Pesticides and their adverse effects

Published in Poisons Beware

For chemical pesticides in common use by local authorities and individuals in Croatia we list active substances, in alphabetical order, with their scientifically proven possible adverse effects and EU approval status.

Pesticides and their adverse effects Photo: Vivian Grisogono

For each we identify what type of poison it is, its known possible adverse effects, EU approval status, commonly used products containing the active ingredient, and scientific and official sources of information about it.

To check the status of any product, you can refer to the EU Pesticides Database. However, as at October 2018, it was last updated on 7th April 2016, so that it is not reliable as an up-to-date source, although each entry does include the latest legislation relating to the listed pesticides. The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) records approvals of active substances and products. Its website is the primary source of information about the laws governing pesticides and their approval processes. You can check its list of substances which are approved or under review on the ECHA website page: mouse over 'Information on chemicals' in the header; then click on 'Biocidal active substances', under 'BPR' in the submenu; click on 'biocidal active substances' under the heading 'Information on biocides'; click 'search' in the next field, and type the name of the substance in the box marked 'Substance name', click the 'search' button below right; the substance, if identified, will come up as a special listing at the bottom of the page. It will show one or more versions of the substance, giving various details, including approval status; to the right of the entry is a box linking to authorized products based on the active substance.

INSECTICIDES. - ECHA APPROVAL CODE PT18 (Insecticides, acaricides, products to control other arthropods)

ABAMECTIN (See Emamectin) Combination of Avermectin B1a & B1b, growth regulator, insecticide, miticide, nematicide, derived from soil bacterium Streptomyces avermitilis.
Possible adverse effects: extremely toxic to bees, birds; highly toxic to aquatic life: fish, invertebrates, plants, algae and sediment dwelling organisms; toxic to earthworms; highly toxic to humans through skin contact, inhalation or ingestion: can cause problems for reproduction, impairing male fertility; neurological damage including tremors and ataxia; respiratory failure; skin and eye irritation.
EU: Approved 01/05/2009 - 30/04/2020. ECHA: Approved PT18 01/07/2013 - 30/06/2023
Products: ECHA-approved include BAYGON BAITS, Baygon Esca Scarafaggi, Raid baits, Raid Roach Bait, RAID Klopka za Žohare.
Sources:
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. 2018. Abamectin
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2006, updated 2019. Abamectin
- University of California, Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program. Abamectin
USED ON HVAR by farmers cultivating vines, olives etc.
 
ACETAMIPRID. Neonicotinoid
Possible adverse effects: Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic
environment; highly toxic to honeybees if mixed with piperonyl butoxide or propiconazole; harmful for populations of pollinating insects; harmful to birds and earthworms; dangerous for the environment; in humans: harmful - toxic if swallowed; can be fatal if inhaled; skin irritant
EU: Approved. ECHA: Approved, PT18, 01/02/2020 - 31/01/2027.
Products: Mospilan 20SP. Acetamiprid products no longer registered or available in Croatia: Mospilan 20SG, Acelan 20SP, Volley, Wizzaard, Macho 60FS
Sources:
- Iwasa, T., Motoyama, N., Ambrose, J.T., Roe, R.M. 2004. Mechanism for the differential toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticides in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Crop Protection 23: 371-378
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. 2018. Acetamiprid
- Cayman Chemical 2018. Safety Data Sheet: Acetamiprid
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005, updated 2019. Acetamiprid
USED ON HVAR: Mospilan usedby vegetable-growers
 
ALPHA-CYPERMETHRIN (ALPHAMETHRIN). Synthetic pyrethroid. 
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to fish, most aquatic organisms and honeybees; extremely toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects; toxic to earthworms; possible human carcinogen; can cause organ damage, respiratory irritation, irreversible eye damage; serious water pollutant.
EU: Approved 01.03.2005 expiry extended from 31.10.2018 to 31.07.2019. ECHA: Approved 01/07/2016 - 30/06/2026 under PT18, (but no related biocidal products listed as approved, as at February 2019)
Products: Fastac EC, Antec, Contest, Fedona, Littac, Tenopa.
Sources:
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. 2018. Alpha-cypermethrin.
- Bej, S., Mukherjee, D., Saha, N.C. 2015. Acute toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin to oligochaete worm, Branchiura sowerbyi (Beddard 1982) along with their behavioural responses. International Journal of Scientific Research. 1:12, 325- 326.
- Wast, N., Gupta, A.K., Prakash, M.M., Gaherwal, S. 2014. Toxic Effect of Alphamethrin 10 EC on Freshwater FishPoecilia reticulata (Peters, 1859). World Applied Sciences Journal 30 (6): 782-786.  
- Kemabonta, K., Akinhanmi, F.O. 2013. Toxicological Effects of Chlorpyrifos, Dichlorvos and Alpha Cypermethrin on Adult Albino Mice, Mus Musculus. Production, Agriculture and Technology. 9 (2): 1-17.
- Sarikaya, R., 2009. Investigation of Acute Toxicity of Alpha-Cypermethrin on Adult Nile Tilapia (Oreochromos niloticus L.). Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 9: 85-89
- El Okda, E-S., Abdel-Hamid, M. A-A., Hamdy, A.M. 2017. Immunological and genotoxic effects of occupational exposure to alpha-cypermethrin pesticide. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health. Vol 30 (4) 603-615.
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Alpha-cyoermethrin
USED ON HVAR: Fastac EC is used against fruit fly, especially in olive groves, by many individual agriculturalists.  
 
AQUATAIN AMF. Silicone-based liquid larvicide (film over the surface of standing water causes pupae and larvae to suffocate)
Possible adverse effects: can damage non-target organisms which depend on the water surface for respiration and movement.
EU: European Commission exempted Aquatain from registration due to its mode of action.
USED ON HVAR: DDD programme, 2017 Stari Grad region 9 litres, 23-25 May; Jelsa region 16 litres, 19-22 May 2017.
 
AVERMECTIN (see Abamectin)
 
AZAMETHIPHOS. Organophosphate, designed for use on target areas, not for spraying in the air; mainly used against flies in enclosed spaces, on horses, cattle, pigs and chickens. 
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; toxic to birds; acutely toxic to humans if swallowed or inhaled; can cause headache, weakness, nervousness, sweating, vomiting and difficulty swallowing. Exposure to extremely high levels may result in muscular twitching, eye pain, slurred speech, colic, hyper-salivation, heart complaints, breathing difficulties, convulsions and unconsciousness; also causes eye and skin irritation on contact; 
EU, ECHA (PT18)not approved
Products: Muhomor, Salmosan, Alfacron 10, Alfacron Plus, Snip Fly Bait.
Sources:
- Pub Chem: Compound summary for CID 71482, Safety and Hazards
- European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products 1999. Azamethiphos, Summary Report.
- Scottish Environment Protection Agency. Azamethiphos. Scottish Pollutant Release Directory.
- University of Hertfordshire. Azamethiphos. Veterinary Substances Database.
- Pesticides Action Network (PAN) Europe. 2006. What substances are banned and authorized in the EU market?
- Muhomor. 2017.  Muhomor je insekticid topiv u vodi. Djelatna tvar: Azametifos u koncentraciji 10%. Genera, Jedna komapnija za Jedno zdravlje
- ECHA (Updated 15/08/2018) Azamethiphos
USED ON HVAR - against flies around rubbish bins and rubbish dumps 2017: Hvar Town and surrounds, (with Microfly) 20th June, (with Microfly) 13th July, 11th August heat-spray fogging in rubbish dumps; 28th September, 12th October fogging in rubbish dumps. Total quantity 40.5 kg; Stari Grad and surrounds, Muhomor 33 kg, Jelsa Council area 31.5 kg, May, July, August, September 2017. 2018: around Hvar Town, 25th July, 16th August, 4th September - total quantity 9 kg.

Organophosphates were not approved under the Insect Control Programme of Measures and Implementation Plans issued by the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute in 2017 and 2018, yet Muhomor was used on Hvar in both years.

