-phenothrin, prallethrin, piperonyl butoxide) approved 26/07/2012; 236 Bros sprej protiv muha i komaraca (phenothrin, prallethrin, piperonyl butoxide) approved 25/07/2012; 351 Daytox insekticid u spreju (d-phenothrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide) 20/02/2012; 882 Pitroid Total Spray (d-phenothrin, permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide) approved 22/05/2009; 916 Protect Wasp Killer Aerosol (cyphenothrin, d-trans-tetramethrin approved 04/10/2010. 953 Rapid Sprej protiv gmižućih i letećih insekata (d-phenothrin, tetramethrin) approved 21/4/2011; 1087 Sprej Despar protiv muha i komaraca (d-phenothrin, d-allethrin) approved 21/5/2014; 1088 Sprej Despar protiv muha i komaraca (d-phenothrin, d-allethrin, tetramethrin) No approval date; 1089 Sprej Despar protiv žohara i mrava (d-phenothrin, d-allethrin) approved 21/5/2014; 1090 Sprej Despar protiv žohara i mrava (d-phenothrin, d-allethrin, tetramethrin) No approval date; 1354 Insekticid za dom Yuki Sprej (d-phenothrin, d-trans-tetramethrin) approved 20/04/2015; 1355 Insekticid dvostruko djelovanje (d-phenothrin, permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide) approved 10/4/2015; 1383 Raid Sprej protiv gmižućih i letećih insekata (IR trans-phenothrin, prallethrin) approved 10/6/2015; 1384 Raid sprej protiv muha i komaraca (R-trans-phenothrin, prallethrin) approved 10/6/2015; 2426 Hit insect killer 400ml sprej protiv insekata (d-phenothrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide) approved 20/02/2019; 3313 Stop insekticid sprej za leteće gmižuće insekte (IR trans-phenothrin, permethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide) approved 30/04/2018.
Sources:- PubChem 2023 Phenothrin
- WHO/FAO 1994. d-Phenothrin. WHO/FAO Data Sheet on Pesticides no.85.
- Cox, C. 2003. Sumithrin (d-phenothrin). Insecticide Factsheet. Journal of Pesticide Reform. 23 / 2, 10- 14.
ON HVAR: d-Phenothrin was on the list of pesticides recommended for use around Hvar Town, Stari Grad and the Jelsa Council area, under the Programme issued by the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute for 2017.
 
PHOSMET. Organophosphate.
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to aquatic life and environment; highly toxic to honeybees; in humans can be fatal if inhaled; if swallowed, causes stomach pain, diarrhoea, nausea, sickness; can cause organ damage, eye irritation; possibly causes fetal damage or disrupts fertility; can cause swelling, itchiness, raised skin temperature if absorbed through the skin; can be toxic to birds, earthworms, cats and dogs.
EU / ECHA February 2024: Phosmet not approved
Products: Imidan 50 WG, Imidan 50WP.
Approvals: ECHA February 2024: no approved products  Croatia FIS February 2024: No approved products, Imidan 50WG, Imidan 50WP not approved. MIZ: (August 2022), no approved products listed
- Ultra Scientific Inc. Phosmet (Imidan) Safety Data Sheet.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2001. Pesticides: Reregistration. Phosmet IRED facts. (safer alternatives available)
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database: 2023. Phosmet (Imidan, Imidathion)
- University of Hertfordshire, Pesticide Properties Database, 2023: Phosmet.
2018. The Croatian Agriculture-Forestry Advisory Section for the Split-Dalmatian County recommended the Phosmet product Imidan for use on Hvar and in other olive-growing areas against fruit-flies in July 2018.
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Imidan 50WG against olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) 14.06.2019, 19.06.2019, 26.06.2019, 21.08.2019, 13.09.2019, 27.09.2019,
2019. Imidan (or - variously - Decis or Baturad or Rogor) recommended by a well-respected Hvar olive oil producer for use in May, June, against olive moth (prays oleae, Croatian: maslinin moljac); Imidan (or Decis or Rogor or Rogor with Buminal or Success Bait or Eko-Trap) recommended to be used in July, August, September and October against olive fruit fly (bactrocera oleae, Croatian: maslinova muha)
 
PROPOXUR Carbamate insecticide, acaricide
EU / ECHA February 2024: Propoxur not approved Croatia FIS February 2024: not approved MIZ (August 2022) not approved.
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to fish, birds, bees and some plants (chrysanthemums, orchids, roses). In humans: probable human carcinogen; endocrine disruptor; can cause headaches, blurred vision, pupillary constriction, dizziness; abdominal cramps, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting. muscle cramps, excessive salivation, sweating, breathing difficulties, muscle twitching. convulsions, unconsciousness, even death; can be absorbed into the body by inhalation, through the skin and by ingestion.
Products (on Internet, July 2023): Baygon; Hockley Propoxur (UK, for export outside of the EU); Propoxur 200g(ltr EC (Pestman, China); Propoxur - Pestanal® (Merck, no longer available); Indiamart Propoxur products (Aprocarb); AccuStandard Propoxur product listing. Petcare NOTIX PS Propoxur 0,1% dog shampoo; Elite zoo (Propoxur) shampoo Antiparasitic for short-haired cats, 275 ml; Bayer Propoxur Bayopet® Dog Shampoo Against Lice and Fleas; Bayopet Tick and Flea Collar for Dogs.
Approved products: ECHA / FIS, February 2024 / MIZ (August 2022): no approved products. Official GHS* warnings: H301: Toxic if swallowed [Danger Acute toxicity, oral] H400: Very toxic to aquatic life [Warning Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard] H410: Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects [Warning Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term hazard] Precautionary Statement Codes P264, P270, P273, P301+P316, P321, P330, P391, P405, and P501
Sources: PubChem 2023. Propoxur (Compound)
PPBD: Pesticide Properties Database. 2023. Propoxur
International Labour Organisation (World Health Organization) 2021. Propoxur, Physical and Chemical Information.
Chemical Watch Factsheet. 2010. Propoxur
New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services. 1998, revised 2005. Propoxur Hazardous Substance Fact Sheet. https://nj.gov/health/eoh/rtkweb/documents/fs/1604.pdf
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1997. R.E.D. Facts: Propoxur
ON HVAR: Propoxur identified in a Hvar resident living near Vrboska (fem., 48) via a hair sample taken on 25/05/2023, analysed by the Kudzu Science laboratory on 21/06/2023.
 
PYRIPROXYFEN Insect growth regulator (IGR). Aromatic ether, member of pyridines (substance group unclassified)
Possible adverse effects: Toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates; Very toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects; moderately toxic to bees, earthworms; in humans: harmful if absorbed through the skin, or swallowed; causes eye irritation; possibly affects male fertility; possible endocrine disruptor, may have an estrogenic effect; possible liver and blood toxicant
EU February 2024: Pyriproxyfen approved 01/08/2020 - 31/07/2035. ECHA: approved PT18 01/02/2015 - 31/01/2025.
Products: Cimetrol Super EW (pyriproxyfen, cypermethrin, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide); Inz-Eco Mosquito Trap (pyriproxyfen, permethrin, tetramethrin); Inzecto Larvicide Chips G (pyriproxyfen, geraniol): Pesguard Gel (pyriproxyfen, chlothianidin); Brai; Harpun; Proximo; Pyxal; Sumilan; Proxilar compresse; Tigrex compresse.
Product approvals: ECHA February 2024: 9 authorizations (PT18);  Croatia FIS February 2024: 3 approved products: (1008) Brai approved 05/10/2016-31/12/2028; (1089) Harpun approved 31/08/2017-31/12/2028; (1112) Proximo approved 28/11/2017-31/12/2028; Pyxal, Sumilan, Proxilar compresse, Tigrex compresse not approved; MIZ: (August 2022), 4 products listed: (1981) Cimetrol Super EW approved 08/04/2020; (2507) Inz-Eco Mosquito Trap approved 17/11/2020; (2508) Inzecto Larvicide Chips G approved 24/01/2022; (2892) Pesguard Gel approved 03/03/2016.
Sources: - PubChem 2021. Pyriproxyfen (compound)
- EFSA. 2020. Pyriproxyfen
- Shahid, A., Zaidi, S.D., Akbar, H., Saeed, S. 2019. An investigation on some toxic effects of pyriproxyfen in adult male mice. Iran Journal of Basic Medical Sciences 22 (9) 997 - 1003. 48 references
- Pesticide Properties Database. 2021. Pyriproxyfen.
- US Environmental Protection Agency. 2012. Label amendments for Pyriproxyfen Insect Growth Regulator.
ON HVAR: 2019: Pyxal recommended by a well-respected Hvar olive oil producer for use in May against scale insects (coccoidea, Croatian: štitašte uši)
 
RESMETHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid.
Possible adverse effects: potentially harmful to humans: endocrine disruptor, neurotoxic, eye and skin irritant, possible thyroid toxicity; possible human carcinogen; highly toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates; moderately toxic to birds; 
EU / ECHA February 2024: Resmethrin not approved. [Banned in the United States since 2015.]
Products, Trade names: Chrysron, Crossfire, Raid Flying Insect Killer.
Product approvals: ECHA, FIS February 2024: no approved products. MIZ, (August 2022) no approved products
Sources: - PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2021. Resmethrin.
- US EPA. 2011. Permethrin, Resmethrin, d-Phenothrin (Sumithrin®): Synthetic Pyrethroids for Mosquito Control.
- University of Hertfordshire, Pesticide Properties Database 2021. Resmethrin.
ON HVAR: Resmethrin was on the list of pesticides recommended for use around Hvar Town, Stari Grad and the Jelsa Council area, under the Programme issued by the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute for 2017.
 
SPINOSAD, combination of Spinosyn A and Spinosyn D, derived from naturally occurring soil fungi (naturalyte)
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to aquatic organisms, with long-lasting effects; highly toxic to bees; toxic to fish and earthworms; in humans can cause allergic reactions and eye irritation.
EU February 2024: Spinosad approved 01/02/2007 - 15/03/2025. ECHA: Approved, PT18, 01/11/2012 - 30/04/2025, renewal in progress (February 2024).
Products: Laser, Success Bait, Laser GR
Product approvals: ECHA February 2024: 38 authorizations (PT18); Croatia FIS February 2024: 3 approved products;: (374) Laser approved 20/03/2002 - 30/04/2029; (635) Success Bait approved 11/01/2005 - 31/12/2028; (1530) Laser GR approved 28/12/2022 - 30/04/2029. MIZ, (August 2022):  No approved products
Sources: - ECHA 2019. Spinosad Factsheet.
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties DataBase. 2021. Spinosad.
- PubChem Database 2021 Spinosad
- Syracuse Environmental Research Associates, Inc. 2016. Spinosad: Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment. SERA TR-056-16-03b
ON HVAR: Laser used by individuals, especially on vines (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Laser (19.06.2019) and Success Bait (13.09.2019, 27.09.2019)
 
SPIROTETRAMAT tetramic acid insecticide.
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; moderately toxic to fish, algae, aquatic plants, sediment dwelling organisms, birds, earthworms. In humans: possible liver and kidney toxicant; may cause lung damage; possibly causes reproduction and developmental problems; skin sensitiser; eye irritant;
EU February 2024: Spirotetramat approved 01/05/2014 - 30/04/2024. ECHA: Spirotetramat not approved
Product: Movento
Product approvals: ECHA February 2024: no approved products; Croatia FIS February 2024, 1 product approved: (1017) Movento approved 31/10/2016 - 30/04/2025. MIZ (August 2022): no approved products.
Sources - PubChem Database25/10/2006 / 13/08/2022 Spirotetramat
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties DataBase. 04/08/2022. Spirotetramat
- Francesena, N., Desneux, N., de Campos, M.R. et al. 2017. Side effects of spirotetramat on pupae and adults of a Neotropical strain of Eretmocerus mundus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae): Effects on the life parameters and demography. Environmental Science & Pollution Research 24, 17719–17730 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-9400-z pub 10.6.2017
- María Del Mar Fernández, Pilar Medina, Alberto Fereres, Guy Smagghe, Elisa Viñuela, Are Mummies and Adults of Eretmocerus mundus (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) Compatible With Modern Insecticides? , Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 108, Issue 5, October 2015, Pages 2268–2277, https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/tov181
ON HVAR: Movento recommended by the Ministry of Agriculture and the Phytosanitary Institute (FIS) against orange spiny whitefly (aleurocanthus spiniferus); ordered to be used by the Phytosanitary inspector on a private property (September 2021).
 
SULFOXAFLOR  Sulfoximine insecticide.
Possible adverse effects: Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects; can be very harmful to honeybees, bumblebees and earthworms; moderately harmful to aquatic crustaceans and  sediment-dwelling organisms. In humans: possible liver toxicant; possible carcinogen (US Environmental Protection Agency); possibly affects reproduction and development.
EU February 2024: Sulfoxaflor approved 18/08/2015 - 18/08/2025. BUT  as from April 2022. the use of Sulfoxaflor has been restricted to indoors in permanent greenhouses only because of its high risk to pollinators, especially bees.  ECHA: Sulfloxaflor not approved
Approvals: ECHA February 2024: no approved products; Croatia FIS February 2024, 1 approved product: (1223) Closer approved 28/05/2019 - 18/08/2026. MIZ (August 2022): no approved products
Sources: - PubChem Database  2023. Sulfoxaflor
- Pesticide Properties Database. 2023. Sulfoxaflor
- Damasceno, J.M., Rato, L.D., Simoes, T., Morao, I.F.C., Meireles, G., Novais, S.C., Lemos, M.F.L. 2021. Exposure to the Insecticide Sulfoxaflor Affects Behaviour and Biomarkers Responses of Carcinus maenas (Crustacea: Decapoda) Biology (Basel) December, 10 (12): 1234
- Siviter H, Brown MJF, 2018. Leadbeater E. Sulfoxaflor exposure reduces bumblebee reproductive success. Nature, September, 561 (7721): 109-112
ON HVAR: Closer recommended by the Ministry of Agriculture and the Phytosanitary Institute (FIS) against orange spiny whitefly (aleurocanthus spiniferus); ordered to be used by the Phytosanitary inspector on a private property (September 2021).
 
TETRAMETHRIN, d-TETRAMETHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroids
Possible adverse effects: potential human carcinogen, also can cause dizziness, breathing difficulties, coughing, eye irritation, gastrointestinal upset, blisters and skin rashes; extremely toxic to bees and aquatic organisms, including fish and aquatic invertebrates.
EU February 2024: Tetramethrin not approved, d-tetramethrin, trans-Tetramethrin not listed: ECHA February 2024: Tetramethrin & d-tetramethrin under evaluation, application for renewal in progress
Products: Permex 22E (with permethrin & piperonyl butoxide); Cymina Plus (with cypermethrin), Cymina Ultra (with cypermethrin & piperonyl butoxide); Household insect-killing sprays such as Killtox insekticid (with permethrin & piperonyl butoxide); Raid sprej muhe i komarci (tetramethrin, d-cis, trans allethrin); Raid sprej protiv gmižućih i letećih insekata (tetramethrin with phenothrin); Raid sprej protiv muha i komaraca (tetramethrin, permethrin); Bayer Garden protiv letećih insekata (d-tetramethrin with d-phenothrin); Strike protiv osa, stršlena i azijskih stršlena (d-trans tetramethrin with permethrin and piperonyl butoxide)
Product approvals: ECHA February 2024: no approved products (PT18); Croatia FIS February 2024 No approved products, Permex 22E, Cymina Plus, Cymina Ultra not approved MIZ: (August 2022): c. 88 products were listed based on tetramethrin, only three on tetramethrin alone; nine were based on d-trans tetramethrin or trans tetramethrin:   (1249) insekticid Joker Bun (tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 26/06/2014; (1352) Bitox insecticide Spray 400ml (tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 20/04/2015; (1354) Insekticid za dom Yuki Spray, (d-trans-tetramethrin, phenothrin), approved 20/04/2015; (1355) Insekticid dvostruko djelovanje, ((tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide, d-phenothrin), approved 20/04/2015; (1371) Insekticid Tam Tam, (tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 07/05/2015; (1563) Agritox, (tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 30/04/2018; (1572) Akvacid, (tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 24/05/2016; (1736) Atoks, (tetramethrin, methyl cyclopropane carboxylate), approved 14/02/2017; (1737) Atoks hornet sprej protiv osa, stršljena i njihovih legla (tetramethrin), approved 19/06/2019; (1752) Bado ose i stršljeni, (tetramethrin, prallethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 21/04/2022; (1768) Bengal sprej protiv svih insekata, (d-trans-tetramethrin), approved 25/09/2017; (1778) Bifent Fogger Plus, (tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 23/05/2019; (1899) BROS prašak protiv muha 1 (tetramethrin, cypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 06/02/2019; (1902) BROS sprej protiv gmižućih insekata 1, (tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 06/02/2019; (1903) BROS sprej protiv muha i komaraca, (tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 19/10/2021; 1981 Cimetrol Super EW, (tetramethrin, cypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide, piriproxyfen), approved 08/04/2020; 2067 Daytox insekticid u spreju, (tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 03/06/2016; (2134) Despar insekticidni sprej protiv komaraca i muha 400ml, trans-tetamethrin, approved 23/03/2022; (2270) Effect Ultimum pro, (tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 19/06/2020; (2295) Faracid, (tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 06/02/2019; (2298) Flash 22 - sprej protiv letećih kukaca(tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 25/04/2017; (2299) Flash 22 mosche e zanzare 400ml, (tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 04/04/2016; (2300) Flash 22 sprej protiv muha i komaraca (tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 22/07/2021; (2301) Flash 23 sprej protiv puzećih kukaca, (tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 14/02/2017; (2302) Flash 23 sprej protiv gmizučih insekata, (tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 22/07/2021; (2317) Fly tomb 4 GR, (tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 15/06/2016; (2318) Flytrin 6.14, (tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 20/05/2021; (2334) FORTH spray protiv moljaca, (tetramethrin), approved 17/12/2015; (2426) HIT insect killer 400ml sprej protiv insekata, (tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide, d-phenothrin)), approved 20/02/2019; (2463) Indusect EC, (tetramethrin, cypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 07/06/2017; (2464) Indusect ME, (tetramethrin, cypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 08/06/2017; (2465) Indusect Micro, (tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 08/06/2017; (2507) Inz-Eco mosquito trap, (tetramethrin, permethrin, piriproxyfen), approved 17/11/2020; (2556) Killer ultra, (tetramethrin, cypermethrin, chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium extract), approved 30/10/2019; (2743) Mr Kill sprej protiv muha i drugih insekata, (tetram30)ethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide, pyrethrins & pyrethroids), approved 13/02/2017; 2802 Nooze insetticida liquido microincapsulato, (tetramethrin, cypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 01/6/2020; (2803) Nooze insetticida spray M&Z, (tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 11/03/2020; (2804) Nooze insetticida spray S&F, (tetramethrin, cypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 28/02/2020; (2966) Profissimo sprej protiv insekata 400 ml, (tetramethrin, permethrin), approved 12/06/2018; (2971) Protect wasp killer aerosol, (d-trans-tetramethrin), approved 08/06/2022; (3247) Speed Stop Insekticidna pjena protiv mrava i žohara 300 ml, (tetramethrin, permethrin), approved 10/03/2020; (3261) Sprej protiv mtava i žohara / ant and crawling spray, (tetramethrin, permethrin), approved 09/05/2017; (3262) Sprej protiv muha i osa / fly & wasp killer, (tetramethrin, permethrin), approved 09/05/2017; (3313) Stop insekticid sprej za leteće i gmižuće insekte, (tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 30/04/2018; (3317) Strike protiv osa, stršljena i azijskih stršljena, (d-trans-tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 31/01/2017; 3346 Tator, (tetramethrin, cypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 21/02/2019; (64) Amplat, (tetramethrin, cypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 11/03/2010; (65) Amplat, (tetramethrin, cypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 11/09/2009; (101) Aroxol sprej protiv muha i komaraca, (tetramethrin, phenothrin), approved 11/03/2013; (137) Bayer Garden protiv letećih insekata, (d-tetramethrin, d-phenothrin), approved 27/09/2011; (217) Bogaclean antiparasitic spray, (tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide, pyrethrins & pyrethroids), approved 31/12/2013; (218) Bogaclean flea fogger, (tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide, pyrethrins & pyrethroids, cypermethrin, S-metropen), approved 31/12/2013; (228) Bros insect spray, (tetramethrin, deltamethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 25/07/2012; (232) Bros prašak protiv insekata, (tetramethrin, cypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 03/11/2011; (241) Bros sprej protiv osa i stršljenova, (tetramethrin, cypermethrin, permethrin), approved 16/08/2012; (315) Clear Score Plus, (tetramethrin, pyrethrins, liquefied petroleum gas, isopropyl alcohol), approved 03/09/2009; (342) Cymina Ultra, (tetramethrin, cypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 04/02/2011; (343) Cymina Ultra, (tetramethrin, cypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 04/2/2011; (344) Cyperbase, (tetramethrin, cypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 24/03/2014; (452) Draker 10.2, (tetramethrin, cypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 05/02/2010; (453) Draker RTU, (tetramethrin, cypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 02/10/2012; (458) Duracid sprej, (tetramethrin, cypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 01/02/2011; (465) Effect insekticid protiv osa i stršljenova (aerosol), (tetramethrin, permethrin), approved 10/05/2011; (466) Effect Microtech CS, (tetramethrin, permethrin), approved 26/09/2013; (467) Effect Ultimum, (tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 15/04/2014; (468) Effect univerzalni insekticid aerosol, (tetramethrin, permethrin), approved 21/05/2009; (471) Entox insekticid aerosol, (tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 13/06/2011; (479) Final Fliegen Turbo Spray, (tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 26/09/2013; (480) Final universal ungezieferspray, (tetramethrin, permethrin, cypermethrin), approved 26/09/2013; (492) Forth sprej protiv muha i komaraca, (tetramethrin, pyrethrins, pyrethroids, piperonyl butoxide), approved 24/04/2014; (494) Foval CE, (tetramethrin, cypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 04/11/2010; (495) Foval Komarci i muhe, (tetramethrin, cypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 29/12/2010; (594) Insetticida fulmine contro mosce i zanzare, (tetramethrin), approved 07/4/2010; (653) Killtox insekticid, (tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 05/10/2010; (698) Maxicarb forte, (tetramethrin, bendiocarb, piperonyl butoxide), approved 14/12/2012; (712) Mercator insekticid protiv letećih insekata s raspršivačem, (tetramethrin, pyrethrum extract (pyrethrins & pyrethroids), approved 01/04/2010; (723) Microsene, (permethrin, cis/trans 25/75, tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 17/03/2010; (724) Microsene, (tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 11/09/2009; (747) Mount Sprej, (tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 27/04/2012; (748) Mount sprej aqua, (tetramethrin, permethrin), approved 19/11/2012; (869) Permex 22E, (tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 26/04/2012; (872) Pertrin S, (tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 20/03/2010; (880) Pitroid spraj protiv gmižućih kukaca, (tetramethrin, permethrin), approved 20/04/2009; (881) Pitroid spraj protiv letećih kukaca, (tetramethrin, permethrin), approved 20/04/2009; (882) Pitroid Total Spray, (tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide, d-phenothrin), approved 22/05/2009; (916) Protect wasp Killer Aerosol, (d-trans-tetramethrin, cyphenothrin), approved 04/10/2010; (952) Raid sprej muhe i komarci, (tetramethrin d-cis, trans-allethrin), approved 10/10/2011; (953) Raid sprej protiv gmižućih i letećih insekata, (tetramethrin, phenothrin), approved 21/04/2011; (954) Raid sprej protiv muha i komaraca, (tetramethrin, permethrin), approved 18/03/2010; (1055) Smartline insekticid sprey, (tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 23/05/2011; (1088) Sprej Despar protiv muha i komaraca, (d-tetramethrin, d-allethrin, d-phenothrin), No approval details; (1090) Sprej Despar protiv žohara i mrava, (d-tetramethrin, d-allethrin, d-phenothrin), No approval details; 1091 Sprej Plus ZAZ protiv muha i komaraca 400ml, (tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 21/03/2014; (1092) Sprej protiv insekata 400ml, (tetramethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 09/03/2011; (1130) Super Birtox insekticid aerosol, (tetramethrin, permethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 24/06/2010; (1149) Tator, (tetramethrin, cypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 25/02/2011; (1162) Terminator X sprej protiv muha i komaraca, tetramethrin, natural pyrethrin extract, piperonyl butoxide), approved 09/12/2010. Cymina Plus not approved.
Sources: - ECHA 2019. Tetramethrin Factsheet.
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2008, revised 2010. Reregistration Eligibility Decision Document for Tetramethrin.
- Thoreby, E. (author), Williams, M.M. (editor), Lah, K. (updater) 2011. Tetramethrin. Toxipedia.
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database 2023. Tetramethrin.
- ECHA, (updated 21 10 2018) Tetramethrin
USED ON HVAR: DDD programme, for adult insect suppression: 2016: Permex 22E- Hvar Town and its surrounds, June, July x2, August, October; Stari Grad and its environs, June, July, August; Jelsa Council area, July x2, August 2016. 2017: Hvar Town and surrounds Permex 22E 25th May, 20th June; 13th July; 11th August, 28th September, 12th October. Permex 22E total: 22 litres; Stari Grad and surrounds 17-18th May, 14th July, 11th August, 26th September, total 10 litres; Jelsa Council region, 12th July, 10th August, 27th September 2017, 9 litres. 2018: Hvar Town region, 24th July 2018, quantity 3 kg; Stari Grad region, 26th July, 15th August, 6th September, 3L; Jelsa region, 25th July, 14th August, 5th September 2018, 4L. 2019, 2020, Permex22E used in the insect suppression fogging programme on Hvar (Hvar Town, Stari Grad, Jelsa)
2019, 2020: Permex22E used on Hvar in the insect suppression fogging programme.
 
THIAMETHOXAM. Neonicotinoid.
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to aquatic life, with acute and lasting effects; highly toxic to bees; toxic to earthworms; in humans, can be harmful through skin contact, inhalation, and especially ingestion; can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, dizziness, headache; ingestion can cause seizures, coma, hypothermia, respiratory failure, hypotension, ventricular dysrhythmias and death.
EU February 2024: Thiamethoxam not approvedECHA: approved PT18 01/02/2015 - 31/01/2025.
Products: Agita 10 WG; Actara 25WG, Actara 240SC, Cruiser SB, Centric, Flagship, Meridian, Optigard, Platinum. 
Product approvals: ECHA PT18, February 2024, 2 authorizations, Croatia FIS February 2024: no approved products MIZ: (August 2022), 1 product listed: (27) Agita 10 WG, approved 02/03/2010
Sources: - ECHA 2019. Thiamethoxam Substance information.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2021. Thiamethoxam
- Coulon, M., Schurr, F., Martel, A.-C., Cougoule, N., Bégaud, A., Mangoni, P., Dlamon, A., Alaux, C., Le Conte, Y., Thiéry R., Ribière-Chabert, M., Dubois, E. 2018. Metabolisation of thiamethoxam (a neonicotinoid pesticide) and interaction with the Chronic bee paralysis virus in honeybees. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 144: 10-18
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database 2021. Thiamethoxam.
- Tosi, S., Nieh, J.C. 2017. A common nicotinoid pesticide, thiamethoxam, alters honey bee activity, motor functions and movement to light. Nature Scientific Reports 7: article number 15132.
USED ON HVAR Actara used by individuals cultivating olives, vines, etc. (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Actara (10.05.2019, 14.06.2019, 19.06.2019)
 
TRANSFLUTHRIN. Pyrethroid insecticide
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to aquatic life, with acute and lasting effects;  in humans, possible carcinogen; toxic, can be fatal if inhaled; kidney and liver toxicant; causes skin irritation, eye irritation.
EU February 2024: Transfluthrin not approved. ECHA: approved PT18 01/11/2015 - 31/10/2025.
Product approvals: ECHA PT18, February 2024, 98 authorizations, Croatia FIS February 2024: no approved products MIZ: (August 2022), 12 product listed: 15 based on transfluthrin alone, five in mixtures. (see the Croatian version of this article for details)
Sources: -Mahato, H., Das, V., Saha, T., Dutta S.K., Battacharra, S., Biswas, S. 2015. Toxic potential of inhalational transfluthrin insecticide on different tissues in animal model International Journal of Current Rsearch 7 (11) pp 22554-22559.
Santa Cruz, USA. 2019. Transfluthrin Safety Data Sheet.
AK Scientific Inc. USA. 2020. Transfluthrin Safety Data Sheet
ECHA Transfluthrin. Substance Infocard
PubChem 2023 Transfluthrin
PPDB 2023. Transfluthrin
ON HVAR: 2023. Transfluthrin identified in a Vrisnik resident from a hair sample taken on 15/06/2023, analysed by the Kudzu Science laboratory on 17/07/2023.
HVAR 2023: Analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory of hair samples revealed the presence of Transfluthrin in the following people:
1. female (b. 1964), living in Vrisnik, sample taken on 15/06/2023, analysed 17/07/2023.
2. male (b. 1964) living in Hvar, sample taken on 17/06/2023, analysed on 17/07/2023.
3. male (b. 2019) living in Pitve, sample taken on 26/06/2023, analysed 17(07/2023.
4. female (b. 1988) living in Pitve, sample taken on 26/06/2023, analysed 17(07/2023.
5. female (b. 1982) living in Jelsa, sample taken on 22/12/2023, analysed on 08/01/2024.spirotetramat
 
TRICHLORFON. Organophosphate.
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to birds, bees, and aquatic organisms, toxic to fish; in humans, possible carcinogen; suspected to cause reproductive problems and birth defects; can cause vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal cramps; affects the nervous system: can cause confusion, headaches, irritability, speech difficulties, memory and concentration loss; when inhaled, causes breathing problems, pulmonary oedema, sometimes nose-bleeds; eye contact can cause redness and bleeding, tears, blurred vision; skin contact can cause sweating and muscle contractions; severe poisoning affects the central nervous system and can cause loss of coordination (ataxia), slurred speech, weakness, fatigue, paralysis, unconsciousness, and even death; symptoms such as cramps, tingling, numbness in the legs followed by incoordination and paralysis sometimes come on 1-4 weeks after exposure and can leave permanent disability.
EU /ECHA / Croatia FIS February 2024 / MIZ (August 2022): Trichlorfon not approved.
Sources: - National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database. 2005, modified 2018. Metrifonate -TRICHLORFON.
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database 2023. Trichlorfon.
USED ON HVAR: for many years trichlorfon was distributed to households together with rat poison (Ratimor, see below), previously in flimsy cellophane packaging. In tablet form, it was intended for use down toilet pans: when used, it most probably finished in the sea from seaside properties, or in the soil from soak-away septic tanks.
 
Dangerous poisons in flimsy packaging. Photo: Vivian Grisogono.
TRICOSENE. Chemical compound: muscalure, Z-9-tricosene, cis-tricos-9-ene, muscamone
Possible adverse effects: Irritant to skin and eyes on contact; inhalation can cause irritation to the respiratory tract; highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates
EU February 2024: Tricosene ot approved  ECHA: Approved PT19, repellants and attractants, 01/10/2014 - 30/09/2024.
Products: Quick Bayt (imidacloprid with tricosene), Maxforce Fly Spot Bait, Bonanza Fly Bait, Stimukil Fly Bait.
Product approvals: ECHA February 2024: no authorizations (PT19); Croatia FIS February 2024 no approved products MIZ: (August 2022): no approved products. (note: Quick Bayt, active ingredient imidacloprid on its own, approved 10/08/2009)
Sources: - ECHA 2019. Tricosene Factsheet.
- University of Hertfordshire Bio-Pesticides DataBase. 2023. Muscalure, Z-9-tricosene.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database, 2023. Tricosene
USED ON HVAR DDD programme, on rubbish tips: 2018: Quick Bayt®, Hvar Town region, 3rd July, 2 kg; Stari Grad region, 3rd July, 25th July, 15th July, 6th September 2018, 2 kg.
2017: Quick Bayt insecticde was used in the Sućuraj region, with thiamethoxam (probably incorrectly) listed as its active ingredient in the report to the Sućuraj council (certificate / potvrda 52177, dated 04/06/2017)
2020: Quick Bayt (active ingredient imidacloprid) used around the Jelsa Council region (DDD programme)
 
2. SYNERGIST (INERT SUBSTANCE / MIXER)
PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE (PBO). Pyrethroid synergist.
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; may cause birth defects, including holoprosencephaly (HPE); may delay mental development in infants; animal studies show possible damage, including tumours, in mice and rats.
EU February 2024: Piperonyl Butoxide not yet assessed at EU level. ECHA February 2024: 2-(2-butoxyethoxy)ethyl 6-propylpiperonyl ether (Piperonyl butoxide/PBO) approved 01/07/2018 - 30/06/2028..
Selected products: Permex 22E, Cymina Ultra (Cypermethrin, Tetramethrin), Cymina Plus (Cypermethrin, Tetramethrin) Neopitroid Premium (Permethrin & D-Allethrin) 
Product approvals: ECHA PT18, February 2024: 27 authorizations.
Croatia FIS February 2024, 2 products listed: (944) K-Obiol EC 25 (deltamethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 01/03/2016 - 31/10/2024 & (810) Kofumin 77 UL (cypermethrin, piperonyl butoxide), approved 19/12/2014-15/10/2022, authorization withdrawn, final use deadline 15/04/2024; Permex 22E, Cymina Ultra, Cymina Plus, Neopitroid Premium not authorized.
MIZ (August 2022): c.101 products listed (insecticides, ECHA PT18); including Permex 22E approved April 2012. Cymina Ultra approved February 2011. Neopitroid Premium approved July 2011. approval withdrawn August 2022. Cymina Plus not approved
Sources: - Okamiya, H., Mitsumori, K., Onodera, H., Ito, S., Imazawa, T., Yasuhara, K., Takahashi, M. 1998. Mechanistic study on liver tumor promoting effects of piperonyl butoxide in rats. Archives of Toxicology 72 (11): 744-750.
- Khan, M.Z. & Law, F.C.P. 2005. Adverse effects of pesticides and related chemicals on enzyme and hormone systems of fish, amphibians and reptiles: a review. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Science 42 (4): 315-323.
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. Reregistration Eligibility Decision for Piperonyl Butoxide (PBO)
- Muguruma, M., Nishimura, J., Jin, M., Kashida, Y., Moto, M., Takahashi, M., Yokouchi, Y., Mitsumori, K. 2006. Molecular pathological analysis for determining the possible mechanism of piperonyl butoxide-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. Toxicology 228 (2-3): 178-187.
- Horton, M. K., Rundle, A., Camann, D.E., Boyd Barr, D., Rauh, V.A., Whyatt, R. M. 2011. Impact of Prenatal Exposure to Piperonyl Butoxide and Permethrin on 36-month Neurodevelopment. Pediatrics.
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Piperonyl Butoxide
- Everson, J.L., Sun, M.R., Fink, D.M., Heyne, G.W., Melberg, C.G., Nelson, K.F., Doroodchi, P., Colopy, L.J., Ulschmid, C.M., Martin, A.A., McLaughlin, M.T., Lipinski, R.J. 2019. Developmental Toxicity Assessment of Piperynol Butoxide Exposure Targeting Sonic Hedgehog Signaling and Forebrain and Face Morphogenesis in the Mouse: An in Vitro and in Vivo Study. Environmental Health Perspectives, 127, 10
For an overview of inert substances, please refer to the United States Environmental Protection Agency listing: Pesticide Registration, Inert Ingredients.
USED ON HVAR in Permex 22E for adult insect suppression 'fogging' spraying and dispersion (see Permethrin or Tetramethrin, above)
 
3. FUNGICIDES (Agricultural fungicides are not included in the ECHA list of approved biocidal substances)
AMETOCTRADIN Triazolopyrimidine fungicide
Ametoctradin possible adverse effects: highly toxic to fish; moderately toxic to aquatic invertebrates, algae, birds, earthworms; GHS (Globally Harmonized System of Labelling): H302 harmful if swallowed Precautionary statement codes: P264, P270, P301+P317, P330, P501,
EU February 2024: Approved to 31/12/2025.
Approved products: Croatia FIS February 2024: 2 approved products 998 Orvego (Ametocradin, Dimetomorph) approved 12/09/2016-31/07/2028; 1333 Enervin SC (Ametocradin) approved 28/12/2020-31/07/2024.
Sources: PPDB. 2023. Ametoctradin
PubChem 2008. Ametoctradin
ON HVAR, 2023. Chemical analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory of a hair sample taken on 25/05/2023, analysed on 21/06/2023 revealed the presence of Ametoctradin in a female (b.1975) living near Vrboska.
 