Every insect has a role in the natural chain. Photo: Vivian Grisogono
BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ISRAELENSIS (Bti).  Soil bacterium.
Possible adverse effects: possibly interferes with reproduction in birds; can cause eye and skin irritation in humans and animals; may disturb essential wetland organisms; long-term use perhaps causes loss of biodiversity in the environment. 
Products: Aquabac©, Teknar©, Bactimos© , and Vectobac©. 
EU: Approved 01.05.2009, expiry 30.04.2019, according to the EU Pesticides Database. 
Sources:
- Washington State Department of Health. Mosquito Larvicide - Bti.
- Poulin, B., Lefebre, G., Paz, L., 2010. Red flag for green spray: adverse trophic effects of Bti on breeding birds. Journal of Applied Ecology. Vol.47, Issue 4, 884-889.
- Maletz, S., Wollenweber, M., Kubiak, K., Müller, A., Schmitz, S., Maier, D., Hecker, M., Hollert, H.. 2015. Investigation of potential endocrine disrupting effects of mosquito larvicidal Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) formulations. The science of the total environment. Vol.536, 729-738.
USED ON HVAR: 2017: 22nd September, and 2018: 19th September, Baturad was used on 3 hectares of woodland around the Hvar Town region against the Pine Processionary Moth caterpillars, quantity 600 litres each time.
 
CARBARYL. Carbamate
Possible adverse effects:  Highly toxic to mammals, aquatic invertebrates, aquatic crustaceans, bees, earthworms. Can be fatal in humans; possible carcinogen and endocrine disruptor; possibly damaging for reproduction and development; can cause cholinesterase inhibition, blurred vision, tears, headaches, memory loss, rhinorrhoea (discharge of thin nasal mucus), salivation; sweating, muscle weakness, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea; tremors, cyanosis, convulsions and skin irritation. 
EU: Not approved
Product: Sevin. Combined with limacide Metaldehyde in Lily Miller Slug, Snail and Insect Killer Bait, and for Ortho Bug-Geta Plus.
Sources
- University of Hertfordshire PPDB, updated 2018. Carbaryl.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005, updated 2019. Carbaryl.
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2016. Carbaryl Factsheet.
HAS BEEN USED LONG-TERM IN CROATIA, especially for fruit thinning, applied two to three weeks after full flowering of the trees. (Refs: Radivojević et al. 2011.  Effect of chemical and hand thinning young apple tree on yield and fruit quality. Proceedings, 46th Croatian and 6th International Symposium on Agriculture, Opatija Croatia, pp 1044-1047.  Croatian Agriculture Ministry, article in Croatian). However,  it is no longer authorized for this use in Croatia.
 
CHLORPYRIFOS. Organophosphate. 
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to honeybees, birds, fish, aquatic organisms; moderately toxic to earthworms, algae and aquatic plants; in humans can cause nausea, dizziness, confusion, and respiratory paralysis and death; causes neurodevelopmental defects in children; can harm mother and foetus during pregnancy; can cause acute muscle paralysis and weakness, also breathing difficulties, depression, and double visionin humans, dogs and cats; overexposure can cause weakness, ataxia (uncoordinated movements), proprioceptive dysfunctions (disturbed awareness of posture and movements), particularly of the hind legs, and paralysis in animals, including dogs and cats. 
Product: Pyrinex 48 EC.
EU: Approved 01.07.2006, expiry 31.01.2019, extended to 31.01.2020. As at 26th October 2018 and 12th February 2019, Chlorpyrifos was not on the European Chemicals Agency listing of approved substances. 2018: Banned in the United States and 8 EU countries, but still allowed in Croatia.  
Sources:
- Toxnet (Toxicology Data Network) 1983, updated 2015. Chlorpyrifos.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency 2016. Revised Human Health Risk Assessment on Chlorpyrifos
- United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive (HSE) 2016. Changes to Authorisations for Products Containing Chlorpyrifos. (Use restricted to spraying brassica seedlings only, all existing stocks of chlorpyrifos to be destroyed)
- Junquera, P. article updated 2017. CHLORPYRIFOS: SAFETY SUMMARY for VETERINARY USE in DOGS, CATS, HORSES, CATTLE, SHEEP, GOATS, SWINE and POULTRY. Poisoning, intoxication, overdose, antidote. Parasitipedia.net
- United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, 2018. Lulac (11 Petitioners, including Pesticide Action Network (PANNA), Farmworker Justice GreenLatinos, Learning Disabilities Association of America, Farmworkers Association of Florida) v. Wheeler (for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)  EPA ordered to revoke all tolerances and cancel all registrations for chlorpyrifos within 60 days: Chlorpyrifos banned in the United States
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database. updated August 2018. Chlorpyrifos.
- Health and Environment Alliance (HEAL) August 2018. Chlorpyrifos factsheet (with 40 references)
USED ON HVAR (to our knowledge) 
 
CYPERMETHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid. 
Possible adverse effects: classified as a possible cause of cancer in humans; very toxic to cats, bees, aquatic insects and fish, highly toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects; toxic to a lesser degree to birds.; in humans, can cause organ damage, skin numbness or burning, respiratory irritation, loss of bladder control, vomiting, loss of co-ordination, coma, seizures, and (rarely) death. 
EU: Permit 01.03.2006, expired 31.10.2018. Still under review, Cypermethrin was re-approved in August 2018, subject to stringent conditions. ECHA: Approved, PT18, 01/06/2020 - 31/05/2030, but no approved biocidal products were listed as at 12th February 2019.
Products: Cipex, Microfly, Ammo, Cymbush, Demon, Raid Ant Killer, Hot-Shot Fogger, Raid Wasp and Hornet Killer. As at October 2018, these insecticide products were not on the European Chemical Agency listing of approved products, although Cypermethrin was authorized for wood preservative products.
Sources
-TOXNET Toxicology Data Network (U.S.National Library of Medicine). 1986, updated 2012. Cypermethrin.
-Extension Toxicology Network, (Extoxnet). 1993. Pesticide Information profile: Cypermethrin. (Pesticide Information Project, Cornell University)
-PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005. Cypermethrin.
-Aggarwal, P., Jamshed, N., Ekka, M., Imran A. 2015. Suicidal poisoning with cypermethrin: A clinical dilemma in the emergency department. Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock. 8:2 123-125.
-U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs. 2016. Chemicals Evaluated for Carcinogenic Potential. Annual Cancer Report.
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Cypermethrin
USED ON HVAR, DDD programme, for adult insect suppression 'fogging' spraying and dispersion: 2016, Cipex 10E, Microfly, (with Permex 22E) - Hvar Town and its surrounds, June, July x2, August, October 2016; Stari Grad and its surrounds, June, July and August 2016; Jelsa Council region, July x2, August 2016. 2017: Hvar Town region, Microfly 20th June, (with Permex) 25th May, 20th June, (with Permex and Muhomor) 13th July, total quantity of Microfly 14 kg. Cipex (with Permex) 11th August for hot-spray fogging against mosquitoes around Hvar and its settlements; Cipex (with Muhomor and mineral oil) 11th August against flies on Hvar's rubbish dumps; Cipex (with Permex 22E) 28th September, 12th October for fogging around the Hvar Town region. Total quantity of Cipex 13 litres. Stari Grad and environs, May, July, August, September 2017; Jelsa Council area, July, August, September 2017, Cipex (with Permex 22E) in fogging against mosquitoes; combined with Muhomor for fly control around rubbish bins and rubbish dumps, Stari Grad and environs, also Jelsa Council region, May, July, August, September 2017. Stari Grad Cipex total, 8 litres, Microfly 7 kg; Jelsa, Cipex 10 litres, Microfly 5 kg. 2018: Hvar Town region, Cipex 3rd July, 4th September, 19th September, 18th October, total quantity 13 litres; Microfly 3rd July, 25th July, 16th August, 4th September, 19th September. Stari Grad region: Cipex 2L, Microfly 3L, fogging 26th July, 15th August, 6th September, Jelsa Council area, main streets, Microfly (4 litres) with Cipex (3 litres) used for fogging action 25th July, 14th August, 5th September 2018.
 
DELTAMETHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid. 
Possible adverse effects: in humans can cause ataxia, convulsions leading to muscle fibrillation and paralysis, dermatitis, oedema, diarrhoea, dyspnoea, headache, hepatic microsomal enzyme induction, irritability, peripheral vascular collapse, rhinorrhoea, serum alkaline phosphatase elevation, tinnitus, tremors, vomiting and death due to respiratory failure. Possible allergic reactions: anaphylaxis, bronchospasm, eosinophilia, fever, hypersensitivity pneumonia, pallor, pollinosis, sweating, sudden swelling of the face, eyelids, lips and mucous membranes, and tachycardia. Toxic to bees; highly toxic to cats; extremely toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects, toxic to fish, also to aquatic herbivorous insects, causing increased algae; 
EU: Approved: 01/11/2003 expiry 31/10/2018, extended to 31/10/2019. ECHA: Approved, PT18, 01/10/2013 - 30/09/2023. Many Deltamethrin-based insecticides were approved or re-approved on the European Chemicals Agency listing of approved products as at 26th October 2018, but the list did not include any of the following commonly advertised products, although several similarly named Raid products were listed as authorized. 
Products: Butoflin, Crackdown, Decis 2.5 EC, Decis 100 EC, Scatto, Rotor Super, Poleci Plus, Raid Max Bug Killer, Raid Max Spider and Scorpion Killer
Sources:
- PubChem, Open Chemistry Database. 2017. Deltamethrin.
- Dai, P-L., Wang, Q., Sun, J-H., Liu, F., Wang, X., Wu, Y-Y., Z. T. 2009. Effects of sublethal concentrations of bifenthrin and deltamethrin on fecundity, growth, and development of the honeybee Apis mellifera ligustica. Environmental Toxicology. 29-3, 644-649
- Extension Toxicology Network (Extoxnet) 1995. Deltamethrin. (Pesticide Information Project, Cornell University)
- Parasitipedia.net. Deltamethrin: Safety Summary for Veterinary Use
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Deltamethrin
ON HVAR: Deltamethrin was on the list of pesticides recommended for use around Hvar Town, Stari Grad and the Jelsa Council area, under the Programme issued by the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute for 2017 and 2018.
DELTAMETHRIN AND THE PRODUCTS DECIS 100ec, DECIS 2.5EC, SCATTO, ROTOR SUPER, AND POLECI PLUS were recommended for use on Hvar and in other olive-growing areas against fruit-flies by the CROATIAN AGRICULTURE-FORESTRY ADVISORY SECTION FOR THE SPLIT-DALMATIAN COUNTY, IN JULY 2018.
 
DIFLUBENZURON. Benzamide insecticide, Insect Growth Regulator (Disruptor) (IGR). 
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to freshwater and marine invertebrates; moderately toxic to fish and earthworms; slightly toxic to birds; affected haemoglobin in animal studies; can cause breathing difficulties in humans; direct contact can be harmful to skin and eyes; metabolites are possible human carcinogens. 
Products: Dimilin, Vigilante, Micromite, Flubex
EU:  Approved 01.01.2009, expiry 31.12.2018, extended to 31st December 2019ECHA: Approved, PT18, 01/02/2015 - 31/12/2025.As at 26th October 2018, Dimilin and two other Diflubenzuron-based insecticides were authorized for use up to 2027 according to the European Chemical Agency listing, whereas Flubex, Vigilante and Micromite were not included. As at 12th February 2019 only two products were listed as approved: Dimilin 5 and Labyrinth+.
Sources:
- United States Environmental Protection Agency 1997. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (R.E.D.): Diflubenzuron.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database 2005, modified 2018: Diflubenzuron.
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database, updated 2018. Diflubenzuron.
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Diflubenzuron
USED ON HVAR, DDD programme, for larvicidal actions, Flubex, 2016: Hvar Town and surrounds, May and October 2016. Stari Grad and surrounds, April and October 2016; Jelsa Council area, April-May and October 2016. 2017: Jelsa Council area: Dimilin used for larvicide, rainwater drains & septic tanks, June & July 2017. 2018: Dimilin used in the Hvar Town region, 13th June, 3rd July, 5.5 kg. Dimilin used in Vrboska on the road to Soline bathing beach (at the request of residents), in Jelsa around the Park and in the rainwater drains in the centre of Jelsa, 13th June & 25th July 2018, 5 kg.
 
DIMETHOATE. Organophosphate. 
Possible adverse effects. Very toxic to bees and aquatic organisms; possibly toxic to wildlife, including birds, and livestock: possible endocrine disruptor; in humans inhalation, swallowing or excess skin contact can cause  breathing difficulties, headache, dizziness, tiredness, slurred speech, blurred vision, a lack of coordination, sweating, slow or rapid heart beat, convulsions, incontinence and in extreme cases unconsciousness and death; when swallowed, canalso cause vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, faecal incontinence; long-term exposuremay lead to impaired memory, depression, irritability, confusion and insomnia; possible human carcinogen (USEPA). 
Products: Phosphamide, Rogor 40, Calinogor, Chromogor, Cygon, Perfekthion, Fosfamid 40, Aadimethoal. 
EU: Approved 01.10.2007, expiry extended to 31.07.2019ECHA: not approved
Sources:
- World Health Organisation 1989. International Programme on Chemical Safety: Environmental Health Criteria for Dimethoate.
- Extension Toxicology Network (Extoxnet) 1993. Dimethoate
- Scottish Environment Protection Agency. Dimethoate.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database 2005, modified 2008. Dimethoate. (Pesticide Information Project, Cornell University)
- University of Hertfordshire 2018. Pesticide Properties Database: Dimethoate.
DIMETHOATE AND THE PRODUCTS Calinogor, Chromogor, Perfekthion, Rogor 40 were recommended for use on Hvar and in other olive-growing areas against fruit-flies by the CROATIAN AGRICULTURE-FORESTRY ADVISORY SECTION FOR THE SPLIT-DALMATIAN COUNTY, IN JULY 2018.
 
EMAMECTIN BENZOATE. Semisynthetic derivative of avermectin.
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to bees, birds, aquatic life, aquatic environment, algae; in humans: can cause organ damage, serious eye irritation or damage; muscle tremors, muscle incoordination, vomiting, pulmonary oedema, unconsciousness; skin allergies; toxic through swallowing, inhalation and skin contact.
EU: Approved 01/05/2014 - 30/04/2024. ECHA: Abamectin (avermectin) approved, PT18, 01/07/2013 - 30/06/2023
Products: Affirm, Proclaim (Approval for Proclaim in New York USA was for restricted use only)
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database 2005, modified 2019. Emamectin
- University of Hertfordshire, Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Emamectin benzoate
- Cornell Cooperative Extension, Pesticide Management Education Program 2000. Emamectin Benzoate - Registration of Proclaim Insecticide 3/00.
USED ON HVAR by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc
 
IMIDACLOPRID. Neonicotinoid.
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to bees, birds, also aquatic life and aquatic environments, with long-lasting effects; can affect reproduction and development in humans; possibly associated with autism spectrum disorder; moderately toxic to mammals, fish and earthworms; persists in soil.
EU: Approved to 31/07/2022, restricted for certain flowering crops. ECHA: Approved, PT18, 01/07/2013 - 30/06/2023.
Products: Admire, Advantage, Kohinor, Merit, Confidor, Hachikusan, Premise, Prothor, Winner, Gaucho. Quick Bayt (combined with Tricosene)
Sources:
- Pisa, L.W., Amaral-Rogers, V., Belzunces, L.P., Bonmatin, J.M., Downs, C.A., Goulson, D., Kreutzweiser, D.P., Krupke, C., Liess, M., McField, M., Morrissey, C.A., Noome, D.A., Settele, J., Simon-Delso, N., Stark, J.D., Van der Sluijs, J.P., Van Dyck, H., Wiemers, M. 2015. Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22: 1: 68-102.
- Zhang, E., Nieh, J.C. 2015. The neonicotinoid imidacloprid impairs honey bee aversive learning of simulated predation.Journal of Experimental Biology, 218: 3199-3205
- Baines, D., Wilton, E., Pawluk, A., de Gorter, M., Chomistek, N. 2017. Neonicotinoids act like endocrine disrupting chemicals in newly-emerged bees and winter bees. Scientific Reports 7: article number 10979
- Eng, M.L., Stutchbury, B.J.M., Morrissey, C.A. 2017. Imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos insecticides impair migratory ability in a seed-eating songbird. Scientific Reports, 7., article no. 15176.
- University of Hertfordshire, Pesticides Properties Database. 2018. Imidacloprid.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database 2005, updated January 2019. Imidacloprid. (Pesticide Information Project, Cornell University)
USED ON HVAR: DDD programme, Quick Bayt® (imidacloprid with Tricosene) used on rubbosi tips. 2018: Hvar Town region, July 3rd, 2 kg.; Stari Grad region, 3rd July, 25th July, 15th August, 6th September 2018, 2kg.
 
PERMETHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid. 
Possible adverse effects: classified as a potential carcinogen for humans; linked to Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; poisonous to cats, also other animals: highly toxic to bees, sea organisms, fish; in humans, can cause neurological damage, also problems in the immune and endocrine systems. 
EU: not approved. ECHA: approved, PT18, 01/05/2016 - 30/04/2025  with 11 approved permethrin-based products listed as at 12th February 2019.  The list did not include Permex 22E or Permex 22EC. 
Products: Permex 22E (with piperonyl butoxide); household fly-killer sprays such as Sanmex Fly and Wasp Killer; Raid formula 277 insect killer. You can find a list of Permethrin products on the 'Scorecard' Pollution Information Site.
Sources:
-World Health Organization. 2006. "International Program on Chemical Safety, Environmental Health Criteria 92: Permethrin."
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2002. "TRI Explorer: Providing Access to EPA's Toxic Release Inventory Data."
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. August 2009. Permethrin Facts.
- Hoffmann, M., Meléndez, J.L., Ruhman, M.A., 2008. Risks of Permethrin Use to the Federally Threatened California Red-legged Frog (Rana aurora draytonii) and Bay Checkerspot Butterfly (Euphydryas editha bayensis), and the Federally Endangered California Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus), Salt Marsh Harvest Mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris), and San Francisco Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia). Environmental Fate and Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs, Washington, D.C. 20460
- International Cat Care. Permethrin Poisoning in Cats.
- U.S. Centers for Disease Control (ATSDR). 2003. "Toxicological Profile for Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids."
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) for Permethrin."
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2007. Permethrin & Resmethrin (Pyrethroids), Toxicity and Exposure Assessment for Children's Health. TEACH Chemical summary.
- Alavanja, M.C.R., Hoffmann, J.N., Lynch, C.F., Hines, C.J., Barry, K. H., Barker, J., Buckman, D.W., Thomas, K., Sandler, D. P., Hoppin, J.A., Koutros, S., Andreotti, G., Lubin, J.H., Blair, A., Beane Freeman, L.E. 2014. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Risk and Insecticide, Fungicide and Fumigant Use in the Agricultural Health Study. PLoS One (US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health) 9 (10): e109332.
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Permethrin
USED ON HVAR, DDD programme, for adult insect suppression, including fogging spraying and dispersion: 2016: Permex 22E (with Microfly, Cipex 10E)- Hvar Town and its surrounds, June, July x2, August, October; Stari Grad and its environs, June, July, August; Jelsa Council area, July x2, August 2016. 2017: Hvar Town and surrounds Permex 22E (with Microfly) 25th May, 20th June; 13th July; (with Cipex) 11th August, 28th September, 12th October. Permex 22E: 22 litres; Stari Grad and surrounds (with Cipex) 17-18th May, 14th July, 11th August, 26th September, total 10 litres; Jelsa Council region (with Cipex), 12th July, 10th August, 27th September 2017, 9 litres. 2018: Hvar Town region
, 24th July 2018, quantity 3 kg; Stari Grad region (also Cipex, Microfly), 26th July, 15th August, 6th September, 3L; Jelsa region (also Cipex, Microfly), 25th July, 14th August, 5th September 2018, 4L.
 
d-PHENOTHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to cats, bees and aquatic organisms; in humans, can cause dizziness, salivation, headache, fatigue, diarrhoea, irritability to sound and touch. 
EU, ECHA: not approved (parallel but distinct substance, IR-trans phenothrin, was given conditional approval in an Assessment Report under European Commission Directive 98/8/EC in 2013., ECHA, PT18, 01/09/2015 - 31/08/2025) 
Products: Sumithrin, Raid, Enforcer Flea Killer, Enforcer BedBug spray, Enforcer Flying Insect Killer, Enforcer Wasp and Hornet Killer, Ortho Max Flying Insect Killer, Anvil
Sources:
- WHO/FAO 1994. d-Phenothrin. WHO/FAO Data Sheet on Pesticides no.85.
- Cox, C. 2003. Sumithrin (d-Phenothrin). Insecticide Factsheet. Journal of Pesticide Reform. 23 / 2, 10- 14.
ON HVAR: d-Phenothrin was on the list of pesticides recommended for use around Hvar Town, Stari Grad and the Jelsa Council area, under the Programme issued by the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute for 2017.
 
PHOSMET. Organophosphate. 
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to aquatic life and environment; highly toxic to honeybees; in humans can be fatal if inhaled; if swallowed, causes stomach pain, diarrhoea, nausea, sickness; can cause organ damage, eye irritation; possibly causes fetal damage or disrupts fertility; can cause swelling, itchiness, raised skin temperature if absorbed through the skin; can be toxic to birds, earthworms, cats and dogs. 
Product: Imidan 50 WG. 
EU: Approved 01/10/2017, expiry 31/07/2019, ECHA: not approved
Sources:
- Ultra Scientific Inc. Phosmet (Imidan) Safety Data Sheet.
- Extension Toxicology Network (Extoxnet) 1993. Phosmet. (Pesticide Information Project, Cornell University)
- United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2001. Pesticides: Reregistration. Phosmet IRED facts. (safer alternatives available)
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database: 2005, modified 2018. Phosmet (Imidan, Imidathion)
- University of Hertfordshire, Pesticide Properties Database, updated 2018: Phosmet.
THE PHOSMET PRODUCT IMIDAN was recommended for use on Hvar and in other olive-growing areas against fruit-flies by the CROATIAN AGRICULTURE-FORESTRY ADVISORY SECTION FOR THE SPLIT-DALMATIAN COUNTY, in JULY 2018.
 
RESMETHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid. 
Possible adverse effects: potentially harmful to humans: endocrine disruptor, neurotoxic, eye and skin irritant, possible thyroid toxicity; possible human carcinogen; highly toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates; moderately toxic to birds; 
EU, ECHA: not approved. Banned in the United States since 2015.
Trade names: Chrysron, Crossfire, Raid Flying Insect Killer,
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2018. Resmethrin.
- US EPA. 2011. Permethrin, Resmethrin, d-Phenothrin (Sumithrin®): Synthetic Pyrethroids for Mosquito Control.
- University of Hertfordshire, Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Resmethrin.
ON HVAR: Resmethrin was on the list of pesticides recommended for use around Hvar Town, Stari Grad and the Jelsa Council area, under the Programme issued by the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute for 2017. 
 