AZOXYSTROBIN (substance group strobilurin)
Possible adverse effectshighly toxic to aquatic organisms and the aquatic environment, with long-lasting effects; highly toxic to hoverfly larvae; toxic to fish, earthworms; in humans, suspected possible carcinogen; can be fatal if swallowed; highly toxic if inhaled; harmful if absorbed through the skin; skin and eye irritant.
EU February 2024: Azoxystrobin approved 01/01/2012 - 31/12/2024 [ECHA: Asoxystrobin authorized for film preservatives (PT07), fibre, leather, rubber, polymerised materials preservatives (PT09), construction materials preservatives (PT10).]
Approved products, February 2024: Croatia FIS 26 products approved, 19 containing azoxystrobin alone, 7 combined with other active ingredients: 20 Amistar 250 SC, approved 29/06/2009-31/12/2025; 472 Ortiva, approved 12/07/2010-31/12/2025; 541 Quadris, approved 19/03/2010-31/07/2025; 701 Universalis (azoxystrobin, folpet), approved 21/05/2007-31/12/2028; 778 Ortiva Top (azoxystrobin, difenoconazole), approved 28/03/2013-31/12/2024; 863 Tazer, approved 13/02/2015-31/12/2025; 926 Azaka, approved 03/12/2015-31/12/2025; 951 Amistar Gold (azoxystrobin, difenoconazole), approved 09/02/2016-31/12/2024; 979 Zignal Super (azoxystrobin, fluazinam), approved 02/06/2016-28/02/2029; 1122 Zakeo 250 SC, approved 08/01/2018-31/12/2025; 1124 Mirador 250 SC, approved 08/01/2018-31/12/2025; 1125 Zaftra AZT 250 SC, approved 08/01/2018-31/12/2025; 1126 Custodia (azoxystrobin, tebuconazole), approved 09/01/2018-31/08/2024; 1164 Zoxis 250 SC, approved 17/08/2018-31/12/2025; 1177 Legado, approved 08/08/2018-31/12/2025; 1206 Diagonal, approved 26/02/2019-31/12/2025; 1220 Patras (azoxystrobin, tebuconazole), approved 20/05/2019-31/08/2028; 1237 Sinstar, approved 13/08/2019-31/12/2025; 1325 Azbany, approved 04/11/2020-31/12/2025; 1413 Sivar, approved 22/11/2021-31/12/2025; 1417 Aztek 250 SL, approved 06/12/2021-31/12/2025; 1458 Calizi, approved 16/03/2022-31/12/2025; 1490 Ortofin, approved 18/07/2022-31/12/2025; 1509 Sivar Gold, approved 05/10/2022-31/12/2025; 1513 Dynasty (azoxystrobin, difenoconazole), approved 24/10/2022-31/12/2024; 1537 Priori approved 20/01/2023-31/12/2025.
Sources: - ECHA substance infocard: Azoxystrobin
- PubChem 2023. Azoxystrobin.
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database 2023. Azoxystrobin.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency 2016. Azoxystrobin, Conditional Registration.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency 1997. Azoxystrobin. Pesticide Fact Sheet, for Conditional Registration.
USED ON HVAR: Universalis is used, especially on vines (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
HVAR 2021, 2022: Chemical analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory of hair samples tested on 19/02/2021 and 08/12/2022 revealed the presence of Azoxystrobin in a Pitve resident (fem. b.1948).
HVAR  2023 Chemical analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory of hair samples revealed the presence of Azoxystrobin in the following people:
1. female (b.1975) living near Vrboska, sample taken on 25/05/2023, analysed on 21/06/2023 .
2. female (b. 1964) living in Vrisnik, sample taken on 17/06/2023, analysed on 17/07/2023.
3. male (b. 1964) living in Hvar, sample taken on 17/06/2023, analysed on 17/07/2023.
4. male (b.2019) living in Pitve, sample taken on 26/06/2023, analysed on 17/07/2023.
5. female (b.1988) living in Pitve, sample taken on 26/06/2023, analysed on 17/07/2023.
6. female (b. 1987) living in Jelsa, sample taken on 06/11/2023, tested on 01/12/2023.
7. female (b. 1982) living in Jelsa, sample taken on 22/12/2023, analysed on 08/01/2024.
 
BACILLUS amyloliquefaciens, pumilus, subtilis strains
EU February 2024: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (formerly subtilis) strain QST 713 approved 01/02/2007-30/06/2038; Bacillus amyloliquefaciens soj FZB24 decision pending; Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808 approved 01/09/2014-31/08/2024; Bacillus subtilis strain IAB/BS03 approved 20/10/2019-20/10/2034
Approved products: Croatia FIS February 2024: Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (formerly subtilis) strain QST 713 (1280) Serenade ASO approved 01/04/2020.-30/04/2029; Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24 (1429) Taegro approved 15/12/2021-01/06/2033; Bacillus pumilus strain QST 2808 (1281) Sonata approved 02/04/2020-31/08/2025; Bacillus subtilis strain IAB/BS03 (1566) Fungisei approved 05/05/2023.-20/10/2035.
 
BIXAFEN substance group pyrazolium
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to fish; very toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; toxic to birds, earthworms, aquatic invertebrates and algae; slightly toxic to honeybees; in humans, probable reproduction/developmental toxin
EU February 2024: Bixafen approved 01/10/2013-31/05/2025
Product approvals February 2024: Croatia FIS: 3 products approved: 1111 Ascra Xpro (fluopyrum, prothioconazole, bixafen), approved 01/12/2017-31/07/2029; 1244 Zantara (bixafen, prothioconazole), approved 31/07/2019-31/08/2028; 1431 Cayunis (bixafen, trifloxystrobin), approved 23/12/2021-31/12/2024.
PPDB, 2023. Bixafen
PubChem 2023. Bixafen
 
BOSCALID substance group carboxamide
Possible adverse effects: toxic to the aquatic environment, with long-lasting effects; moderately toxic to fish, birds and earthworms; may affect foraging capacity in honeybees; in humans: possible carcinogen; possible effects on reproduction and development.
EU February 2024: Boscalid approved 01/08/2008 - 15/04/2026
Product approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024 : 8 products approved, 3 based on boscalid alone, 5 in combination with other active ingredients: 66 Bellis (boscalid, pyraclostrobin), approved 04/01/2008-31/12/2028; 110 Cantus, approved 09/12/2004-31/12/2028; 616 Signum (boscalid, pyraclostrobin), approved 29/12/2006-31/12/2028; 1142 Collis (boscalid, kresoxyim-methyl), approved 05/02/2018-31/07/2028; 1479 Pictor Active (boscalid, pyraclostrobin), approved 09/06/2022-31/01/2029; 1486 Loyalty approved 21/06/2022-31/07/2024; 1602 Royalty approved 12/07/2023-15/04/2027; 494 Pictor (boscalid, dimoxystrobin), approved 29/12/2006-31/01/2024, registration expired, final date for sale 30/05/2024, final usage date 31/07/2024; 1532 Empartis (boscalid, kresoxim-methyl), approved 13/12/2022-31/07/2024, registration expiring, final date for sale 31/01/2025, final usage date 31/01/2026.
- PubChem 2023. Boscalid
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database 2023. Boscalid
- Liao, L-H., Wu, W-Y., Dad,A., Berenbaum, M.R. 2019. Fungicide suppression of flight performance in the honeybee (apis mellifera) and its amelioration by quercetin. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Biological Sciences
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Scientific Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Signum (19/06/2019)
ON HVAR 2021 Boscalid identified in a dust sample taken on June 22nd from a house near vineyards in Svirče
 
CALCIUM CHLORIDE substance group: inorganic compound
Possible adverse effects: toxic if swallowed; can cause serious respiratory problems; can cause severe eye irritation.
EU February 2024: Calcium chloride not approved [ECHA Calcium Chloride approved under PT02 (disinfectants and algaecides not intended for direct application to humans or animals) , 03 (Veterinary hygiene), 04 (food and feed area), 05 (drinking water), 11 (preservatives for liquid-cooling and processing systems)]
Product Cuprablau Z Ultra Product approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024: No approved products, Cuprablau Z Ultra not approved
Sources:  - PubChem 2023. Calcium chloride
- University of Hertfordshire 2023. Pesticide Properties DataBase Calcium chloride
 
CALCIUM HYDROXIDE, CALCIUM DIHYDROXIDE (Caustic lime, hydrated lime, slaked lime)
Possible adverse effects: corrosive; toxic for aquatic life; in humans: skin irritant; causes serious eye irritation, possible respiratory tract irritant;
EU February 2024 : Calcium hydroxide approved from 01/07/2015; calcium dihydroxide not listed  [ECHA June 2023: Calcium hydroxide, calcium dihydroxide approved 01/05/2018-30/04/2028 as disinfectants and algaecides not intended for direct application to humans or animals (PT02), and for veterinary hygiene (PT03) ]
Product Approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024, No approved products listed under calcium hydroxide, calcium dihydroxide.
- PubChem 2023. Calcium Dihydroxide (Calcium hydroxide, hydrate (compound)
- ECHA Infocard 2020. Calcium Dihydroxide
 
CAPTAN substance group phthalimide
EU February 2024: Captan approved 01/10/2007 - 15/11/2024
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to aquatic life, hazardous to aquatic environment; mod birds, earthworms, aquartic invertebrates, algae; in humans, acutely toxic if inhaled; suspected carcinogen; suspected endocrine disruptor; skin and eye irritant; may cause contact dermatitis; possibly a skin sensitiser,
Product approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024, 10 products listed, 9 based on captan alone: 112 Captan 80 WG, approved 21/01/2008-31/12/2028; 113 Captan ST-S, approved 03/02/1997-31/12/2028; 114 Captan WP 50, approved 01/03/2005-31/12/2028; 422 Merpan 80WDG, approved 29/04/2003-31/12/2028; 632 Kastor, 05/12/2003-31/12/2028; 723 Zato Plus (captan, trifloxystrobin), approved 21/01/2008-31/12/2028; 978 Scab 80 WG, approved 19/05/2016-31/07/2028; 995 Khapo 80 WG approved 03/08/2016-31/07/2028; 1022 Caption 80 WG, approved 25/11/2016-31/07/2028; 1123 Scab 480 SC, approved 23/01/2018-31/07/2028; 1249 "Merpan 80 WDG", approved 08/07/2019-31/12/2023, expired.
- PubChem 2023. Captan
- PPDB 2023. Captan
 
CARBENDAZIM substance group benzimidamole
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to aquatic organisms and the aquatic environment, with long-lasting effects; toxic to earthworms; moderately toxic to honeybees; in humans, may cause genetic defects; may damage fertility and the unborn child;
EU February 2024: Carbendazim not approved
Product: Tilt CB 187.5 FW (carbendazim and propiconazole)
Product approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024: No approved products, Tilt CB 187.5FW not approved
- PubChem 2023. Carbendazim
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database 2023. Carbendazim
 
CHLOROTHALONIL substance group chloronitrile
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to fish; very toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects; toxic to birds, honeybees, earthworms; in humans: can be fatal if swallowed or inhaled; possible carcinogen; can affect reproduction and development; possible endocrine disruptor; causes serious eye damage; can cause respiratory tract irritation; can cause allergic skin reaction
EU February 2024: Chlorothalonil not approved
Product: Folio Gold
Approved products: Croatia FIS, February 2024: No approved products, Folio Gold authorization withdrawn 20/11/2019
- PubChem 2023. Chlorothalonil
- PPDB Pesticide Properties Database University of Hertfordshire. 2023. Chlorothalonil
 