SPINOSAD, combination of Spinosyn A and Spinosyn D, derived from naturally occurring soil fungi (naturalyte)
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to aquatic organisms, with long-lasting effects; highly toxic to bees; toxic to fish and earthworms; in humans can cause allergic reactions and eye irritation.
EU: Approved 01.02.2007 - 30.04.2020. ECHA: Approved, PT18, 01.11.2012. - 31.10.2022.
Products: Laser, Success Bait
Sources:
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties DataBase. 2018. Spinosad.
- PubChem Database Spinosad factor A
- Syracuse Environmental Research Associates, Inc. 2016. Spinosad: Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment. SERA TR-056-16-03b
ON HVAR: used by individuals, especially on vines
 
TETRAMETHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid. 
Possible adverse effects: potential human carcinogen, also can cause dizziness, breathing difficulties, coughing, eye irritation, gastrointestinal upset, blisters and skin rashes; extremely toxic to bees and aquatic organisms, including fish and aquatic invertebrates. 
EU / ECHAnot approved.  
Products: Permex 22E; Household insect-killing sprays such as Sanmex Fly and Wasp Killer.; Bonide Wasp and Hornet Killer, Enforcer Flea Spray, Hi-Yield Wasp and Hornet Spray, Ortho MAX Flying Insect Killer, Raid Flea Killer, Raid Flying Insect Killer.
Sources:
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2008, revised 2010. Reregistration Eligibility Decision Document for Tetramethrin.
- Thoreby, E. (author), Williams, M.M. (editor), Lah, K. (updater) 2011. Tetramethrin. Toxipedia.
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Tetramethrin.
- ECHA, (updated 21 10 2018) Tetramethrin
USED ON HVAR DDD programme for adult insect suppression fogging spraying and dispersion: 2016: Permex 22E (with Microfly, Cipex 10E)- Hvar Town and its surrounds, June, July x2, August, October; Stari Grad and its environs, June, July, August; Jelsa Council area, July x2, August 2016. 2017: Hvar Town and surrounds Permex 22E (with Microfly) 25th May, 20th June; 13th July; (with Cipex) 11th August, 28th September, 12th October. Permex 22E: 22 litres; Stari Grad and surrounds (with Cipex) 17-18th May, 14th July, 11th August, 26th September, total 10 litres; Jelsa Council region (with Cipex), 12th July, 10th August, 27th September 2017, 9 litres. 2018: Hvar Town region, 24th July 2018, quantity 3 kg; Stari Grad region (also Cipex, Microfly), 26th July, 15th August, 6th September, 3L; Jelsa region (also Cipex, Microfly), 25th July, 14th August, 5th September 2018, 4L.
 
THIAMETHOXAM. Neonicotinoid.
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to aquatic life, with acute and lasting effects; highly toxic to bees; toxic to earthworms; in humans, can be harmful through skin contact, inhalation, and especially ingestion; can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, dizziness, headache; ingestion can cause seizures, coma, hypothermia, respiratory failure, hypotension, ventricular dysrhythmias and death.
EU: Approved (expiry extended to 30.04.2019.) but for restricted use only (Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/785, of 29th May 2018.) ECHA: Not approved
Products: Actara, Cruiser SB, Centric, Flagship, Meridian, Optigard, Platinum
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2019. Thiamethoxam
- Coulon, M., Schurr, F., Martel, A.-C., Cougoule, N., Bégaud, A., Mangoni, P., Dlamon, A., Alaux, C., Le Conte, Y., Thiéry R., Ribière-Chabert, M., Dubois, E. 2018. Metabolisation of thiamethoxam (a neonicotinoid pesticide) and interaction with the Chronic bee paralysis virus in honeybees. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 144: 10-18
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Thiamethoxam.
- Tosi, S., Nieh, J.C. 2017. A common nicotinoid pesticide, thiamethoxam, alters honey bee activity, motor functions and movement to light. Nature Scientific Reports 7: article number 15132.
- Toxnet (Toxicology Data Network) 2011, updated 2012. Thiamethoxam.
USED ON HVAR by individuals cultivating olives, vines, etc
 
TRICHLORFON. Organophosphate.
Possible adverse effects: In humans, possible carcinogen; suspected to cause reproductive problems and birth defects; can cause vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal cramps; affects the nervous system: can cause confusion, headaches, irritability, speech difficulties, memory and concentration loss; when inhaled, causes breathing problems, pulmonary oedema, sometimes nose-bleeds; eye contact can cause redness and bleeding, tears, blurred vision; skin contact can cause sweating and muscle contractions; severe poisoning affects the central nervous system and can cause loss of coordination (ataxia), slurred speech, weakness, fatigue, paralysis, unconsciousness, and even death; symptoms such as cramps, tingling, numbness in the legs followed by incoordination and paralysis sometimes come on 1-4 weeks after exposure and can leave permanent disability.
Highly toxic to birds, bees, and aquatic organisms, toxic to fish. 
EU /ECHA: Not approved.
Sources:
- Toxnet (Toxicology Data Network) 1983, updated 2018. Trichlorfon
- Extension Toxicology Network (Extoxnet) 1993. Trichlorfon. (Pesticide Information Project, Cornell University)
- National Center for Biotechnology Information.PubChem Compound Database. 2005, modified 2018. Metrifonate - TRICHLORFON
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database 2018. TrichlorfonUSED ON HVAR: for many years was distributed to households together with rat poison (Ratimor, see below), previously in flimsy cellophane packaging. In tablet form, intended for use down toilet pans: result, most probably finishes in the sea from many seaside properties, or in the soil from soak-away septic tanks. 

 
TRICOSENE. Chemical compound: muscalure, Z-9-tricosene, cis-tricos-9-ene, muscamone
Possible adverse effects: Irritant to skin and eyes on contact; inhalation can cause irritation to the respiratory tract; highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates
EU: Not approved
Products: Maxforce Fly Spot Bait, Bonanza Fly Bait, Stimukil Fly Bait. Quick Bayt (combined with Imidacloprid)
Sources:
- University of Hertfordshire Bio-Pesticides DataBase. 2018. Muscalure, Z-9-tricosene.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database, 2005, updated January 2019. Tricosene
USED ON HVAR DDD programme, on rubbish tips: 2018: Quick Bayt®, Hvar Town region, 3rd July, 2 kg; Stari Grad region, 3rd July, 25th July, 15th July, 6th September 2018, 2 kg.
 
SYNERGIST (INERT SUBSTANCE  / MIXER)
PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE (PBO). Pyrethroid synergist. 
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; may delay mental development in infants; animal studies show possible damage, including tumours, in mice and rats.
ECHA: approved, PT18, 01/07/2018 - 30/06/2028
Sources:
- Okamiya, H., Mitsumori, K., Onodera, H., Ito, S., Imazawa, T., Yasuhara, K., Takahashi, M. 1998. Mechanistic study on liver tumor promoting effects of piperonyl butoxide in rats. Archives of Toxicology 72 (11): 744-750.
- Khan, M.Z. & Law, F.C.P. 2005. Adverse effects of pesticides and related chemicals on enzyme and hormone systems of fish, amphibians and reptiles: a review. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Science 42 (4): 315-323. 
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. Reregistration Eligibility Decision for Piperonyl Butoxide (PBO)
- Muguruma, M., Nishimura, J., Jin, M., Kashida, Y., Moto, M., Takahashi, M., Yokouchi, Y., Mitsumori, K. 2006. Molecular pathological analysis for determining the possible mechanism of piperonyl butoxide-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. Toxicology 228 (2-3): 178-187. 
- Horton, M. K., Rundle, A., Camann, D.E., Boyd Barr, D., Rauh, V.A., whyatt, R. M. 2011. Impact of Prenatal Exposure to Piperonyl Butoxide and Permethrin on 36-month Neurodevelopment. Pediatrics. 
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Piperonyl Butoxide
For an overview of inert substances, please refer to the United States Environmental Protection Agency listing: Pesticide Registration, Inert Ingredients
USED ON HVAR in Permex 22E for adult insect suppression 'fogging' spraying and dispersion (see Permethrin or Tetramethrin, above)
 