COPPER COMPOUNDS
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to fish, birds, aquatic invertebrates, organisms and plants; toxic to bees and earthworms; sheep, chickens; persists in the soil. In humans can cause nausea, irritation of respiratory tract and skin, eczema. Eye contact can cause conjunctivitis, inflammation of the eyelid lining, excess fluid build-up in the eyelid, clouding of the cornea, cornea tissue deterioration due to ulceration in the eye's mucous membrane.
Long-term, excessive exposure leads to the risk of heavy metal poisoning, including liver disease, brain damage, kidney and intestinal problems, anaemia, mutagenic potential; possible damaging effects on reproduction and development. Symptoms include: a metallic taste in the mouth, burning pain in the chest and abdomen, intense nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, headache, sweating, shock, disrupted urination leading to yellowing of the skin. People with Wilson's disease (in which copper is absorbed and stored excessively in the body01/10/2013-31/05/2025), are at special risk of poisoning from copper-based pesticides.
EU February 2024: Copper compounds, Bordeaux Mixture, copper oxide, copper oxychloride, copper hydroxide approved 01/01/2019-31/12/2025
Products: Bordeaux Mixture (combination of copper sulphate and hydrated lime / calcium dihydroxide; Bordoška juha Caffaro 20WP (copper compounds, Bordeaux Mixture), Bordoška juha 20WP Manica (copper compounds, Bordeaux Mixture); Kocide 3000 (copper hydroxide); Champ®Formula 2 (copper hydroxide), Champion WG50; Champion Flow SC; Comac (copper hydroxide), Wetcol 3 Copper Fungicide (tetracopper tricalcium sulphate and soluble calcium), Bordocop, Nordox 75WG (copper(I) oxide), Cuprablau Z (copper compounds, copper oxychloride); Cuprablau Z 35WG (copper compounds, copper oxychloride); Cuprocaffaro 50WP; Neoram WG (copper oxychloride) Copper Key Flow (copper oxychloride), Codimur SC (copper oxychloride)
Product approvals: EU February 2024: Bordeaux Mixture approved 01/01/2019-31/12/2025; Croatia FIS February 2024: 1 Bordoska juha Caffaro 20 WP (bordeaux mixture), approved 08/07/2004-31/12/2028; 85 Bordoska juha 20WP Manica (bordeaux mixture), approved 24/11/2006-31/12/2028; 122 Champion WG 50 (copper hydroxide), approved 21/01/2008-31/12/2028; 162 Cuprocaffaro 50 WP (copper oxychloride), approved 02/05/2005-31/12/2028; 440 Modro ulje (copper hydroxide, paraffin oil), approved 23/07/2008-31/12/2025; 452 Neoram WG (copper oxychloride), approved 24/01/2008-31/12/2025; 458 Nordox 75 WG (copper oxide), approved 24/01/2002-31/12/2028; 817 Amaline Flow (tribasic copper sulphate, zoxamide), approved 22/03/2013-21/03/2025; 992 Optix R (tribasic copper sulphate), approved 04/08/2016-01/01/2029; 1047 Ridomil Gold R (metalaxy-M, copper oxychloride) approved 11/04/2017-30/06/2025; 1144 Cyclo R liquido (copper hydroxide), approved 22/03/2018-31/01/2029; 1167 Red Fox (copper oxide, paraffin oil), approved 23/07/2018-31/12/2028; 1590 Codimur SC (copper oxychloride), 09/08/2023-31/12/2026; 1592 Copper Key Flow (copper oxychloride), approved 09/08/2023-31/12/2026; 1182 Cupra (copper oxychloride), approved 22/10/2018-31/01/2029; 1210 Copper Key (copper oxychloride), approved 25/03/2019-01/01/2029; 1211 Codimur 50 (copper oxychloride), approved 27/03/2019-01/01/2029; 1212 Copper Lainco (copper oxychloride), approved 26/03/2019-01/01/2029; 1219 Cuprablau Z 35 WG (copper oxychloride), approved 17/04/2019-31/12/2025; 1230 Bordoflow (bordeaux mixture), approved 12/08/2019-01/01/2029; 1239 Airone SC (copper hydroxide), approved 09/08/2019-01/01/2029; 1270 Fantic A (benalaxyl-M, copper hydroxide, copper oxychloride), approved 19/12/2019-01/01/2029; 1468 Copforce Extra (copper hydroxide, cymoxanil), approved 07/04/2022-31/08/2028.. Not approved: Bordeaux mixture (copper sulphate and hydrated lime / calcium dihydroxide); Modra galica; Cuprablau Z Ultra; Modra Galica (Scarmagnan) registration withdrawn on 01/07/2016; Champion and Cuprablau-Z registration withdrawn on 01/01/2020, final deadline for sales of stocks 01/07/2020, final use-by date 01/07/2021.121 Champion Flow SC (copper hydroxide), approval withdrawn
Spraying vines, 30th April 2019. Photo: Vivian Grisogono
COPPER SULPHATE
Possible adverse effects: Danger! According to the classification provided by companies to ECHA in REACH registrations this substance is very toxic to aquatic life, is very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects, may cause cancer, may damage fertility or the unborn child, is harmful if swallowed, causes serious eye damage, may cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure, causes skin irritation and may cause an allergic skin reaction. (ECHA Substance infocard)
EU February 2024: Tribasic copper sulfate approved, 01/01/2019 - 31/12/2025. [ECHA: Copper Sulphate approved under PT02 (disinfectants and algaecides) Copper Sulphate approved 01/07/2015-30/06/2025. (10 related products)]
ProductBordeaux Mixture. (combination of copper sulphate and hydrated lime / calcium dihydroxide)
Croatia FIS February 2024: Bordoška juha caffaro 20WP approved 08/07/2004-31/12/2028; Bordoška juha 20WP Manica approved 24/11/2006-31/12/2028.
Sources: - University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. 2023. Copper Sulphate.
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. 2023. Bordeaux Mixture.
- Rodrigues, C.G., Krüger, A. P., Barbosa, W. F., Guedes, R. N. C. 2016. Leaf Fertilizers Affect Survival and Behavior of the Neotropical Stingless Bee Friesella schrottkyi (Meliponini: Apidae: Hymenoptera). Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol.109, 3, pp 1001-1008.
- Mathew, P., Ravi, D.A., Varghese, S.S., Manojkumar, A.D. 2015. Effect of copper-based fungicide (bordeaux mixture) spray on the total copper content of areca nut: Implications in increasing prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis. Journal of International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry.
- European Food Safety Authority. 2008. Conclusion on the peer review of copper compounds. Scientific Report 187, 1-101.
USED ON HVAR: Copper-based compounds, such as Nordox, and especially Copper Sulphate and Bordeaux Mixture, are widely used on vines, especially on the north side of the island, also on other crops (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use copper-based pesticides fungicides (22.02.2019, 14.03.2019, 15.03.2019 (for olives), 15.03.2019 (for vines), 12th April 2019 (for vegetables), 19.06.2019, 26.07.2019)
Sprayed vines, June 12th 2018. Photo: Vivian Grisogono
CYMOXANIL substance group cyanoacetamide oxime
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to aquatic life and the aquatic environment, with long-lasting effects; in humans: highly toxic if swallowed; reproductive toxicity, suspected of damaging fertility and the unborn child; skin irritant; eye irritant; prolonged exposure causes organ damage
EU February 2024: Cymoxanil approved 01/09/2009 - 15/08/2026.
Product: Antracol Combi WP 76  (Cymoxanil and Propineb)
Product approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024, 12 products, 5 based on cymoxanil alone, 7 in combinations: 787 Momentum Trio (cymoxanil, fosetyl, folpet), approved 13/06/2016-31/08/2028; 924 Proxanil 450 SC (cymoxanil, propamocarb), approved 04/12/2015-31/07/2024; 1165 Magma Triple (cymoxanil, folpet, fosetyl), approved 21/06/2018-31/08/2028; 1183 Reboot (cymoxanil, zoxamid), approved 02/11/2018-31/08/2028; 1192 Cymbal Flow, approved 08/01/2019-31/08/2028; 1328 Curzate 60 WG, approved 18/12/202-31/08/2024; 1468 Copforce Extra, approved 07/04/2022-31/08/2028; 1477 Magma Triple WG (cymoxanil, fosetyl, folpet), approved 02/06/2022-31/07/2028; 1542 Vitene 45 WG approved 06/02/2023-31/08/2024; 1543 Sacron 45 WG approved 06/02/2023-31/08/2024; 1594 Afrasa Triple WG (cymoxanil, fosetyl, folpet) approved 07/07/2023-31/08/2024; 1621 Carial Flex (cymoxanil, mandipropramid) approved 18/01/2024-31/12/2026. 165 Curzate F (cymoxanil, folpet), approved 10/03/2006, approval ending 24/03/2023, final deadline 24/03/2024. Antracol Combi WP 76 and other Antracol products not approved
PubChem 2023. Cymoxanil.
PPDB Pesticide Properties Database, University of Hertfordshire. 2023. Cymoxanil
 
CYPRODINIL -substance group anilinopyramidine
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to the aquatic environment, with long-lasting effects. Highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates; toxic to fish; moderately toxic to birds and earthworms; in humans: possible reproduction and development effects; can cause allergic reactions in skin; irritant to respiratory tract, eyes, skin; skin sensitizer.
EU February 2024: Cyprodinil approved 01/05/2007-15/03/2025.
Product approvals: Croatia FIS: February 2024, 3 products, 2 based on cyprodinil alone,1 in combination: 126 Chorus 75 WG, approved 06/09/2005-31/12/2028; 646 Switch 62,5 WG (cyprodinil, fludioxonil), approved 07/02/2007-31/10/2024; 790 Chorus 50 WG, approved 27/07/2012-30/04/2029
- PubChem 2023. Cyprodinil
- Pesticides Properties Database 2023. Cyprodinil
ON HVAR 2021 Cyprodinil identified in a dust sample taken on June 22nd 2021 from a house near vineyards in Svirče
 
DIFENOCONAZOLE conazole fungicide, substance group triazole
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to fish, aquatic plants and algae, with long-lasting effects; harmful to bees; can contaminate bee pollen; moderately toxic to birds and mammals; in humans, possible carcinogen; possible endocrine disruptor; harmful if swallowed or inhaled; can cause serious eye irritation
EU February 2024: Approved 01/01/2009 - 15/03/2026.
Product: Difcor 
Product approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024, 21 products, 9 based on difenoconazole alone, 12 in combinations: 154 Argo, approved 20/06/2005-31/12/2028; 200 Difcor approved 14/06/2007-31/12/2028; 210 Dividend 030 FS, approved 21/04/1997-31/12/2023; 414 Maxim Extra 050 FS (difenoconazole, fludioxonil), approved 03/03/2005-31/12/2028; 600 Score 250 EC, approved 30/01/2007-31/12/2028; 778 Ortiva Top (difenoconazole, azoxystrobin), approved 28/03/2013-31/12/2024; 851 Dynali (difenoconazole, cyflufenamid), approved 05/11/2014-31/12/2024; 890 Difenzone, approved 23/01/2015-31/12/2028; 897 Magnello (difenoconazole, tebuconazole), approved 21/09/2015-31/12/2024; 951 Amistar Gold (difenoconazole, azoxystrobin), approved 09/02/2016-31/12/2024; 981 Interest, approved 20/06/2016-31/12/2028; 1067 Narita, approved 18/05/2017-31/12/2028; 1158 Difend Extra (difenoconazole, fludioxonil), approved 11/06/2018-31/12/2028; 1195 Sercadis Plus (difenoconazole, fluxapyroxad), approved 31/01/2019-31/12/2028; 1293 Decibel Max (difenoconazole, kresoxim-methyl), approved 16/06/2020-31/12/2028; 1316 Vibrance Gold (difenoconazole, sedaxan, fludioxonil), approved 06/11/2020-31/12/2024;1425 Spyrale (difenoconazole, fenpropidin), approved 10/12/2021-31/12/2028; 1475 Difure Solo, approved 31/05/2022-31/12/2028; 1513 Dynasty (difenoconazole, azoxystrobin), approved 24/10/2022-31/12/2024; 1586 Greteg approved 19/07/2023-31/12/2024; 1551 Brivela (difenoconazole, fluxapyroxad) approved 08/03/2023-.31./12/2024, permit expiring, final sales date 30/06/2025, final use deadline 30/06/2026.
- PPDB University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2023. Difenoconazole
- Leite, D.T., Sampaio, R.B:, Santos, J.N., Chambo, E.D., Carvalho, C.A.L., Sodré, G.S. 2018. Toxicity of Fenpyroximate, Difenoconazole and Mineral oil on Apis Mellifera L. Sociobiology 65 (4) 737-743. 44 references
- McArt, S.H., Fersch, A.A., Milano, N.J., Truitt, L.L., Böröczky, K. 2017. High pesticide risk to honey bees despite low focal crop pollen collection during pollination of a mass blooming crop. Scientific Reports 7, 46554. 55 references
- Marek Kubik, Janusz Nowacki, Andrzej Pidek, Zofia Warakomska, Lech Michalczuk, et al.. 2000. Residues of captan (contact) and difenoconazole (systemic) fungicides in bee products from an apple orchard. Apidologie, Springer Verlag, 31 (4), pp.531-541. 11 references
ON HVAR: Difcor recommended by a well-respected Hvar olive oil producer for use in April 2019 against olive leaf spot (spilocaea oleagina Cast. Croatian: paunovo oko)
 
DIMETHOMORPH substance group morpholine
Possible adverse effects: toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates, crustaceans and plants, with long-lasting effects; hazardous to the aquatic environment; possibly affects honeybees through accumulation in pollen; slight risk for bumblebees and birds; moderately toxic to earthworms; can affect soil bacteria, impacting on soil nitrification and ammonification; in humans: irritant to respiratory tract, skin and eyes; possibly causes chromosome aberrations; possibly affects reproduction and development
EU February 2024: Dimethomorph approved 01/10/2007-15/02/2025
Products: Acrobat MZ WG (dimethomorph with mancozeb), Cabrio Team (dimethomorph and pyraclostrobin) 
Product approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024, 5 products, all in combinations: 272 Forum Star (dimethomorph, folpet), approved 12/12/1997-31/12/2028; 998 Orvego (dimethomorph, ametocradin), approved 12/09/2016-31/07/2028; 1013 Sphinx Extra 685 WDG (dimethomorph, folpet), approved 05/10/2016-31/07/2024; 1276 Metomor F (dimethomorph, folpet), approved 28/02/2020-31/07/2028; 1313 Diflunova (dimethomorph, fluazinam), approved 25/09/2020-31/07/2028 Acrobat MZ WG approval withdrawn 04/07/2021; Cabrio Team not approved
- PubChem 2023. Dimethomorph
- PPDB Pesticide Properties Database University of Hertfordshire. 2023. Dimethomorph
- Böhma, F., Bischoff, G., Zebitz, C.P.W., Rosenkranz, P., Wallner, K. 2018. Pesticide residue survey of pollen loads collected by honeybees (Apis mellifera) in daily intervals at three agricultural sites in South Germany. PLoS One published online July 6th 2018.
- Wang, C., Zhang, Q., Wang, F., Liang, W., 2017. Toxicological effects of dimethomorph on soil enzymatic activity and soil earthworm (Eisenia fetida) Chemosphere 169 316-323
- Cycoń, M., Piotrowska-Seget, Z., Kozdrój, J. 2010. Responses of indigenous microorganisms to a fungicidal mixture of mancozeb and dimethomorph added to sandy soils. International Biodeterioration and Biogredation 64 (4) 316-323
 
DIMOXYSTROBIN, substance group strobilurin
EU February 2024: Dimoxystrobin approved 01/01/2006 - 31/01/2024, approval expired
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects, highly toxic to fish, earthworms, aquatic invertebrates; toxic to honeybees, birds, sediment dwelling organisms, algae; in humans: endocrine disruptor, suspected carcinogen, suspected of reproduction / development effects - suspected of damaging unborn child
Product: Pictor (dimoxystrobin and boscalid)
Product approval: Croatia FIS, February 2024: 494 Pictor approved 29/12/2006-31/12/2023, approval expired
Sources:
PubChem 2023. Dimoxystrobin
PPDB 2023. Dimoxystrobin
 
DITHIANON, substance group quinone
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to fish, aquatic life, hazardous to the aquatic environment; moderately toxic to birds, earthworms; in humans: toxic; possible carcinogen; possible liver and kidney toxicant; if swallowed, may cause nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea; can cause serious eye irritation
EU February 2024: Dithianon approved 01/06/2011 - 31/08/2024
Product: Pergado D (dithianon, mandipropamid)
Product approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024, 8 products, 5 based on dithianon alone, 3 in combinations: 923 Faban (dithianon, pirimethanil), approved 20/11/2015-30/04/2029; 930 Delan 700 WDG, approved 01/06/2016-31/08/2025; 996 Delan Pro (dithianon, calcium phosphonates), approved 12/08/2016-31/08/2025; 1196 Pergado D (dithianon, mandipropamid), approved 28/01/2019-31/07/2024; 1266 Delan SC, approved 17/01/2020-31/05/2025; 1382 Alcoban, approved 27/07/2021-31/08/2025; 1395 Dynamo, approved 04/10/2021-31/08/2025; 1517 Ditoflo 700 WG, approved 02/11/2022-31/08/2025. 1038 Tercel (dithianon, pyraclostrobin), approval (01/09/2017-31/01/2022) ended, final deadline 31/07/2023
- PubChem 2023. Dithianon
- PPDB Pesticide Properties Database University of Hertfordshire. 2023. Dithianon
 
FLUDIOXONIL substance group phenylpyrrole
EU February 2024: Fludioxonil approved 01/11/2008 - 15/06/2025
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates, fish; damaging to birds, earthworms, aquatic crustaceans, sediment dwelling organisms, aquatic plants, algae; in humans, suspected carinogen; suspected of damaging the  unborn child; eye and skin irritant.
Product approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024, 10 approved products, 2 based on fludioxonil alone, 8 in combinations: 413 Maxim 025 FS, approved 12/04/1999-31/12/2028; 414 Maxim Extra 050 FS (fludioxonil, difenoconazole), approved 03/03/2005-31/12/2028; 416 Maxim XL 035 FS (fludioxonil, metalaxyl-M), approved 01/02/2007-31/12/2028; 646 Switch 62,5 WG (fludioxonil, cyprodinil) approved 07/02/2007-31/10/2024; 968 Geoxe, approved 02/05/2016-31/12/2024;1066 Vibrance Duo (fludioxonil, sedaxan), approved 04/05/2017-31/10/2024; 1158 Difend Extra (fludioxonil, difenoconazole), approved 11/06/2018-31/12/2028; 1225 Kinto Plus (fludioxonil, fluxapyroxad, triticonazole), approved 22/07/2019-31/10/2028; 1316 Vibrance Gold (fludioxonil, difenoconazole, sedaxan), approved 06/11/2020-31/12/2024; 1491 Vibrance Star (fludioxonil, sedaxan, triticonazole), approved 22/07/2022-31/10/2028.
PubChem 2023. Fludioxonil
PPDB 2023 Fludioxonil
 
FLUOPYRAM, substance group benzamide, pyramide
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to fish, aquatic plants and algae, with long-lasting effects; slightly toxic to bees, birds, earthworms; in humans, can cause serisous eye irritation; possibly causes damage to nervous system; affects reproduction, possibly damages the unborn child.
EU February 2024: Fluopyram approved 01/02/2014 - 30/06/2026
Product approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024, 7 approved products, 2 based on fluopyram alone, 5 in combinations: 858 Luna Experience (fluopyram, tebuconazole), approved 19/01/2015-31/08/2024; 859 Luna ® Privilege , approved 09/02/2015-31/01/2025; 945 Velum Prime, approved 04/02/2016-31/01/2025; 974 Propulse (fluopyram, protioconazole), approved 30/05/2016-31/07/2024; 1111 Ascra Xpro (fluopyram, bixafen, protioconazole), approved 01/12/2017-31/07/2029; 1240 Luna Sensation (fluopyram, trifloxystrobin), approved 09/07/2019-31/01/2025; 1289 Luna Care (fluopyram, fosetyl), approved 23/04/2020-30/04/2029
- PubChem 2023. Fluopyram
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database, 2023. Fluopyram
- Bayer Crop Science Safety Data Sheet, 2017. Luna Experience SC400
USED ON HVAR Luna Experience, Luna Sensation and Luna Privilege used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Luna Privilege and Luna Experience (14.03.2019., 10.05.2019., 24.05.2019., 18.06.2019.,26.06.2019., 26.07.2019)
ON HVAR 2021 Fluopyram identified in a dust sample taken on June 22nd from a house near vineyards in Svirče
 
FLUXAPYROXAD substance group pyrazolium
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; toxic to birds, earthworms, fish, aquatic invertebrates, aquatic custaceans, aquatic plants, algae; somewhat toxic to honeybees; in humans: suspected carcinogen, possible reproduction / development effects, possible eye irritant
EU February:2024 Fluxapyroxad approved 01/01/2013 - 31/05/2025.
Product approvals: Croatia FIS, February:2024, 10 products, 3 based on fluxapyroxad alone, 7 in combinations: 1010 Systiva, approved 06/10/2016-31/12/2028; 1088 Sercadis, 24/05/2017-31/05/2026; 1103 Priaxor EC (fluxapyroxad, pyraclostrobin), approved 24/10/2017-31/01/2029; 1195 Sercadis Plus (fluxapyroxad, difenoconazole), approved 31/01/2019-31/12/2028; 1225 Kinto Plus (fluxapyroxad, fludioxonil, triticonazole), approved 22/07/2019-31/10/2028; 1388 Revystar XL (fluxapyroxad, mefentrifluconazole), approved 22/07/2021-31/05/2026; 1448 Revytrex (fluxapyroxad, mefentrifluconazole), approved 22/02/2022-31/05/2026; 1450 Imtrex XE, approved 25/02/2022-31/05/2026; 1469 Mizona (fluxapyroxad, pyraclostrobin), approved 06/05/2022-31/01/2029; 1551 Brivela (difenoconazole, fluxapyroxad) approved 08/03/2023-.31./12/2024, permit expiring, final sales date 30/06/2025, final use deadline 30/06/2026.
PPDB 2023. Fluxapyroxad
PubChem 2023. Fluxapyroxad
 