FUNGICIDES  (Agricultural fungicides are not included in the ECHA list of approved chemical substances)
COPPER COMPOUNDS
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to fish, birds, aquatic invertebrates, organisms and plants; toxic to bees and earthworms; sheep, chickens; persists in the soil. In humans can cause nausea, irritation of respiratory tract and skin, eczema. Eye contact can cause conjunctivitis, inflammation of the eyelid lining, excess fluid build-up in the eyelid, clouding of the cornea, cornea tissue deterioration due to ulceration in the eye's mucous membrane.
Long-term, excessive exposure leads to the risk of heavy metal poisoning, including liver disease, brain damage, kidney and intestinal problems, anaemia, mutagenic potential; possible damaging effects on reproduction and development. Symptoms include: a metallic taste in the mouth, burning pain in the chest and abdomen, intense nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, headache, sweating, shock, disrupted urination leading to yellowing of the skin. People with Wilson's disease (in which copper is absorbed and stored excessively in the body), are at special risk of poisoning from copper-based pesticides.
EU: Approved.
Products: Bordeaux Mixture (combination of copper sulphate and hydrated lime / calcium dihydroxide, see below ); Kocide 3000 (copper hydroxide), Champ®Formula 2 (copper hydroxide), Comac (copper hydroxide), Wetcol 3 Copper Fungicide (tetracopper tricalcium sulphate and soluble calcium), Bordocop, Nordox 75WG (copper(I) oxide)
 
COPPER SULPHATE
Bordeaux Mixture. (combination of copper sulphate and hydrated lime / calcium dihydroxide)
Possible adverse effects: toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates, aquatic plants, algae, birds, earthworms. In humans: harmful if inhaled, can cause serious eye problems. Associated with increased risk of potentially malignant oral submucous fibrosis, which can lead to oral squamous cell carcinoma.
EU: Approved, 01.01.2019-31.12.2025.
Sources:
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. August 2018. Copper Sulphate.
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. May 2018. Bordeaux Mixture.
- Rodrigues, C.G., Krüger, A. P., Barbosa, W. F., Guedes, R. N. C. 2016. Leaf Fertilizers Affect Survival and Behavior of the Neotropical Stingless Bee Friesella schrottkyi (Meliponini: Apidae: Hymenoptera). Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol.109, 3, pp 1001-1008.
- Mathew, P., Ravi, D.A., Varghese, S.S., Manojkumar, A.D. 2015. Effect of copper-based fungicide (bordeaux mixture) spray on the total copper content of areca nut: Implications in increasing prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis. Journal of International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry.
- European Food Safety Authority. 2008. Conclusion on the peer review of copper compounds. Scientific Report 187, 1-101.
- EXTOXNET Extension Toxicology Network. 1994. Copper Sulphate.
USED ON HVAR: Copper-based compounds, such as Nordox, and especially Copper Sulphate and Bordeaux Mixture, are widely used on vines, especially on the north side of the island, also on other crops.
 
 
FLUOPYRAM, substance group benzamide, pyramide
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to fish, aquatic plants and algae, with long-lasting effects; slightly toxic to bees, birds, earthworms; in humans, can cause serious eye irritation; possibly causes damage to nervous system; affects reproduction, possibly damages the unborn child
EU: Approved 01/02/2014 - 31/01/2024.
Products: Luna ® Privilege; Luna Experience (fluopyram with tebuconazole)
Sources:
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database, 2018. Fluopyram
- Bayer Crop Science Safety Data Sheet, 2017. Luna Experience SC400
USED ON HVAR by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc
 
FOLPET (synthetic phthalimide)
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to fish and aquatic organisms; probable human carcinogen; causes developmental effects in animals; toxic if inhaled; causes serious eye irritation; can cause allergic skin reactions; moderately toxic to earthworms.
EU: Approved 01/10/2007 - 31/07/2019. ECHA: approved under PT 06 (preservatives for products during storage), 07 (film preservatives), 09 (fibre, leather, rubber and polymerised materials preservatives)
Products: Folpet 80 WDG, Folpan 50 wp, Phoenix®, Mikal (folpet and fosetyl-al)
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2019. Folpet.
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. 2018. Folpet.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency 1999. R.E.D. facts. Folpet.
USED ON HVAR by farmers cultivating grapes and olives, etc
 
FOSETYL-ALUMINIUM (Fosetyl-al) Organophosphate
Possible adverse effects: toxic to mammals, bees, birds, fish, aquatic invertebrates, algae, earthworms; possible human carcinogen; irritant if inhaled, can cause lung damage; causes serious eye irritation or damage; skin irritant
EU: approved 01/05/2007 - 30/04/2020.
Products: Mikal (fosetyl-al and folpet), Aliette, Fosetyl-Al 80WP
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2019. Fosetyl-Al
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Fosetyl-al
- Toxnet (Toxicology Data Network) 1993, updated 2006, field updates 2010. [email protected]+6856">Fosetyl-Aluminum
- United States Environmental Protection Agency 1991. R.E.D. facts. Fosetyl-Al
USED ON HVAR by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc
 
MANCOZEB (substance group carbamate)
Possible adverse effects: toxic to fish, birds, aquatic invertebrates; moderately toxic to bees, earthworms, algae; in humans: possible thyroid disruptor; possible effects on reproduction and development; respiratory tract irritant; eye irritant
EU: Approved 01/07/2006 - extended to 31/01/2020.
Products: Mancozeb Plus, Mancozeb Flowable with Zinc, Matco 8-64 (mancozeb with metalaxyl), Ridomil Gold (mancozeb with metalaxyl)
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2019.
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Mancozeb
- Axelstad, M., Boberg, J., Nellemann, C., Kiersgaard, M., Jacobsen, P.R., Christiansen, S., Hougaard, K.S., Hass, U. 2011. Exposure to the widely used fungicide mancozeb causes thyroid disruption in rat dams but no behavioral effects in the offspring. Toxicological Sciences 120 (2) 439-446
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2005. Mancozeb Facts - Pesticide Reregistration
ON HVAR: Ridomil used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc
 
METALAXYL (substance group phenylamide)
Possible adverse effects: toxic to bees, birds, fish, earthworms; in humans: can cause serious eye damage; skin irritant; very harmful if swallowed
EU: Approved 01/07/2010 - 30/06/2023. 
Products: Folio, Fubol Gold, Ridomil Gold (metalaxyl with mancozeb)
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2006 modified 2019. Metalaxyl-M
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Metalaxyl-M
ON HVAR: Ridomil used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc
 
METIRAM Substance group Carbamate
Possible adverse effects: Moderately toxic to fish; highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates; highly toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; hazardous to the aquqatic environment; moderately toxic to honeybees and earthworms; in humans: can cause skin and eye irritation; can cause anaemia; toxic if ingested or inhaled; can cause abdominal cramps, vomiting and diarrhoea if ingested; classified as a possible human carcinogen
EU: Approved 01/07/20016 - 31/01/2020 (extended from 31/01/2019). ECHA : Not listed as at 4th March 2019
Products: Cabrio® Top (Metiram & Pyraclostrobin), Polyram
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005, modified 2019. Metiram
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Metiram
- Toxnet (Toxicology Data Network) 1991, revised 2010. Metiram
ON HVAR: Cabrio® Top used by individuals cultivating vines, olives
 
PENCONAZOLE, substance group Triazole
Possible adverse effects: toxic to bees, birds, fish, aquatic invertebrates and algae; suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child; possible endocrine disruptor; harmful if swallowed
EU: Approved 01.01.2012 - 31.12.2021.
Products: Penconazole 200 ew, Hockley Pencon 10, Topas,
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2019. Penconazole
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Penconazole
ON HVAR: Topas used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc
 
PROPICONAZOLE substance group Triazole
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to fish; toxic to aquatic organisms; in humans, highly irritant to eyes and skin; harmful if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through the skin; can cause skin allergies; possible liver toxicant; possible endocrine disruptor; classified as possible carcinogen by USEPA.
Products: Tilt, Menara, Mantis, Banner Maxx
EU: approval withdrawn December 2018, final deadline March 2020.
Sources: - University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Propiconazole
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2014. Tilt fungicide. Revised master label
ON HVAR: Tilt used by individuals cultivating vines, olives
 