FOLPET (synthetic phthalimide)
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to fish and aquatic organisms; moderately toxic to earthworms; causes developmental effects in animals; in humans: probable human carcinogen; possibly disrupts fertility; toxic if inhaled; causes serious eye irritation; can cause allergic skin reactions. ECHA warnings: hazardous to the environment and human health
EU February 2024: Approved 01/10/2007 - 15/02/2025. [ECHA: approved 01/01/2016-31/12/2025 under PT 06 (preservatives for products during storage), no product listing; PT 07 (film preservatives) 01/10/2016-30/09/2026, no product listing; PT09 (fibre, leather, rubber and polymerised materials preservatives) 01/10/2016-30/09/2026, 1 product listing.]
Product approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024, 19 approved products, 4 based on folpet alone, 15 in combinations: 264 Folpan 80 WDG, approved 26/01/2005-31/07/2024; 272 Forum Star (dimethomorph, folpet), approved 12/12/1997-31/12/2028; 278 Futura 50 WP, approved 30/01/2002-31/12/2028; 430 Mikal Flash (folpet, fosetyl), approved 30/11/2006-31/12/2028; 431 Mikal Premium F (folpet, fosetyl, iprovalicarb), approved 29/11/2007-31/12/2028; 489 Pergado F (folpet, mandipropamid), approved 26/11/2007-31/12/2028; 573 Folpan Gold (folpet, metalaxyl-M), approved 15/10/2003-31/12/2028; 701 Universalis (azoxystrobin, folpet), approved 21/05/2007-31/12/2028; 787 Momentum Trio (cymoxanil, fosetyl, folpet), approved 13/06/2016-31/08/2028; 997 Solofol, approved 24/08/2016-31/07/2028; 1013 Sphinx Extra 685 WDG (dimethomorph, folpet), approved 05/10/2016-31/07/2024; 1034 Fantic F, approved 09/02/2017-31/07/2029; 1046 Vincare (folpet, benthiavalicarb), approved 06/03/2017-31/07/2028; 1165 Magma Triple (cymoxanil, folpet, fosetyl), approved 21/06/2018-31/08/2028; 1276 Metomor F (dimethomorph, folpet), approved 28/02/2020-31/07/2028; 1337 Actlet F (folpet, metalaxyl-M), approved 04/02/2021-31/07/2028; 1344 Valis F (folpet, valifenalate), approved 03/03/2021-31/07/2028; 1477 Magma Triple WG (cymoxanil, fosetyl, folpet), approved 02/06/2022-31/07/2028. 1594 Afrasa Triple WG (cymoxanil, fosetyl, folpet) approved 07/07/2023-31/08/2024; 165 Curzate F (cymoxanil, folpet), approved 10/03/2006, approval ending 24/03/2023, final deadline 24/03/2024. Mikal and Folpan 50WP not approved
Sources: - PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2023. Folpet.
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. 2023. Folpet.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency 1999. R.E.D. facts. Folpet.
USED ON HVAR Mikal, Mikal Flash, Universalis and Pergado used by farmers cultivating grapes and olives, etc (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
30th April 2019, following heavy rain on Hvar, the Agriculture Ministry's Scientific Support Department advised grape growers to use Pergado F to prevent downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola)
12th April 2019, the Agriculture Ministry's Scientific Support Department advised grape growers to use Folpet fungicides preventively against black spot (Phomopsis viticola)
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Mikal Flash, Mikal Premium F (02/05/2019, 27/05/2019, 18/06/2019, 03/07/2019), and Pergado F (27/05/2019)
 
FOSETYL, FOSETYL-ALUMINIUM (Fosetyl-al) Organophosphate
Possible adverse effects: toxic to mammals, bees, birds, fish, aquatic invertebrates, algae, earthworms; possible human carcinogen; irritant if inhaled, can cause lung damage; causes serious eye irritation or damage; skin irritant
EU February 2024: Fosetyl approved 01/05/2007 - 15/03/2025. Fosetyl-Al not approved.
Products: Luna Care (fosetyl and fluopyram), Mikal Flash (folpet and fosetyl-al), Mikal (folpet and fosetyl-al), Mikal Premium F (folpet, fosetyl, iprovalicarb), Aliette Flash, Fosetyl-Al 80WP, Previcur Energy (propamocarb with fosetyl-al).
Product approvals  Croatia FIS February 2024: 22 products listed, 12 based on fosetyl alone, 10 in combinations: 15 Aliette Flash, approved 27/11/2006-31/12/2028; 41 AVI WG, approved 13/01/2005-31/12/2028; 430 Mikal Flash (folpet, fosetyl), approved 30/11/2006-31/12/2028; 431 Mikal Premium F (folpet, fosetyl, iprovalicarb), approved 29/11/2007-31/12/2028; 520 Previcur Energy (fosetyl, propamocarb), approved 23/05/2007-31/12/2028; 523 Profiler (fosetyl, fluopicolide), approved 09/01/2008-31/12/2028; 787 Momentum Trio (cymoxanil, fosetyl, folpet), approved 13/06/2016-31/08/2028; 802 Azimut 80 WG, approved 20/12/2012-30/04/2029; 892 Alfil, approved 20/08/2015-30/04/2029; 893 Alfil WG, approved 20/08/2015-30/04/2029; 992 Optix R (fosetyl, copper compounds: tribasic copper sulphate) approved 04/08/2016-01/01/2029; 1165 Magma Triple (cymoxanil, folpet, fosetyl), approved 21/06/2018-31/08/2028; 1261 Kilate WG, approved 18/12/2019-30/04/2029; 1274 Golbex WG, approved 26/02/2020-30/04/2029; 1275 Keyfol WG, approved 27/02/2020-30/04/2029; 1289 Luna Care (fluopyram, fosetyl), approved 23/04/2020-30/04/2029; 1291 Kilate WP, approved 02/06/2020-30/04/2029; 1367 Allum, approved 10/06/2021-30/04/2029; 1457 Keyfol WP, approved 18/03/2022-30/04/2029; 1463 Golbex WP, approved 30/03/2022-30/04/2029; 1477 Magma Triple WG (cymoxanil, fosetyl, folpet), approved 02/06/2022-31/07/2029; 1594 Afrasa Triple WG (cymoxanil, fosetyl, folpet) approved 07/07/2023-31/08/2024.; Aliette WG, Mikal not approved
Sources: - PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2023. Fosetyl-Al
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2023. Fosetyl-al
- United States Environmental Protection Agency 1991. R.E.D. facts. Fosetyl-Al
USED ON HVAR Mikal and Mikal Flash used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Mikal Flash, Mikal Premium F (02.05.2019, 27.05.2019, 18.06.2019, 03.07.2019), and Aliette Flash (12.04.2019)
 
IPROVALICARB substance group carbamate
Possible adverse effects: marine pollutant; very toxic to aquatic organisms; toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates; may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment; moderately toxic to earthworms; in humans: possible carcinogen; corrosive to skin; highly damaging to health if swallowed (Melody Duo WP66,8)
EU February 2024: Iprovalicarb approved 01/04/2016-31/03/2031
Product approval: Croatia FIS : Fevruary 2024, 1 product: 431 Mikal Premium F  (folpet, fosetyl, iprovalicarb)approved 29/11/2007.-31/12/2028. Melody Duo 66,8 (propineb and iprovalicarb), Melody Duo WP 66,75 (propineb and iprovalicarb) not approved
- PubChem 2023. Iprovalicarb
- PPDB Pesticide Properties Database University of Hertfordshire. 2023. Iprovalicarb
- US Environmental Protection Agency 2002. Iprovalicarb (Melody) Pesticide Tolerance 8/02.
- European Commission 2002. Review Report for the active substance iprovalicarb (working document)
 
KRESOXIM METHYL (substance group strobilurin)
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to aquatic life; Highly toxic to the aquatic environment with long-lasting effects; moderately toxic to mammals; moderately toxic to earthworms; slightly toxic to honey bees (apis mellifera); in humans: probable carcinogen; irritant to respiratory tract, skin and eyes
EU February 2024: approved 01/01/2012 - 31/12/2024.
Product: Stroby WG 
Product approvals: Croatia FIS : February 2024, 8 products, 3 based on kresoxim-methyl alone, 5 in combinations: 633 Stroby WG, approved 25/07/2011-31/12/2025; 1142 Collis (boscalid, kresoxim-methyl), approved 05/02/2018-31/07/2028; 1284 Sugoby, approved 27/03/2020-31/12/2025; 1285 Quimera, approved 27/03/2020-31/12/2025; 1293 Decibel Max (kresoxim-methyl, difenoconazole) approved 16/06/2020-31/12/2028; 1453 Decibel Vitis (kresoxim-methyl, penconazole) approved 07/03/2022-31/12/2028; 1504 Duett Turbo (kresoxim-methyl, mefentrifluconazole) approved 22/09/2022-31/12/2025; 1532 Empartis (boscalid, kresoxim-methyl), approved 13/12/2022-31/07/2024, permit expired, sales deadline 31/01/2025, last usage deadline 31/01/2025.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2023. Kresoxim Methyl
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2023 . Kresoxim Methyl
- Tesoriero, D., Maccagnani, B., Santi, F., Celli, G. 2003. Toxicity of three pesticides on larval instars of Osmia cornuta: preliminary results. Bulletin of Insectology 56 (1) 169-171. 21 references
 
MANCOZEB (substance group carbamate)
Possible adverse effects: toxic to fish, birds, aquatic invertebrates; moderately toxic to bees, earthworms, algae; in humans: possible thyroid disruptor; possible effects on reproduction and development; respiratory tract irritant; eye irritant
EU / ECHA: not approved (approval expired 04/01/2021)
Products: Cadillac 80WP, Acrobat MZ WG (mancozeb, dimethomorph), Fubol Gold (mancozeb, metalaxyl), Mancozeb Blue 72 WG, Mancozeb Flowable with Zinc, Matco 8-64 (mancozeb with metalaxyl), Ridomil Gold MZ pepite (mancozeb, metalaxyl), Ridomil Gold MZ 68WP (mancozeb with metalaxyl), Pergado MZ (Mandipropamid with Mancozeb)
Product approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024: No approved products. Cadillac 80WP approval withdrawn 04/07/2021, previously approved 15/06/2015-31/01/2021; Acrobat MZ WG approval withdrawn 04/07/2021, previously approved 29/12/2006-31/12/2023; Mancozeb Blue 72 WG approval withdrawn 04/07/2021; Ridomil Gold MZ pepite approval withdrawn 04/07/2021, previously approved 24/01/2011-24/01/2021, Pergado MZ approval withdrawn 04/07/2021, previously approved 21/05/2007-31/12/2023. Ridomil Gold MZ 68WP, Fubol Gold not approved
Sources: - PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2023. Mancozeb
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2023. Mancozeb
- Axelstad, M., Boberg, J., Nellemann, C., Kiersgaard, M., Jacobsen, P.R., Christiansen, S., Hougaard, K.S., Hass, U. 2011. Exposure to the widely used fungicide mancozeb causes thyroid disruption in rat dams but no behavioral effects in the offspring. Toxicological Sciences 120 (2) 439-446
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2005. Mancozeb Facts - Pesticide Reregistration
ON HVAR: Ridomil and Cadillac used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
24th May 2019, the Agriculture Ministry's Scientific Support Department advised vegetable growers to use Ridomil Gold MZ preventively on potatoes, garlic, onions, tomatoes and peppers.
12th April 2019, the Agriculture Ministry's Scientific Support Department advised grape growers to use Mancozeb fungicides preventively against black spot (Phomopsis viticola)
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use mancozeb (26.04.2019, 10.05.2019, 26.06.2019); Acrobat MZ (12.04.2019, 05.06.2019, 18.06.2019., 03.07.2019); Pergado MZ (19.06.2019); Ridomil Gold MZ pepite (12.04.2019, 05.06.2019, 18.06.2019, 19.06.2019, 03.07.2019)
 
MANDIPROPAMID (substance group mandelamide)
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to fish and aquatic organisms; moderately toxic to birds and earthworms; can be harmful to the liver and kidneys; eye irritant.
EU February 2024: Mandipropamid approved 01/08/2013 - 31/12/2025.
Products: Pergado F (mandipropamid, folpet), Pergado D (mandipropamid, dithianon), Pergado MZ (mandipropamid, mancozeb)
Product approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024, 6 approved products, 1 based on Mandipropamid alone, 5 in combinations : 489 Pergado F (folpet, mandipropamid), approved 26/11/2007-31/12/2028; 1175 Ampexio (mandipropamid, zoxamide), approved 14/08/2018-01/07/2025; 1196 Pergado D (dithianon, mandipropamid), approved 28/01/2019-31/07/2024; 1606 Orondis Ultra (mandipropamid, oxathiapiprolin) approved  02/11/2023-31/12/2026; 1617 Revus approved 18/12/2023-31/12/2026; 1621 Carial Flex (mandipropamid) approved 18/01/2024-31/12/2026.  571 Revus, approved 26/11/2007-31/12/2023, approval expired; Pergado MZ approval withdrawn 04/07/2021, previously approved 21/05/2007-31/12/2023.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2023. Mandipropamid
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database, 2023. Mandipropamid
ON HVAR: Pergado used especially by grape-growers (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Pergado MZ (19.06.2019)
 
METALAXYL, METALAXYL-M (substance group phenylamide)
Possible adverse effects: toxic to bees, birds, fish, earthworms; in humans: can cause serious eye damage; skin irritant; very harmful if swallowed
EU February 2024: Metalaxyl approved 01/07/2010 - 30/09/2026; Metalaxyl-M approved 01/06/2020-31/05/2035.
Product approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024, 8 approved products, 1 based on metalaxyl alone, 2 on metalaxyl with other substances; i on metalaxyl-M alone, 4 on metalaxyl-M with other substances: 28 Apron XL 350 ES (metalaxyl-M), approved 25/07/2011-25/07/2028; 416 Maxim XL 035 FS (fludioxonil, metalaxyl-M), approved 01/02/2007-31/12/2028; 573 Folpan Gold (folpet, metalaxyl-M), approved 15/10/2003-31/12/2028; 1047 Ridomil Gold R (metalaxyl-M, copper compounds: copper oxychloride), approved 11/04/2017-30/06/2025; 1144 Cyclo R Liquido (metalaxyl, copper compounds: copper hydroxide), approved 22/03/2018-31/01/2029; 1235 Redigo M (metalaxyl, protioconazole), approved 12/09/2019-31/07/2028; 1335 Armetil 25 (metalaxyl), approved 28/12/2020-30/06/2024; 1337 Actlet F (folpet, metalaxyl-M), approved 04/02/2021-31/07/2028. 266 Fonganil Gold (metalaxyl-M), approval 14/12/2010-24/03/2023 ended, final deadline 24/03/2024; Ridomil Gold MZ pepite approval withdrawn 04/07/2021, previously approved 24/01/2011-24/01/2021 Folio Gold authorization withdrawn 20/11/2019; Ridomil Gold Plus 42,5 WP authorization withdrawn 01/01/2020; Ridomil Gold MZ 68WP, Fubol Gold not approved
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2023. Metalaxyl-M
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2023. Metalaxyl-M
ON HVAR: Ridomil used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Ridomil Gold MZ pepite (12.04.2019., 05.06.2019., 18.06.2019., 19.06.2019., 03.07.2019.)
2023. Chemical analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory of a hair sample taken on 25/05/2023, analysed on 21/06/2023 revealed the presence of Metalaxyl in a female (b.1975) living near Vrboska.
 
METIRAM (substance group carbamate)
Possible adverse effects: Moderately toxic to fish; highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates; highly toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; hazardous to the aquatic environment; moderately toxic to honeybees and earthworms; in humans: can cause skin and eye irritation; can cause anaemia; toxic if ingested or inhaled; can cause abdominal cramps, vomiting and diarrhoea if ingested; classified as a possible human carcinogen
EU February 2024: Metiram not approved, approval expired 28/11/2023.
Product approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024, 0 approved products: 101 Cabrio Top (metiram, pyraclostrobin) approved 07/04/2011-28/05/2024, registration withdrawn, sales deadline 28/08/2024, last usage deadline 28/11/2024; 755 Polyram DF (metiram), approved 02/02/2012-31/01/2024, registration withdrawn, sales deadline 28/08/2024, last usage deadline 28/11/2024;
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2023. Metiram
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2023. Metiram
ON HVAR: Cabrio® Top used by individuals cultivating vines, olives (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised grape-growers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use the Metiram fungicide Polyram DF preventively against black spot (Phomopsis viticola) (12th April 2019)
 
PENCONAZOLE, (substance group triazole)
Possible adverse effects: toxic to bees, birds, fish, aquatic invertebrates and algae; in humans: suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child; possible endocrine disruptor; very harmful if swallowed
EU February 2024: Penconazole approved 01/01/2012 - 15/10/2026.
Product approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024, 3 products, 2 based on penconazole alone: 679 Topas 100 EC (penconazole), approved 01/02/2007-31/12/2028; 1453 Decibel Vitis (penconazole, kresoxim-methyl) approved 07/03/2022-31/12/2028; 1488 Kantarel (penconazole), approved 27/05/2022-31/12/2028.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2023. Penconazole
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2023. Penconazole
ON HVAR: Topas used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Topas (05.06.2019, 18.06.2019, 03.07.2019, 26.07.2019)
 
PROPAMOCARB (substance group carbamate)
Possible adverse effects: Potentially harmful to herbivorous and insectivorous birds; moderately toxic to fish and honeybees; in humans: harmful if swallowed; skin irritant; possible endocrine disruptor; possible neurotoxicant
EU February 2024: Approved 01/10/2007-15/06/2025
Product approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024: 7 products, 4 based on propamocarb alone, 3 in combinations: 331 Infinito (propamocarb, fluopicolide) approved 21/01/2008-31/12/2028; 520 Previcur Energy (propamocarb, fosetyl) approved 23/05/2007-31/12/2028; 524 Proplant (propamocarb), approved 06/12/2002-31/12/2028; 924 Proxanil 450 SC (propamocarb, cymoxanil) approved 04/12/2015-31/07/2024; 1209 Rival (propamocarb), approved 28/03/2019-31/07/2024; 1392 Omix (propamocarb), approved 20/09/2021-31/07/2024; 1583 Sporax, approved 12/07/2023-15/06/2026. . Previcur 607SL not approved
Sources:- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2023. Propamocarb
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. 2023. Propamocarb
- EFSA Scientific report 2006. Conclusion on the peer review of propamocarb. EFSA 78, 1-80.
 
PROPICONAZOLE (substance group triazole)
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to fish; toxic to aquatic organisms; in humans, highly irritant to eyes and skin; harmful if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through the skin; can cause skin allergies; possible liver toxicant; possible endocrine disruptor; classified as possible carcinogen by USEPA.
EU February 2024: Propriconazole not approved, approval expired 19/12/2018.
Products: Tilt 250EC, Tilt CB 187.5 FW (carbendazim and propiconazole) Menara, Mantis, Banner Maxx.
Croatia FIS February 2024: No approved products; Tilt 250EC, Tilt CB 187.5FW not approved
Sources: - University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2023. Propiconazole
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2014. Tilt fungicide. Revised master label
ON HVAR: Tilt used by individuals cultivating vines, olives (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
HVAR 2023. Analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory of hair samples revealed the presence of Propiconazole in the following people:
1. female (b. 1964), living in Vrisnik, sample taken on 15/06/2023, analysed 17/07/2023.
2. male (b. 1964) living in Hvar, sample taken on 17/06/2023, analysed on 17/07/2023.
3. male (b.2019) living in Pitve, sample taken on 26/06/2023, analysed on 17/07/2023.
4. female (b.1988) living in Pitve, sample taken on 26/06/2023, analysed on 17/07/2023.
 
PROPINEB (substance type: carbamate)
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to aquatic life; toxic to bees, birds, earthworms; in humans: can cause organ damage, allergic skin reactions; toxic on skin contact; suspected as possible carcinogen, respiratory tract irritant.
EU February 2024: Propineb not approved, approval expired 22/03/2018.
ProductsAntracol®WPG70, Antracol®WP/70 (with zinc), Antracol Combi WP/76 (propineb, cymoxanil), Propineb 70%
Croatia FIS February 2024: No approved products. Antracol®WPG70, Antracol®WP/70, Antracol Combi not approved
Sources: - PubChem Open Chemistry Database, 2023. Propineb
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2023. Propineb
ON HVAR: Antracol used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
 
PROTHIOCONAZOLE (substance group triazolinthione)
Possible adverse effects: toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates, aquatic crustaceans and sediment dwelling organisms; very toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; hazardous to the aquatic environment; toxic to honeybees and earthworms; in humans: can affect reproduction and development; possible endocrine disruptor; can cause skin irritation; possible irritant if inhaled.
EU February 2024: Prothioconazole approved 01/08/2008-15/08/2025
Products: Falcon Forte (prothioconazole, spiroxamine, tebuconazole); Ascra Xpro (fluopyram, prothioconazole, bixafen) 
Product approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024, 25 products, 10 based on prothioconazole alone, 15 in combinations: 526 Prosaro 250 EC (prothioconazole, tebuconazole) approved 16/01/2007-31/12/2028; 865 Lamardor 400 FS (prothioconazole, tebuconazole) approved 10/03/2015-31/08/2028; 974 Propulse (prothioconazole, fluopyram) approved 30/05/2016-31/07/2024; 987 Redigo Pro (prothioconazole, tebuconazole) approved 18/07/2016-31/08/2028; 1083 Elatus Era (prothioconazole, benzovindiflupyr) approved 05/07/2017-02/03/2024; 1111 Ascra Pro (prothioconazole, fluopyram, bixafen) approved 01/12/2017-31/07/2029; 1184 Proline, approved 14/11/2018-31/07/2028; 1199 Curbatur 250 EC, approved 20/02/2019-31/07/2028; 1204 Falcon Forte (prothioconazole, spiroxamine, tebuconazole) approved 20/03/2019-31/08/2028; 1235 Redigo M (prothioconazole, metalaxyl) approved 12/09/2019-31/07/2028; 1342 Redigo FS 100, approved 15/02/2021-31/07/2028; 1346 Praktis, approved 03/03/2021-31/07/2028; 1373 Protendo 300 EC, approved 16/06/2021-31/07/2028; 1409 Pecari 300 EC, approved 14/09/2021-31/07/2028; 1419 Delaro Forte (prothioconazole, spiroxamine, trifloxystrobin) approved 06/12/2021-31/12/2024; 1424 Protos, approved 10/12/2021-31/07/2024; 1439 Prosaro Plus (prothioconazole, spiroxamine) approved 17/02/2022-31/07/2027; 1461 Univoq (prothioconazole, fenpicoxamid) approved 21/03/2022-31/07/2028; 1480 Jaguar (prothioconazole, tebuconazole) approved 31/05/2022-31/07/2024; 1505 Verben (prothioconazole, proquinazid) approved 22/09/2022-31/07/2029; 1534 Smaragd (prothioconazole, tebuconazole) approved 05/01/2023-31/07/2024; 1539 Hilago, approved 09/01/2023-31/07/2024; 1577 Pride 1608 approved 10/07/2023-15/08/2026; Melvar approved 20/11/2023-15/08/2026; 1612 Protiostar approved 20/11/2023-15/08/2026; 1482 Protiokonazol 300 EC approved 31/03/2022-31/07/2028 but the approval has been withdrawn.
Sources: - PubChem 2023. Prothioconazole
- PPDB Pesticide Properties Database University of Hertfordshire. 2023. Prothioconazole
- Zhang, Z. Du, G., Gao, B., Hu, K., Kaziem A.E., Li, L., He, Z., Shi, H., Wang, M. 2019. Stereoselective endocrine-disrupting effects of the chiral triazole fungicide prothioconazole and its chiral metabolite. Environmental Pollution, 251 30-36
- CLH Report, Proposal for Harmonised Classification and Labelling. 2018. Substance name: Prothioconazole.
- EPA 2016. Prothioconazole; Pesticide Tolerances. Federal Register, The Daily Journal of the United States Government.
 
PYRACLOSTROBIN (carbamate ester, substance group strobilurin)
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to fish, aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; hazardous to the aquatic environment with long-term effects; in humans: toxic, acutely dangerous if inhaled, can be fatal if swallowed; may cause respiratory irritation; causes eye and skin irritation; causes neurodegeneration; can cause nausea, headache, dizziness, chest pain
EU February 2024: Pyraclostrobin approved 01/06/2004 - 15/09/2025
Product approvals: Croatia FIS, February 2024, 9 approved products, 3 based on pyraclostrobin alone, 6 in combination: 66 Bellis (boscalid, pyraclostrobin), approved 04/01/2008-31/12/2028; 101 Cabrio Top (pyraclostrobin, metiram) approved 07/04/2011-28/05/2024, approval expiring, last sales deadline 28/08/2024, last usage deadline 28/11/2024; 616 Signum (boscalid, pyraclostrobin), approved 29/12/2006-31/12/2028; 901 Retengo (pyraclostrobin), approved 23/08/2015-31/01/2029; 1103 Priaxor EC (fluxapyroxad, pyraclostrobin), approved 24/10/2017-31/01/2029; 1356 Revycare (pyraclostrobin), approved 23/09/2015-31/01/2029; 1462 Architect (pyraclostrobin, mepiquat, prohexadione) approved 29/03/2022-31/12/2024; 1469 Mizona (fluxapyroxad, pyraclostrobin), approved 06/05/2022-31/01/2029; 1479 Pictor Active (boscalid, pyraclostrobin), approved 09/06/2022-31/01/2029; 1519 Insignia (pyraclostrobin), approved 03/11/2022-31/01/2024, approval expired, last sales deadline 31/07/2024, last usage deadline 31/07/2025; 1038 Tercel (dithianon, pyraclostrobin), approval (01/09/2017-31/01/2022) ended, final deadline 31/07/2023; Cabrio Team not approved
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database, 2023. Pyraclostrobin
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2023. Pyraclostrobin
- Pearson, B.L., Simon, J.M., McCoy, E.S., Salazar, G., Fragola, G., Zylka, M.J. 2016. Identification of chemicals that mimic transcriptional changes associated with autism, brain aging and neurodegeneration. Nature Communications 7, 11173
- United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Acute Pesticide Poisoning Associated with Pyraclostrobin Fungicide - Iowa 2007 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Rreport 56 (51) 1343-1345
ON HVAR: Cabrio® Top used by individuals cultivating vines, olives (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Signum (19.06.2019)
ON HVAR 2021 Pyraclostrobin identified in a dust sample taken on June 22nd from a house near vineyards in Svirče
 
PYRIMETHANIL (substance group anilinopyrimidine).
Possible adverse effects: toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; endocrine disruptor in tree frogs, causes liver and kidney damage in non-target species; toxic to earthworms; in humans, possible carcinogen; toxic through skin contact and inhalation
EU February 2024: Pyrimethanil approved 01/05/2007 - 15/03/2025
Product approvals: Croatia FIS, February 2024, 8 products listed, 7 based on pyrimethanil alone: 540 Pyrus 400 SC (pyrimethanil), approved 09/05/2007-30/04/2024; 923 Faban (pyrimethanil, dithianon) approved 20/11/2015-30/04/2029; 1000 Scala, approved 12/09/2016-30/04/2024; 1416 Penbotec 400 SC, approved 07/01/2022-30/04/2029; 1464 Avalon, approved 12/04/2022-30/04/2029; 1471 Laitane, approved 06/05/2022-30/04/2028; 1472 Erune 40 SC, approved 06/05/2022-30/04/2028; 1493 Pretil, approved 25/07/2022-30/04/2024
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database, 2023. Pyrimethanil
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database, 2023. Pyrimethanil
- Bernabo, I., Guardia, A., Macirella, R., Tripepi, S., Brunelli, E. 2017. Chronic exposure to fungicide pyrimethanil: multi-organ effects on the Italian tree frog (Hyla intermedia). Scientific Reports 7, 6869.
USED ON HVAR: Pyrus® 400SC has been used especially on vines. (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Pyrus 400SC (26/04/2019, 10/05/2019, 05/06/2019, 18/06/2019, 26/07/2019, and Scala (19/06/2019)
2023. Chemical analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory of a hair sample taken on 25/05/2023, analysed on 21/06/2023 revealed the presence of Pyrimethanil in a female (b.1975) living near Vrboska.
 
SPIROXAMINE (substance group morpholine).
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to aquatic life; in humans, suspected of causing damage to the unborn child; may cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure; harmful if swallowed or inhaled; can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions.
EU February 2024: Spiroxamine approved 01/01/2012 - 31/05/2026.
Product approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024, 6 approved products, 2 based on spiroxamine alone, 4 in combinations: 960 Spirox (spiroxamine), approved 04/04/2016-31/12/2024; 1204 Falcon Forte (spiroxamine, prothioconazole, tebuconazole) approved 20/03/2019- 31/08/2028; 1324 Prosper CS 300 (spiroxamine), approved 23/11/2020-31/12/2024; 1419 Delaro Forte (spiroxamine, prothioconazole, trifloxystrobin) approved 06/12/2021-31/12/2024; 1431 Cayunis (spiroxamine, trifloxystrobin, bixafen) approved 23/12/2021-31/12/2024; 1439 Prosaro Plus (spiroxamine, prothioconazole) approved 17/02/2022-31/07/2027. Falcon EC 460 approval withdrawn 31/08/2020, previously approved 10/02/2006-31/08/2020
Sources: - PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2023. Spiroxamine
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2023. Spiroxamine
- European Chemicals Agency, Substance Information. 2018. Spiroxamine
ON HVAR: Falcon used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Falcon 460EC (18/06/2019, 26/07/2019)
ON HVAR 2021 Spiroxamine identified in a dust sample taken on June 22nd from a house near vineyards in Svirče
 
SULPHUR (inorganic compound)
Possible adverse effects: if inhaled can cause coughing, sneezing and respiratory impairment; skin contact can cause redness, itching and burning in sensitive individuals; eye contact can cause painful irritation, redness and tears; ingestion can cause nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea; can interfere with photosynthesis in plants.
EU February 2024: Sulphur approved 01/01/2010 - 15/04/2025; Lime sulphur (calcium polysulphid) approved 01/06/2011-31/08/2024; Sulphuric acid not approved.
Sulphur Safety Data Sheet Section 8.2: Eye protection: Use safety goggles with side protection; Skin protection • hand protection Wear suitable gloves. Chemical protection gloves are suitable, which are tested according to EN 374... type of material NBR (Nitrile rubber) • material thickness >0,11 mm • breakthrough times of the glove material >480 minutes (permeation: level 6). Respiratory protection: Respiratory protection necessary at: Dust formation. Particulate filter device (EN 143). P1 (filters at least 80 % of airborne particles, colour code: White). Environmental exposure controls Keep away from drains, surface and ground water.
Product approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024, 18 approved products: 134 Chromosul 80, approved 04/09/1997-31/12/2028 (Product warning: Chromosul 80 to be used no more than four times a year, and never when the vine is fully developed; should not be mixed with propamocarb, captan, heptenophos, oils, bupirimate and folpet.); 148 Cosavet DF approved 24/03/2004-31/12/2028;343 Kalinosul 80 WG approved 13/07/2000-31/12/2028; 363 Kossan WG approved 20/11/2001-31/12/2028; 366 Kumulus DF approved 20/06/2006-31/12/2028; 636 Solfosul 80 DF approved 07/03/2001-31/12/2028; 641 Sumpor SC-80 approved 25/05/1998-31/12/2028; 642 Sumporno prašivo approved 13/12/2004-31/12/2028; 657 Brimflo approved 19/02/2007-31/12/2028; 672 Thiovit Jet approved 06/12/2004-31/12/2028; 940 Sulgran approved 03/02/2016-31/12/2028; 1003 Sumpor prašivo approved 21/09/2016-31/12/2028; 1012 Sumpor WG 80 approved 14/10/2016-31/12/2028; 1053 Microthiol Special Disperss approved 12/04/2017-31/12/2024; 1420 Sumpor prašivo 98,5 DP approved 21/02/2022-31/12/2028; 1466 Azumo WG approved 06/04/2022-31/12/2028; 1489 Solfoxidante approved 28/12/2021-21/12/2028; 1585 Visul WG approved 17/07/2023-31/12/2024.. Sumpor micro 80WP, Sumpor močivi tiosam 80 mikro not approved
Sources: - University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2023. Sulphur
- Petit, A-N., Fontaine, F., Vatsa, P., Clément, C., Vaillant-Gaveau, N. 2012. Fungicide impacts on photosynthesis in crop plants. Photosynthesis Reseach 111 (3) 315-326
ON HVAR: Chromosul used, especially by grape-growers (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey'). Sulphur-based products used regularly in vineyards, especially after spring rains.
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use sulphur-based fungicides (15/03/2019, 19/06/2019, 26/06/2019,)
 
TEBUCONAZOLE (substance group triazole)
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; toxic to bees, birds, earthworms; in humans: can damage the unborn child; possible human carcinogen; toxic if swallowed.
EU February 2024: Tebuconazole approved 01/09/2009 - 15/08/2026. ECHA: approved under PT07 (film preservatives), 08 (wood preservatives), 10 (construction material preservatives)
Product approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024, 24 approved products, 11 based on tebuconazole alone, 13 in combinations: 261 Folicur EW 250, approved 17/06/1997-31/12/2028; 448 Mystic EC approved 20/03/2008-31/12/2028; 450 Nativo 75 WG (tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin) approved 06/03/2008-31/12/2028; 471 Orius 6 FS approved 25/03/2004-31/12/2028; 526 Prosaro 250 EC (prothioconazole, tebuconazole) approved 16/01/2007-31/12/2028; 858 Luna Experience (fluopyram, tebuconazole), approved 19/01/2015-31/08/2024; 861 Tebusha 25% EW approved 26/01/2016-31/08/2028; 865 Lamardor 400 FS (prothioconazole, tebuconazole) approved 10/03/2015-31/08/2028; 889 Tebkin 250 EW approved 31/08/2015-31/08/2028; 890 Tebu Super 250 EW approved 31/08/2015-31/08/2028; 891 Tebucol approved 31/08/2015-31/08/2028; 897 Magnello (difenoconazole, tebuconazole), approved 21/09/2015-31/12/2024; 987 Redigo Proplant (prothioconazole, tebuconazole) approved 18/07/2016-31/08/2028; 1028 Tebseme approved 13/01/2017-31/08/2028; 1044 Riza approved 01/03/2017-31/08/2028; 1052 Tarcza 060 FS approved 31/03/2017-31/08/2028; 1126 Custodia (azoxystrobin, tebuconazole), approved 09/01/2018-31/08/2024; 1131 Ulysses approved 15/01/2018-31/08/2028; 1204 Falcon Forte (prothioconazole, spiroxamine, tebuconazole) approved 20/03/2019-31/08/2028; 1220 Patras (azoxystrobin, tebuconazole), approved 20/05/2019-31/08/2028; 1244 Zantara (tebuconazole, bixafen) approved 31/07/2019-31/08/2028; 1359 Djembe (tebuconazole, bromuconazole) approved 20/04/2021-31/08/2028; 1480 Jaguar (prothioconazole, tebuconazole) approved 31/05/2022-31/07/2024; 1534 Smaragd (prothioconazole, tebuconazole) approved 05/01/2023-31/07/2024. 721 Zamir (tecuconazole, prochloraz) approval 04/04/2008-31/12/2021 ended, deadline 30/06/2023; Falcon EC 460 approval revoked 30/08/2020, previously approved 10/02/2006-31/08/2020
Sources: - PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2023. Tebuconazole
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2023. Tebuconazole
ON HVAR: Luna and Falcon used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Falcon 460EC (18/06/2019, 26/07/2019); Luna Experience (14/03/2019, 10/05/2019, 24/05/2019, 18/06/2019, 26/06/2019, 26/07/2019), Nativo 75WG (08/03/2019, 14/03/2019, 15/03/2019, 12/04/2019, 02/05/2019, 24/05/2019, 27/05/2019, 05/06/2019, 18/06/2019, 19/06/2019, 03/07/2019)
HVAR 2023. Analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory of hair samples revealed the presence of Tebuonazole in the following people:
1. female (b. 1964), living in Vrisnik, sample taken on 15/06/2023, analysed 17/07/2023.
2. male (b. 1964) living in Hvar, sample taken on 17/06/2023, analysed on 17/07/2023.
3. male (b.2019) living in Pitve, sample taken on 26/06/2023, analysed on 17/07/2023.
4. female (b.1988) living in Pitve, sample taken on 26/06/2023, analysed on 17/07/2023.
 