PROPINEB (substance type: carbamate)
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to aquatic life; toxic to bees, birds, earthworms; in humans: can cause organ damage, allergic skin reactions; toxic on skin contact; suspected as possible carcinogen, respiratory tract irritant.
EU: not approved (approval revoked, with a grace period allowed to Member States until 22nd June 2019).
Products: Propineb 70%, Antracol®WP/70 (with zinc)
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database, 2005 modified 2019. Propineb
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Propineb
ON HVAR: Antracol used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc
 
PYRACLOSTROBIN Carbamate ester, substance group Strobilurin
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to fish, aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; hazardous to the aquatic environment with long-term effects; in humans: toxic, acutely dangerous if inhaled, can be fatal if swallowed; may cause respiratory irritation; causes eye and skin irritation; causes neurodegeneration; can cause nausea, headache, dizziness, chest pain
EU: Approved 01/06/2004 - 31/01/2020. ECHA: Not listed as at 28th February 2019
Products: Cabrio® Top (Pyraclostrobin & Metyram), Baitai ® (Pyraclostrobin & Metyram), Cabrio Team ® (Pyraclostrobin & Dimethomorph)
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database, 2006 modified 2019. Pyraclostrobin
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Pyraclostrobin
- Pearson, B.L., Simon, J.M., McCoy, E.S., Salazar, G., Fragola, G., Zylka, M.J. 2016. Identification of chemicals that mimic transcriptional changes associated with autism, brain aging and neurodegeneration. Nature Communications 7, 11173
- United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Acute Pesticide Poisoning Associated with Pyraclostrobin Fungicide - Iowa 2007 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Rreport 56 (51) 1343-1345
ON HVAR: Cabrio® Top used by individuals cultivating vines, olives
 
SPIROXAMINE Substance group morpholine.
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to aquatic life; in humans, suspected of causing damage to the unborn child; may cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure; harmful if swallowed or inhaled; can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions;
EU: Approved 01.01.2012 - 31.12.2021.
Products: Impulse®, Prosper®500 EC, Falcon (Spiroxamine with tebuconazole)
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2019. Spiroxamine
- European Chemicals Agency, Substance Information. 2018. Spiroxamine
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Spiroxamine
ON HVAR: Falcon used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc
 
TEBUCONAZOLE, (substance group triazole)
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; toxic to bees, birds, earthworms; in humans: can damage the unborn child; possible human carcinogen; toxic if swallowed.
EU: Approved 01/09/2009 - 31/08/2019. ECHA: approved under PT07 (film preservatives), 08 (wood preservatives), 10 (construction material preservatives)
Product: Tebuconazole 3.6, Cogito (tebuconazole with propiconazole), Luna (tebuconazole with fluopyram), Falcon (tebuconazole with spiroxamine)
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2019. Tebuconazole
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Tebuconazole
ON HVAR: Luna and Falcon used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc
 
LIMACIDE (MOLLUSCICIDE) ECHA APPROVAL CODE PT16, molluscicides, vermicides and products to control other invertebrates (against slugs, snails and other arthropods)
METALDEHYDE (Chemical compound)
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to aquatic organisms, with long-lasting effects; deadly to dogs and cats: Toxic to humans if swallowed or through skin contact or inhalation; can cause salivation, lethargy, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, convulsions, hyperthermia, comas, and death
EU: approved, 01/06/2011-31/05/2023.
Products: Corry's slug, snail and insect killer, Bug-geta snail and slug pellets, Slugit, Slug-Tox, Certis Deal 5, Meridien, Carakol, Metalden, Metarex. Combined with insecticide Carbaryl in Lily Miller Slug, Snail and Insect Killer Bait, also for Ortho Bug-Geta Plus.
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database, 2005, modified 2019. Metaldehyde.
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database updated 2018. Metaldehyde.
- Toxnet (Toxicology Data Network), 1983, updated 2010. Metaldehyde.
USED ON HVAR: widely used as Pužomor in gardens and fields, with many documented fatalities among dogs and cats.  

RODENTICIDES  ECHA APPROVAL CODE PT14, rodenticides

Raticide delivered in flimsy box to households on Hvar, 2018.
BRODIFACOUM. Rodenticide - superwarfarin - 4-hydroxycoumarin vitamin K antagonist anticoagulant poison. 
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic when ingested, causes haemorrhage, can be fatal to humans and animals alike; can be fatal through inhalation and skin contact; highly toxic to fish and birds; causes long-lasting damaging effects in aquatic environments;  
EUNot approved ECHA: approved, PT14, 01/02/2012 - 30/06/2024. 
Products: Ratimor, Ridak, Delicat, Sorexa Checkatube
Sources:
- Toxnet (Toxicology Data Network) 1984, updated 2014. Brodifacoum
- PubChem, Open Chemistry Database 2011, updated 2018: Brodifacoum
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database, updated 2018. Brodifacoum 
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Brodifacoum
ON HVAR: Brodifacoum was on the list of pesticides recommended for use around Hvar Town, Stari Grad and the Jelsa Council area, under the Programme issued by the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute for 2017, and in the Institute's Implementation Plan for 2018.
 
BROMADIOLONE. Rodenticide - anticoagulant - superwarfarin - 4-hydroxycoumarin vitamin K antagonist anticoagulant poison. 
Possible adverse effects: Acutely toxic, can be fatal if swallowed, inhaled, or via skin contact; may damage fertility or the unborn child; can cause organ damage in humans; highly toxic to fish and aquatic life, also to earthworms. 
EU: Approved 01.06.2011, expiry 31.05.2021 according to the EU Pesticides Database. ECHA: approved, PT14, 01/07/2011 - 30/06/2024 
Products: Ratimor wax blocks, Ratimor Bromadiolone Fresh Bait, Ratimor Bromadiolone Pasta Bait, Maki, Coumarin, Tomcat, Sarakat Bromabait, Contrac, Bromone, Maki, Super-Caid
Sources:
- PubChem, Open Chemistry Database, 2011. updated 2018. Bromadiolone 
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database, updated 2018. Bromadiolone
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Bromadiolone
USED ON HVAR, Ratimor (granules and wax blocks): 2016: Hvar Town and surrounds: May and October; Stari Grad and surrounds, April and October; Jelsa Council region, April-May and October 2016; 2017: Hvar Town region, May-June, 17th & 23rd November, total quantities 1010 kg granules 172 kg wax blocks; Stari Grad and surrounds, May and November, total: 787 kg; Jelsa Council region, May and November 2017. total 981 kg; 2018: Hvar Town region 22nd May, 3rd October, Ratimor granules 455 kg, wax blocks 22 kg; Stari Grad & surrounds, 22-24 May, 2-4 October; Jelsa Council region, 18-21 May, 25th September - 4th October 2018.Ratimor has been delivered to households on Hvar twice a year for many years. It was delivered along with an insecticide, Trichlorfon (see above). Until 2017, the pesticides were delivered in flimsy cellophane packages, with the instructions on the inside. In 2018, Ratimor was delivered to households in flimsy cardboard boxes, without detailed instructions as to how to use the poisons, and without any guidance as to how to dispose of the box and poison after use.
Bromadiolone rat poison was delivered in cellophane packaging to households on Hvar every year up to 2017.

HERBICIDES. (Herbicides are not included in the ECHA list of approved chemical substances)

GLYPHOSATE. There are at least some 750 glyphosate-based herbicides available in the world markets. Eleven of them, including the widely used Roundup (Cidokor in Croatian), were banned in the EU in 2016.

Suspected possible adverse effects in humans: carcinogenic; neurotoxic; genotoxic; contributes to antibiotic resistance; influences pregnancy, fertility, and birth defects; endocrine disruptor; damages DNA, gut bacteria, organs including liver, kidneys and spleen; contributes to Parkinson's Disease and autism.

Possible environmental ill-effects: damage to water, fish, aquatic organisms, soil, soil organisms, bees, butterflies, gastropods, trees, plants.