TRIADIMENOL (substance group triazole)
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects; hazardous to the aquatic environment; causes reproductive disruption in medaka fish and mammals;can harm Eremias argus lizards; causes neurobehavioural effects in rats; in humans: highly toxic if swallowed; may damage fertility; may harm the unborn child; may harm a child being breast-fed; causes eye irritation; causes mild skin irritation
EU February 2024: Triadimenol not approved, expired 31/08/2019.
Product approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024: No products approved. Falcon EC 460 approval revoked 30/08/2020, previously approved 10/02/2006-31/08/2020.
Sources: - PubChem 2023. Triadimenol
- PPDB Pesticide Properties Database University of Hertfordshire. 2023. Triadimenol
Wang, Z., Tian, Z., Zhang, W., Zhang, L., Diao, J., Zhou, Z. 2019. Stereoselective metabolism and potential adverse effects of chiral fungicide triadimenol on Eremias argus. Enironmental Science and Pollution Research 27, 7823-7834 (2020)
Walker, Q.D., Malman, R.D. 1996. Triadimefon and Triadimenol: Effects on Monoamine Uptake and Release. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 139 (2) 227-233
 
TRIFLOXYSTROBIN (substance group strobilurin)
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates and algae; very toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects; moderately toxic to sediment-dwelling organisms and aquatic plants; moderately toxic to earthworms; low toxicity to honeybees; in humans: can cause problems with reproduction and development; can cause eye irritation and allergic skin reactions.
EU February 2024: Trifloxystrobin approved 01/08/2018-31/07/2033.
Product approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024: 6 approved products, 1 based on trifloxystrobin alone, 5 in combinations: 450 Nativo 75 WG (tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin) approved 06/03/2008-31/12/2028; 723 Zato Plus (captan, trifloxystrobin), approved 21/01/2008-31/12/2028; 765 Zato 50 WG, approved 04/07/2012-04/07/2024; 1240 Luna Sensation (fluopyram, trifloxystrobin), approved 09/07/2019-31/01/2025; 1419 Delaro Forte (prothioconazole, spiroxamine, trifloxystrobin) approved 06/12/2021-31/12/2024; 1431 Cayunis (trifloxystrobin, spiroxamine, bixafen) approved 23/12/2021-31/12/2024. Fandango EC200 not approved
Sources- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2023. Trifloxystrobin
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2023. Trifloxystrobin
- Junges, C.M., Peltzer, P.M., Lajmanovich, R.C., Attademo, A.M., Cabagna Zenklusen, M.C., Basso, A. 2012. Toxicity of the fungicide trifloxystrobin on tadpoles and its effect on fish-tadpoJune 2023le interaction. Chemosphere 87 1348-1354.
ON HVAR Luna Sensation used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Nativo 75WG (08/03/2019, 14/03/2019, 15/03/2019, 12/04/2019, 02/05/2019, 24/05/201927/05/2019, 05/06/2019, 18/06/2019, 19/06/2019, 03/07/2019)
ON HVAR 2021 Trifloxystrobin identified in a dust sample taken on June 22nd from a house near vineyards in Svirče
 
ZINC SULPHIDE (inorganic compound)
Possible adverse effects: in humans, can be harmful if inhaled or swallowed; can cause skin or eye irritation; can cause headaches or nausea
EU February 2024 : Zinc sulphide not listed
Croatia FISFebruary 2024 No approved products; Cuprablau Z (copper hydroxide, calcium chloride complex, & zinc sulphide) not approved
Sources:- ECHA 2021. Infocard: Zinc Sulphide
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2023. Zinc Sulfide
- Fisher Science Education. 2015. Safety Data Sheet
- Angstrom Sciences Inc. 2015. Safety Data Sheet
Fungicide on trees, February 2019. Photo: Vivian Grisogono
 
4. LIMACIDE (MOLLUSCICIDE) ECHA APPROVAL CODE PT16, molluscicides, vermicides and products to control other invertebrates (against slugs, snails and other arthropods)
METALDEHYDE (Chemical compound)
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to aquatic organisms, with long-lasting effects; deadly to dogs and cats: Toxic to humans if swallowed or through skin contact or inhalation; can cause salivation, lethargy, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, convulsions, hyperthermia, comas, and death
EU February 2024: Metaldehyde approved, 01/06/2011-31/08/2026. ECHA February 2024: not approved
Products: Pužomor, Corry's slug, snail and insect killer, Bug-geta snail and slug pellets, Slugit, Slug-Tox, Certis Deal 5, Meridien, Carakol, Metalden, Metarex. Combined with insecticide Carbaryl in Lily Miller Slug, Snail and Insect Killer Bait, also for Ortho Bug-Geta Plus. 
Product approvals: ECHA February 2024: no approved related products  Croatia FIS February 2024, 6 approved products: 284 Gardene, approved 10/04/2006-31/12/2028; 534 Pužocid, approved 08/12/1999-31/12/2028; 535 Pužomor, approved 12/01/2005-31/12/2028; 1246 Metarex Inov, approved 08/08/2019-31/05/2024; 1290 Ecometal, approved 20/04/2020-31/05/2024; 1340 Plantella Arion +, approved 08/01/2021-31/05/2024
Sources: - PubChem Open Chemistry Database, 2023. Metaldehyde.
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database 2023. Metaldehyde.
USED ON HVAR: widely used as Pužomor in gardens and fields, with frequent reported fatalities among dogs and cats.
 
5. RODENTICIDES ECHA APPROVAL CODE PT14, rodenticides
ALUMINIUM PHOSPHIDE insecticide, acaricide, rodenticide, fumigant
Possible adverse effects: Highly damaging to the environment, especially the aquatic environment; highly inflammable: in contact with water releases gases capable of spontaneous combustion; extremely toxic to humans, can be fatal if swallowed or inhaled; harmful through skin contact; can cause serious eye damage; damages the nervous system, causing delirium, coma and loss of consciousness; can cause cardiovascular disturbances (including dysrhythmia, transient atrial fibrillation, left ventricular failure); if ingested, can cause abdominal pain, vomiting, severe thirst and renal failure.
EU February 2024:  Aluminium Phosphide approved 01/09/2009-31/11/2026; ECHA February 2024: Aluminium Phosphide approved PT14 rodenticides 01/09/2011-31/07/2024; approved PT18 (insecticides, acaricides and products to control other arthropods) 01/02/2012-31/07/2024; approved PT20 (control of other vertebrates) 01/07/2015-30/06/2025.(renewal applications in progress for all categories).
Approved products: ECHA, February 2024: PT14 10 product approvals; PT18 3 product approvals; PT20 1 product approval;  Croatia FIS, February 2024, 7 approved products (all listed as insecticides and acaricides, although aluminium phosphide has long been used as a raticide): 491 Phostoxin kuglice  approved 15/09/2005-31/12/2028; 492 Phostoxin pelete approved 20/06/2005-31/12/2028; 493 Phostoxin tablete  approved 30/08/2005-31/12/2028; 1343 Gastoxin Pellet approved 16/02/2021-31/08/2028; 1529 Quickphos 3G Tablets approved 08/03/2023-31/08/2024; 1564 Quickphos 0.6 G pellets approved 03/05/2023-31/08/2024; 1587 Quickphos bags approved 08/08/2023-31/08/2024.. MIZ (August 2022) no approved products    
- PubChem 2023: Aluminium Phosphide
- Gurjar, M., Baronia, A.K., Azim, A., Sharma, K. 2011. Managing aluminium phosphide poisonings. Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock, 4 (3): 378-384 (Jul-Sept 2011), 82 references
- Sedaghattalab, M. 2022. Treatment of critical aluminium phosphide (rice tablet) poisoning with high-dose insulin: a case report. Journal of Medical Case Reports. 16, article number 192 (2022), 10 references
 
BRODIFACOUM. Rodenticide - superwarfarin - 4-hydroxycoumarin vitamin K antagonist anticoagulant poison.
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic when ingested, causes haemorrhage, can be fatal to humans and animals alike; can be fatal through inhalation and skin contact; highly toxic to fish and birds; causes long-lasting damaging effects in aquatic environments
EU February 2024: Brodifacoum Not approved ECHA: approved, PT14, 01/02/2012 - 30/06/2024 - renewal application in progress.
Products: Ratimor, Ridak, Delicat, Sorexa Checkatube. 
Product approvals: ECHA February 2024, 568 approved products listed. Croatia FIS February 2024 / MIZ August 2022: No approved products, Ratimor products no longer approved
- PubChem, Open Chemistry Database 2023  Brodifacoum
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database, 2023. Brodifacoum
ON HVAR: Brodifacoum was on the list of pesticides recommended for use around Hvar Town, Stari Grad and the Jelsa Council area, under the Programme issued by the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute for 2017, and in the Institute's Implementation Plan for 2018.
 
BROMADIOLONE. Rodenticide - anticoagulant - superwarfarin - 4-hydroxycoumarin vitamin K antagonist anticoagulant poison.
Possible adverse effects: Acutely toxic, can be fatal if swallowed, inhaled, or via skin contact; may damage fertility or the unborn child; can cause organ damage in humans; highly toxic to fish and aquatic life, also to earthworms.
EU, February 2024: Bromadiolone not approved as from 31/05/2021 ECHA February 2024: approved, PT14, 01/07/2011 - 30/06/2024 renewal application in progress, February 2024
Products: Ratimor wax blocks, Ratimor Bromadiolone Fresh Bait, Ratimor Bromadiolone Pasta Bait, Maki, Brodilon, Coumarin, Tomcat, Sarakat Bromabait, Contrac, Bromone, Maki, Super-Caid.
Product approvals, ECHA February 2024: 552 related products approved. Croatia FIS February 2024 / MIZ (August 2022) : No approved products, Ratimor products no longer approved, Brodilon not approved
- PubChem, Open Chemistry Database, 2023. Bromadiolone
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database, 2023. Bromadiolone
USED ON HVAR, Ratimor (granules and wax blocks): 2016: Hvar Town and surrounds: May and October; Stari Grad and surrounds, April and October; Jelsa Council region, April-May and October 2016; 2017: Hvar Town region, May-June, 17th & 23rd November, total quantities 1010 kg granules 172 kg wax blocks; Stari Grad and surrounds, May and November, total: 787 kg; Jelsa Council region, May and November 2017. total 981 kg; 2018: Hvar Town region 22nd May, 3rd October, Ratimor granules 455 kg, wax blocks 22 kg; Stari Grad & surrounds, 22-24 May, 2-4 October; Jelsa Council region,18-21 May, 25th September - 4th October 2018. Ratimor has been delivered to households on Hvar twice a year for many years. It used to be delivered along with an insecticide, Trichlorfon (see above). Until 2017, the pesticides were distributed in flimsy cellophane packages, with the instructions on the inside. From 2018 - 2020, Ratimor was delivered to households in the Jelsa region in insecure cardboard boxes, without detailed instructions as to how to use the poisons, and without any guidance as to how to dispose of the box and poison after use.
2017, 2018 Brodilon used in the Sućuraj region
 
ZINC PHOSPHIDE
Possible adverse effects: Highly tosic to aquatic environments, with lasting effects; toxic to birds and mammals; in humans: toxic, possible reproduction & development effects;
EU February 2024: approved 01/05/2011-31/07/2024; ECHA, February 2024: zinc phosphide not approved
Product approvals: Croatia FIS, February 2024, 2 products: 1296 Arvalin, approved 25/06/2020-30/04/2025; 1362 Ratron GL, approved 30/04/2021-31/07/2025. MIZ (August 2022): Zinc phosphide, no approved products
Sources: PubChem 2023: Zinc phosphide, Billy.
Pesticides Properties Database 2023: Zinc Phosphide (Zincphos, Zinc Diphosphide)
 
6. HERBICIDES. (Herbicides are authorized as 'plant protection products' and are not included as such in the ECHA list of biocidal chemical substances)
Herbicide in Stari Grad field. Photo: Vivian Grisogono
CHLOROTOLURON (substance group urea)
EU February 2024: Chlorotoluron approved 01/03/2006-15/08/2026.
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects; moderately toxic to birds and honeybees; suspected carcinogen; suspected reproductive toxicity, causing harm to the unborn child
Product approvals: Croatia FIS, February 2024, 4 approved products, 1 based on chlorotoluron alone, 3 in combinations: 771 Tornado Forte (chlorotoluron, diflufenican) approved 03/05/2015-31/12/2028; 928 Tolurex 50 SC, (chlorotoluron) approved 25/09/2015-31/10/2028; 1216 Legacy Plus (chlorotoluron, diflufenican) approved 15/04/2019-31/12/2024; 1596 Carmina Forte (chlorotoluron, diflufenican) approved 19/09/2023-31/10/2024.
Sources:
PPDB 2023. Chlorotoluron
PubChem 2023. Chlorotoluron
ON HVAR 2021 Chlorotoluron identified in a dust sample taken on June 22nd from a house near vineyards in Svirče
 
DIFLUFENICAN (substance group carboxamide)
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to aquatic life and the aquatic environment, with long-lasting effects; moderately toxic to birds and earthworms; can be harmful to bees; in humans, possibly affects reproduction and development; eye irritant.
EU February 2024: Diflufenican approved 01/01/2008-15/01/2026
Products: Tornado Forte (diflufenican and chlorotoluron), Alister New (Jodosulfuron + Mesosulfuron + Diflufenikan)
Product approvals: Croatia FIS, February 2024, 11 approved products, 1 based on diflufenican alone, 10 in combinations:771 Tornado Forte (chlorotoluron, diflufenican) approved 03/05/2015-31/12/2028; 1004 Alister New (diflufenican, iodosulfuron, mesosulfuron, mefenpyr) approved 28/09/2016-31/12/2024; 1162 Fuga Delta (diflufenican, flufenacet) approved 21/06/2016-31/12/2028; 1216 Legacy Plus (chlorotoluron, diflufenican) approved 15/04/2019-31/12/2024; 1231 Jura EC (diflufenican, prosulfucarb) approved 07/08/2019-31/12/2028; 1262 Xinia (diflufenican, flufenacet, metribuzin) approved 02/01/2020-31/07/2028; 1334 Lector Delta (diflufenican, florasulam) approved 05/01/2021-31/12/2025; 1385 Flash 500 SC, approved 27/07/2021-31/12/2024; 1474 Arnold (diflufenican, flufenacet) approved 10/05/2022-31/10/2028; 1596 Carmina Forte (chlorotoluron, diflufenican) approved 19/09/2023-31/10/2024; 1623 Collector (diflufenican, aclonifen) approved 29/01/2024-15/01/2027.
Sources:
ECHA. Diflufenican Substance Infocard
PPDB 2023 Diflufenican
PubChem 2023 Diflufenican
Ciarlo, T.J., Mullin, C.A., Frazier, J.L., Schmehl. 2012. Learning Impairment in Honey Bees Caused by Agricultural Sparay Adjuvants. PLoS One 7 (7) e40848.
 