Herbicide in the Stari Grad Plain. Photo: Vivian Grisogono
You can find a detailed presentation of the evidence of glyphosate's potential dangers here. For a description of the problems relating to glyphosate, click here.
USED ON HVAR: Roundup (locally Cidokor) has been widely and intensively used on Hvar over many years, alongside other glyphosate-based herbicides such as 'Ouragan', 'Oxalis' and 'Boom Efekt'.
 
Information updated March 2019.
 
Please note: The above information is as complete and accurate as possible, and has taken several years to piece together. The Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute and some of the Hvar local authorities have not to date given us the complete information which we requested. If you are aware of inaccuracies or further information which would be relevant to this list, please let us know at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
More in this category: « Pesticides, Laws and Permits
You are here: Home poisons be aware Pesticides and their adverse effects

Eco Environment News feeds

  • Report looks at 16 conflict areas and calls for military to stop targeting water resources

    Diarrhoea and other diseases related to poor sanitation are bigger killers of children in areas of conflict than violence and war itself, a report has found, highlighting the need for improved infrastructure as a way of helping civilian populations afflicted by warfare.

    Children under five are more than 20 times more likely to die from diarrhoeal diseases than from direct violence, according to Unicef. Henrietta Fore, the organisation’s executive director, said: “The reality is there are more children who die from lack of access to safe water than by bullets.”

    Continue reading...

  • Failure to protect wildlife, cut pollution and increase funding have left nature in ‘deep crisis’

    The UK will miss almost all the 2020 nature targets it signed up to a decade ago, according to a report by the government’s official advisers.

    The nation is failing to protect threatened species; end the degradation of land; reduce agricultural pollution; and increase funding for green schemes, the assessment concludes. It also says the UK is not ending unsustainable fishing; stopping the arrival of invasive alien species; nor raising public awareness of the importance of biodiversity.

    Continue reading...

  • The ‘Dieselgate’ scandal was suppressed for years – while we should have been driving electric cars. By Beth Gardiner

    John German had not been looking to make a splash when he commissioned an examination of pollution from diesel cars back in 2013. The exam compared what came out of their exhaust pipes, during the lab tests that were required by law, with emissions on the road under real driving conditions. German and his colleagues at the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) in the US just wanted to tie up the last loose ends in a big report, and thought the research would give them something positive to say about diesel. They might even be able to offer tips to Europe from the US’s experience in getting the dirty fuel to run a little cleaner.

    But that was not how it turned out. They chose a Volkswagen Jetta as their first test subject, and a VW Passat next. Regulators in California agreed to do the routine certification test for them, and the council hired researchers from West Virginia University to then drive the same cars through cities, along highways and into the mountains, using equipment that tests emissions straight from the cars’ exhausts.

    Continue reading...

  • Rob Stewart’s followup to his 2006 feature shines a light on human cruelty – and gains power from the fate of its maker

    In the 2006 eco-doc Sharkwater, Canadian activist film-maker Rob Stewart gave us a heartfelt plea to save the planet’s sharks. He was on a mission to reduce overfishing and rehabilitate the creatures’ reputation as stone-cold killers – if only we could love sharks as much as we love cuddly pandas we’d do more to protect them. Back then, you couldn’t help feeling that Stewart wanted us to love him too, with all the shots of himself in tiny Speedos. Watching the sequel, I experienced a sharp stab of self-reproach. Stewart died in a diving accident while shooting this film – he was 37. Sharkwater: Extinction has been scrappily put together from footage he’d already shot.

    And there are some striking images here. Since the first film, many countries have banned “finning” ­– the practice of hacking off the fins then tossing the shark’s body back into the sea. But it still happens. In Costa Rica, Stewart uses a drone to film a warehouse packed with them. Shark fin soup is a delicacy in China, which drives the illegal market. And it’s not just finning that’s the problem. In California, he captures upsetting footage of a graceful thresher shark tangled up in a mile-long net intended for swordfish.

    Continue reading...

  • World Water Day study highlights lethal nature of unsafe sanitation and hygiene for children, especially under-fives

    Children under five who live in conflict zones are 20 times more likely to die from diarrhoeal diseases linked to unsafe water than from direct violence as a result of war, Unicef has found.

    Analysing mortality data from 16 countries beset by long-term conflict – including Afghanistan, Iraq, Syria and Yemen – the UN children’s agency also found that unsafe water, sanitation and hygiene kills nearly three times more children under 15 than war.

    Continue reading...

  • Science agency says scourge of wandering trad could be slowed by fungus, which they have called its ‘natural pathogen’

    Australia’s national science agency will release a Brazilian leaf smut fungus to target and kill an invasive weed that covers large parts of the continent’s east coast.

    Researchers from the CSIRO say the scourge of wandering trad could be slowed by the introduction of the Kordyana brasiliensis fungus, which they have called its “natural pathogen”.

    Continue reading...

  • While the ultimate goal is to stop plastics from entering the water in the first place, cleanup projects play an important role

    Somewhere in Hilo, on Hawaii’s Big Island, a team of scientists and engineers are tending to The Ocean Cleanup’s 600-metre-long rubbish-herding device, after its maiden voyage to the Great Pacific garbage patch was cut short in December 2018, because it fractured into two pieces.

    The project has had its fair share of problems since it was unveiled in May 2017 and has been criticised by marine scientists and environmental groups for its potential negative environmental impact. However, some still herald The Ocean Cleanup for having a positive effect on plastic pollution.

    Continue reading...

  • The latest study warning us to eat less meat has brought angry sceptics out in droves. But who should we believe?

    Sometimes, particularly when looking at the weekend newspapers, it can seem that our obsession with food and health has reached a pitch of pure hysteria. “Eat!” screams one headline. “Diet!” shouts another. Cut out carbohydrates, suggests one report. Carbs are good for you, says a different one. Lower your fat intake. No, fat’s healthy, sugar’s the problem. Coffee raises the risk of heart disease. But it lowers the risk of diabetes. And so on, until you just want to ditch the papers and watch The Great British Bake Off or MasterChef.

    Food, how to cook it, what it does to you and what growing or rearing it does to the planet are issues that crowd the media. And yet, as the clamour grows, clarity recedes. An estimated 820 million people went hungry last year, according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation. A third of all people were vitamin-deficient. Two billion were classified as overweight and 600 million as obese. It’s also estimated that 1bn tonnes of food are wasted every year – a third of the total produced. A plethora of academic reports concerning food consumption and production have been published in recent years. The latest and arguably the most far-reaching is Food in the Anthropocene:the Eat-Lancet Commission on healthy diets from sustainable food systems, which was conducted over three years by 37 senior scientists from around the world and published earlier this year.

    Continue reading...

  • Scientists say a drastic cut in meat consumption is needed, but this requires political will

    It has been known for a while that the amount of animal products being eaten is bad for both the welfare of animals and the environment. People cannot consume 12.9bn eggs in the UK each year without breaking a few.

    But the extent of the damage, and the amount by which people need to cut back, is now becoming clearer. On Wednesday, the Lancet medical journal published a study that calls for dramatic changes to food production and the human diet, in order to avoid “catastrophic damage to the planet”.

    Continue reading...

  • The continent’s largest land mammal plays crucial role in spiritual lives of the tribes

    On 5,000 hectares of unploughed prairie in north-eastern Montana, hundreds of wild bison roam once again. But this herd is not in a national park or a protected sanctuary – they are on tribal lands. Belonging to the Assiniboine and Sioux tribes of Fort Peck Reservation, the 340 bison is the largest conservation herd in the ongoing bison restoration efforts by North America’s Indigenous people.

    The bison – or as Native Americans call them, buffalo – are not just “sustenance,” according to Leroy Little Bear, a professor at the University of Lethbridge and a leader in the bison restoration efforts with the Blood Tribe. The continent’s largest land mammal plays a major role in the spiritual and cultural lives of numerous Native American tribes, an “integrated relationship,” he said.

    Continue reading...

Eco Health News feeds

Eco Nature News feeds