GLYPHOSATE  (substance group phosphonoglycine)
There are at least some 750 glyphosate-based herbicides available in the world markets. Eleven of them, including the widely used Roundup (Cidokor in Croatian), were banned in the EU in 2016.
Suspected possible adverse effects in humans: carcinogenic; neurotoxic; genotoxic; contributes to antibiotic resistance; influences pregnancy, fertility, and birth defects; endocrine disruptor; damages DNA, gut bacteria, organs including liver, kidneys and spleen; contributes to Parkinson's Disease and autism.
Possible environmental ill-effects: damage to water, fish, aquatic organisms, soil, soil organisms, bees, butterflies, gastropods, trees, plants
You can find a detailed presentation of the evidence of glyphosate's potential dangers in our article 'Glyphosate herbicides, Scientific Evidence'. For a description of the problems relating to glyphosate, see 'Glyphosate, GBH'.
EU February 2024: Glyphosate approved 16/12/2017 - 15/12/2033.
Products: Roundup / Cidokor, Cidokor Max, Cidokor Plus, Touchdown / Ouragan, Herkules, Herkules 480SL, Herkules Super, Glyfos, Oxalis, Boom Efekt, Roundup Bioactive, Roundup Rapid etc. etc.
Product approvals: Croatia FIS February 2024, 26 approved products, 24 based on glyphosate alone, 2 in combinations: 758 Boom Efekt (glyphosate), approved 01/03/2012-01/03/2029; 902 Cidokor Plus (glyphosate), approved 24/11/2015-15/12/2028; 907 Roundup Rapid (glyphosate), approved 24/11/2015-15/12/2028; 921 Satelite (glyphosate), approved 12/11/2015-15/12/2028; 1048 Glifokor 360 TF (glyphosate), approved 22/02/2017-15/12/2028; 1050 Herkules (glyphosate), approved July 202322/02/2017-15/12/2028; 1106 Karda (glyphosate), approved 16/11/2017-15/12/2028; 1152 Resolva 24H (glyphosate), approved 10/04/2018-18/12/2028; 1154 Glyfoon 480 (glyphosate), approved 24/04/2018-15/12/2028; 1292 Galaxia Max (glyphosate, MCPA), approved 24/04/2020-15/12/2028; 1297 Total Up (glyphosate), approved 26/06/2020-15/12/2028; 1401 Glyphogan (glyphosate), approved 03/11/2021-15/12/2028; 1438 Rodeo Plus (glyphosate), approved 17/02/2022-15/12/2029; 1449 Coctel Gold (glyphosate, MCPA), approved 18/02/2022-31/10/2028; 1459 Singlif (glyphosate), approved 16/03/2022-15/12/2024; 1512 Glister Ultra (glyphosate), approved 21/10/2022; 15/12/2028; 1523 Nasa (glyphosate), approved 11/11/2022-15/12/2024; 1533 Barbarin Xtra 610 (glyphosate) approved 02/01/2023 - 15/12/2024; 1535 Gallup Super 480 (glyphosate) approved 05/01/2023 - 15/12/2024: 1562 Catamaran 360 (glyphosate), approved (05/12/2016) 24/04/2023-15/12/2024; 1565 Roundup Biactive (glyphosate) approved 25/04/2023-15/12/2024; 1567 Halvetic (glyphosate) approved 19/05/2023-15/12/2024; 1573 Ouragan System 4 (glyphosate) approved (24/01/2012) 21/04/2023-15/12/2028; 1575 Roundup Future (glyphosate) approved 15/06/2023-15/12/2024; 1593 Tartan Super 360 (glyphosate) approved 13/07/2023-15/12/2024; 1605 Clinic Xtreme (glyphosate) approved 15/09/2023-15/12/2024. Registration withdrawn: 742 "Glyphogan", approval 29/11/2011-03/11/2021 ended, final deadline 03/05/2023; 857 Cidokor Max, approval 09/06/2015-01/03/2022 ended, final deadline 01/09/2023; 993 Chikara Duo (glyphosate, flazasulfuron) approval 09/08/2016-01/03/2022 ended, final deadline 01/09/2023; 1024 Total TF approval 05/12/2016-01/03/2022 ended, deadline 01/09/2023;  1128 Gallup Super 480 approval 07/02/2018-05/01/2023 ended, final deadline 05/07/2024; 1136 Barbarian Xtra 610 approval 27/02/2018-02/01/2023 ended, final deadline 02/07/2024; 977 Roundup Bioactive, approved 01/07/2016-15/12/2023, not listed February 2024.
ON HVAR 2023
USED ON HVAR: Roundup (locally Cidokor) has been widely and intensively used on Hvar over many years, alongside other glyphosate-based herbicides such as 'Ouragan', 'Oxalis' and 'Boom Efekt'. (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey'). Local farmers are still using their stocks in 2023.
2019, Cidokor, alternatively Herkules Super or Glyfos were recommended by a well-respected Hvar olive oil producer to be used on weeds in April and June.
ON HVAR 2021: A chemical analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory from a hair sample submitted in February revealed the presence of glyphosate in a 72-year-old resident of Pitve.
 
ISOPROTURON (urea herbicide, phenylurea herbicide)
EU February 2024: Isoproturon approval expired 30/05/2016, banned from use after 2017, suspected of causing endocrine disruption in humans and potential groundwater contamination. ECHA: February 2024. Initial application for approval in process, under PT07 (film preservatives) and PT10 (contruction material preservatives).
Possible adverse effects: GHS Hazard Statements: H351: Suspected of causing cancer [Warning Carcinogenicity] H373: Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure [Warning Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure] H400: Very toxic to aquatic life [Warning Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute hazard] H410: Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects [Warning Hazardous to the aquatic environment, long-term hazard]. In humans: suspected of reproduction and development effects; eye and skin irritant.
FIS February 2024/ MIZ (August 2022) : no approved products
Sources:
Leoci, R. Ruberti, M. 2020. Isoproturon: A Controversial Herbicide Hard to Confine in a Global Market. Journal of Sustainable Development vol. 13 no. 6.
ON HVAR 2023: Analysis by the Kudzu Science laboratory of a hair sample taken on 26/06/2023, analysed on 17/07/2023 revealed the presence of isoproturon in a female (b. 1988) living in Pitve.
 
PENDIMETHALIN (substance group dimitroaniline).
EU February 2024: Pendimethalin approved 01/09/2017-30/11/2024.
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; highly toxic to freshwater fish, marine organisms; moderately toxic to earthworms; slightly toxic to birds; possible carcinogen (USEPA); reproduction/developmental effects, suspected endocrine disruptor; thyroid and liver toxicant; can cause headaches, dizziness, nausea, vomiting; skin sensitizer; skin and eye irritant; can irritate nose and throat; bioaccumulates.
Product approvals: Croatia FIS: February 2024, 7 approved products, 5 based on pendimethalin alone, 2 in combinations: 949 Dost 330 EC approved 01/09/2016-01/09/2024; 982 Sharpen 330 EC approved 16/06/2016-01/09/2024; 983 Pendus 330 EC approved 28/06/2016-01/09/2024; 1498 Penter (pendimethalin, terbuthylazine) approved 10/08/2022-30/11/2025; 1516 Bismark (pendimethalin, clomazone) approved 06/04/2022-31/10/2028. 1547 Stomp Aqua approved 27/02/2023-30/11/2025; 1568 Pendifin 400 SC approved 25/05/2023-30/11/2025. Registration withdrawn: 806 Wing P (pendimethalin, dimethenamid-P) approval 24/02/2015-01/03/2022, final deadline 01/09/2023; 913 "Stomp Aqua", approval 22/10/2015-27/02/2023 ended, final deadline 27/08/2024
Sources:
Pesticide Properties Database 2023. Pendimethalin
New Jersey Department of Health. 2017. Pendimethalin: Hazardous Substance Fact Sheet.
Beyond Pesticides/NCAMP 2007. Factsheet. Pendimethalin
ON HVAR 2021 Pendimethalin identified in a dust sample taken on June 22nd 2021 from a house near vineyards in Svirče
 
Compiled by Vivian Grisogono MA(Oxon). Information updated February 2024.
 
Please note: the above information is as complete and accurate as possible, and has taken several years to piece together. If you are aware of inaccuracies or further information which would be relevant to this list, please let us know at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. For the latest information on pesticides and biocides, please refer to the links in the introductory paragraph (Part 1 - Background)
 
You are here: Home poisons be aware Pesticides and their adverse effects

Eco Environment News feeds

  • Senior climate figures welcome move after Conservative government largely left the role to junior ministers

    Ed Miliband is to take personal control of the UK’s negotiations at vital international climate talks, in stark contrast to his Tory predecessors.

    The energy security and net zero secretary will attend Cop29, this year’s UN climate summit, in Azerbaijan this November to head the UK’s delegation and meet political leaders from around the world.

    Continue reading...

  • Electric vehicles are ‘batteries on wheels’ that can put energy back into the National Grid when solar panels and windfarms do not provide much power

    Electric cars make some people afraid of the dark. While the batteries produce much less carbon, they require much more electricity to run. This has prompted ominous warnings that Great Britain and other wealthy countries set on banning new petrol and diesel cars risk plunging their populations into darkness.

    In recent months British net zero-sceptical newspapers have warned that the shift to EVs would “risk overwhelming the grid, and threaten catastrophic blackouts” when intermittent sun and wind fail to provide the necessary power. Another article claimed: “It won’t take an enemy power to put us all in the dark – just energy customers doing normal things on a normal winter’s evening.”

    Continue reading...

  • Site in Pembrokeshire currently grazed by sheep will be planted with a range of species and reconnect to Celtic past

    A lost piece of Celtic rainforest in the far south-west of Wales is to be restored to its ancient glory, weaving around standing stones and an abandoned, tumbling-down farmhouse with a waterwheel.

    The 59-hectare (146-acre) site in Pembrokeshire will be planted with species such as oak, small-leaf lime and wild service (Sorbus torminalis) and should support an abundance of mosses, liverworts, lichens and ferns as well as providing a home for animals and other plant life.

    Continue reading...

  • Tess, a 40-year-old female at Houston zoo, has been given a trial mRNA vaccine to help combat the virus, a leading killer of calves in captivity

    An Asian elephant at Houston zoo in the US has received the first mRNA vaccine against herpes, which is the leading killer of Asian elephants calves in captivity.

    Tess, a 40-year-old Asian elephant, was injected with the trial vaccine at the Texas zoo in June, after a spate of deaths in juveniles in zoos around the world from the elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV).

    Continue reading...

  • Ravenscraig, North Lanarkshire: A place once of coke ovens and cooling towers is now enlivened with orchids and stonecrop, and swards of grasses

    I’m walking through Ravenscraig, once the site of the largest steelworks in Europe, which was closed and demolished more than 30 years ago. While there has been some redevelopment on its fringes, the bulk of the site has been left. The skylarks that soar upwards to become nothing but song will look down on the circles where once were cooling towers and gas towers, the rectangular templates of the buildings, strip mills and coke ovens, and roads leading to them, edges now softened and fringed with birch and willow.

    From a distance, the oxeye daisies intermingling with the lush grasses look like a smattering of snow; close up, thick swards of grass are peppered with St John’s wort, yellow rattle, tufted and yellow vetch, and red clover – little pings of colour amid the subtle pinks, purples and greens of the grasses.

    Continue reading...

  • Ed Miliband sets new rules on solar panels and approves three giant solar farms as Labour seeks to end years of Tory inaction

    Keir Starmer’s Labour government unveils plans for a “rooftop revolution” today that will see millions more homes fitted with solar panels in order to bring down domestic energy bills and tackle the climate crisis.

    The energy secretary, Ed Miliband, also took the hugely controversial decision this weekend to approve three massive solar farms in the east of England that had been blocked by Tory ministers.

    Continue reading...

  • It’s not entirely clear if fox numbers are on the rise in urban areas, but research shows they are learning to avoid hazards such as dogs and poisonous baits

    Alex Abbey’s security camera captured something moving through an alley behind his home in Sydney’s eastern suburbs a few weeks ago. When he watched the 2am footage the next day, he was surprised to see a red fox on the screen.

    “It’s unusual. It’s the first time I have seen one in Potts Point,” he says.

    Sign up for Guardian Australia’s free morning and afternoon email newsletters for your daily news roundup

    Continue reading...

  • Initiative aims to coax visitors and local people into air-conditioned venues during sweltering summer afternoons

    A little after 3pm on a weekday afternoon, the footsteps and voices that echoed along the hallowed halls of the Prado were silenced by a series of percussive detonations that could have been mistaken for an indoor fireworks display.

    The source of the disruption, however, was not a vandal or a protester. Watched over by the eight muses for whom the Madrid museum’s Sala de las Musas is named, a tall, famous and angular flamenco dancer called El Yiyo was clicking, clapping, stomping and pirouetting before a rapt, grateful and slightly bemused audience. A few feet away sat the renowned guitarist Rafael Andújar, who had ambled into the sala a few moments earlier, taken his seat and begun to fill the air with notes.

    Continue reading...

  • A British geneticist scoured the globe for diverse grains in the 1920s. His research could be vital as the climate changes

    A hundred years ago, the plant scientist Arthur Watkins launched a remarkable project. He began collecting samples of wheat from all over the globe, nagging consuls and business agents across the British empire and beyond to supply him with grain from local markets.

    His persistence was exceptional and, a century later, it is about to reap dramatic results. A UK-Chinese collaboration has sequenced the DNA of all the 827 kinds of wheat, assembled by Watkins, that have been nurtured at the John Innes Centre near Norwich for most of the past century.

    Continue reading...

  • Such schemes have their critics but the technology, which has been known for a century, could help many nations reach net zero

    Snowy Hydro’s beleaguered tunnel boring machine, Florence, seems to be regularly stuck between soft rock and a hard place.

    But that has not deterred enthusiasts for pumped hydro as a key part of Australia’s transition off fossil fuels.

    Continue reading...

Eco Health News feeds

Eco Nature News feeds

  • The government of Indonesia announced this week a deal to redirect more than US$ 35 million it owes to the United States into the conservation of coral reefs.

  • In the semi-arid shrubland of Namaqualand, dry conditions have long been a cycle of life. But climate change is now slowly transforming this once-thriving biodiversity hotspot, making life challenging for wildlife and the shepherds who have farmed here for centuries.

  • Half the world’s population lives in areas with exposure to dengue fever. Parts of the United States may soon join them.

    The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a warning to doctors last week about an increased risk of dengue, a mosquito-borne virus most prevalent in tropical climates. Countries in the Americas have already reported more than 9.7 million cases this year — twice as many as were reported in the region all last year — raising alarm bells about the prospect for spread in the southern continental United States and increased transmission in places like Puerto Rico.

    This notice from the CDC comes in the wake of a recent heat wave that smothered much of the eastern United States. The timing offers a foreboding glimpse of a future in which climatic change enables diseases to spread into new environments.

    “We're seeing a lot of spread of mosquito-borne viruses, such as dengue, associated with climate change, so none of this is surprising,” said Neil Vora, an epidemiologist and physician at Conservation International. “We are creating the climatic conditions for these things to happen.”

    But how, exactly, are the two related?

    On a warming planet, disease vectors like mosquitoes and ticks can thrive in new environments, and disease transmission seasons may become longer as conditions change. The impact could be profound: A 2019 study, referencing warming based on modeling from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, projected an additional 2 billion people would face risk of dengue exposure by 2080.

    And it won’t just be dengue.

    “The thing is, these viruses are going to surprise us time and time again,” Vora said. “Dengue is scary. But what else is out there?”

    Last year, for example, Florida and Texas discovered eight cases of locally acquired malaria, the first such cases in the United States in two decades, leaving physicians perplexed. In parts of South America, including Brazil, scientists are worried about the spread of Oropouche virus, which had been restricted largely to low-population areas in the Amazon.

    Preventing these outbreaks — dengue, Zika, malaria or others — will hinge on reversing climate change. Vora says public health is focused on response rather than prevention, and he delivered a TED Talk last year about how reducing deforestation can help fend off future pandemics.

    “Prevention is about going upstream and addressing climate change itself,” Vora said. “We need to walk and chew gum at the same time. In other words, we have to invest in both prevention of diseases, such as through mitigating climate change through nature-based solutions and phasing out fossil fuels — while, at the same time, investing in response capabilities. The stakes are too high to keep implementing incomplete solutions.

    “The beauty of investing in nature for prevention of disease is that it is inherently equitable. Everyone benefits everywhere, particularly people in the most resource-limited settings. And these measures are agnostic to the pathogen. When you mitigate climate change, threats downstream get mitigated, too.”


    Further reading:


    Max Marcovitch is a staff writer at Conservation International. Want to read more stories like this? Sign up for email updates. Also, please consider supporting our critical work

  • Human and elephant conflict is on the rise, largely because of elephants' diminishing habitat. Experts say that protecting the species requires understanding and supporting rural communities that share spaces with them.

  • Africa’s pastoralists have long raised their livestock to mimic the rhythms of nature. Reviving their way of life is key to restoring grasslands.

  • Nearly a third of fishing lines are lost or discarded at sea. This so-called “ghost gear” — along with nets and traps — is deadly for marine animals. One man is on a mission to clean it up, net by net.

  • Brutal heat waves swept across the Southern Hemisphere earlier this year. Now it’s the Northern Hemisphere’s turn. Yet humanity continues to actively destroy one of its best allies against the heat: forests.

  • In eastern California, a Great Basin bristlecone pine known as Methuselah has long been considered Earth’s oldest living thing. But in Chile, a new challenger has emerged that could be 500 years older than the reigning champ.

  • A landmark treaty to protect the world’s oceans could go into effect soon — but experts argue it must consider climate change if it is going to succeed.

  • The ocean feeds us, regulates our climate and sustains economies. Yet numerous threats are devastating the health of marine ecosystems. In honor of World Oceans Day, we take a dive into efforts that are charting anew course for our oceans.