Pesticides and their adverse effects

Published in Poisons Beware

For pesticides in common use by local authorities and individuals in Croatia we list active substances, in alphabetical order, with their scientifically proven possible adverse effects and EU approval status.

Dead wasp Dead wasp Photo: Vivian Grisogono

For each we identify what type of poison it is, its known possible adverse effects, EU approval status, commonly used products containing the active ingredient, and scientific and official sources of information about it.

To check the status of any product, you can refer to the EU Pesticides Database. However, as at October 2018, it was last updated on 7th April 2016, so that it is not reliable as an up-to-date source. The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) records approvals of active substances and products. Its website is the primary source of information about the laws governing pesticides and their approval processes. You can check its list of substances which are approved or under review on the ECHA 'biocidal products' page, by typing the name of the active ingredient in the box marked 'Active Substance Name' or the name of a pesticide product in the box marked 'Product Name'. The listing is updated regularly. For an overview of sources of information, and international and Croatian organisations responsible for pesticide approvals and laws governing pesticide use, click here.

INSECTICIDES

ALPHA-CYPERMETHRIN (ALPHAMETHRIN). Synthetic pyrethroid. 
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to fish, most aquatic organisms and honeybees; extremely toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects; toxic to earthworms; possible human carcinogen; can cause organ damage, respiratory irritation, irreversible eye damage; serious water pollutant.
EU: Approval 01.03.2005 expires 31.10.2018, according to the EU Pesticides Database. European Chemicals Agency: approved, as at November 2018. 
Products: Fastac EC, Antec, Contest, Fedona, Littac, Tenopa.
Sources:
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. 2018. Alpha-cypermethrin.
- Bej, S., Mukherjee, D., Saha, N.C. 2015. Acute toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin to oligochaete worm, Branchiura sowerbyi (Beddard 1982) along with their behavioural responses. International Journal of Scientific Research. 1:12, 325- 326.
- Wast, N., Gupta, A.K., Prakash, M.M., Gaherwal, S. 2014. Toxic Effect of Alphamethrin 10 EC on Freshwater FishPoecilia reticulata (Peters, 1859). World Applied Sciences Journal 30 (6): 782-786.  
- Kemabonta, K., Akinhanmi, F.O. 2013. Toxicological Effects of Chlorpyrifos, Dichlorvos and Alpha Cypermethrin on Adult Albino Mice, Mus Musculus. Production, Agriculture and Technology. 9 (2): 1-17.
- Sarikaya, R., 2009. Investigation of Acute Toxicity of Alpha-Cypermethrin on Adult Nile Tilapia (Oreochromos niloticus L.). Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 9: 85-89
- El Okda, E-S., Abdel-Hamid, M. A-A., Hamdy, A.M. 2017. Immunological and genotoxic effects of occupational exposure to alpha-cypermethrin pesticide. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health. Vol 30 (4) 603-615.
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Alpha-cyoermethrin
USED ON HVAR: Fastac EC is used against fruit fly, especially in olive groves, by many individual agriculturalists.  
 
AZAMETHIPHOS. Organophosphate, designed for use on target areas, not for spraying in the air; mainly used against flies in enclosed spaces, on horses, cattle, pigs and chickens. 
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; toxic to birds; acutely toxic to humans if swallowed or inhaled; can cause headache, weakness, nervousness, sweating, vomiting and difficulty swallowing. Exposure to extremely high levels may result in muscular twitching, eye pain, slurred speech, colic, hyper-salivation, heart complaints, breathing difficulties, convulsions and unconsciousness; also causes eye and skin irritation on contact; 
EU, ECHAnot approved, under review (2018)Organophosphates were not approved under the Insect Control Programme of Measures and Implementation Plan issued by the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute in 2017, yet Muhomor was used on Hvar that year.
Products: Muhomor, Salmosan, Alfacron 10, Alfacron Plus, Snip Fly Bait.
Sources:
- Pub Chem: Compound summary for CID 71482, Safety and Hazards
- European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products 1999. Azamethiphos, Summary Report.
- Scottish Environment Protection Agency. Azamethiphos. Scottish Pollutant Release Directory.
- University of Hertfordshire. Azamethiphos. Veterinary Substances Database.
- Pesticides Action Network (PAN) Europe. 2006. What substances are banned and authorized in the EU market?
- Muhomor. 2017.  Muhomor je insekticid topiv u vodi. Djelatna tvar: Azametifos u koncentraciji 10%. Genera, Jedna komapnija za Jedno zdravlje
- ECHA (Updated 15/08/2018) Azamethiphos
USED ON HVAR - Muhomor (with Cipex 10E) used against flies around rubbish bins and rubbish dumps, 2017: Stari Grad and surrounds - 33 kg Muhomor used, Jelsa Council region - 31.5 kg, May, July, August, September 2017.  
Every insect has a role in the natural chain. Photo: Vivian Grisogono
BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ISRAELENSIS (Bti).  Soil bacterium.
Possible adverse effects: possibly interferes with reproduction in birds; can cause eye and skin irritation in humans and animals; may disturb essential wetland organisms; long-term use perhaps causes loss of biodiversity in the environment. 
Products: Aquabac©, Teknar©, Bactimos© , and Vectobac©. 
EU: Approved 01.05.2009, expiry 30.04.2019, according to the EU Pesticides Database. 
Sources:
- Washington State Department of Health. Mosquito Larvicide - Bti.
- Poulin, B., Lefebre, G., Paz, L., 2010. Red flag for green spray: adverse trophic effects of Bti on breeding birds. Journal of Applied Ecology. Vol.47, Issue 4, 884-889.
- Maletz, S., Wollenweber, M., Kubiak, K., Müller, A., Schmitz, S., Maier, D., Hecker, M., Hollert, H.. 2015. Investigation of potential endocrine disrupting effects of mosquito larvicidal Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) formulations. The science of the total environment. Vol.536, 729-738.
ON HVAR: Bti was on the list of pesticides recommended for use around Hvar Town, Stari Grad and the Jelsa Council area, under the Programme issued by the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute for 2017. 
 
CARBARYL. Carbamate
Possible adverse effects:  Highly toxic to mammals, aquatic invertebrates, aquatic crustaceans, bees, earthworms. Can be fatal in humans; possible carcinogen and endocrine disruptor; possibly damaging for reproduction and development; can cause cholinesterase inhibition, blurred vision, tears, headaches, memory loss, rhinorrhoea (discharge of thin nasal mucus), salivation; sweating, muscle weakness, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea; tremors, cyanosis, convulsions and skin irritation. 
EU: Not approved. 
Product: Sevin. Combined with limacide Metaldehyde in Lily Miller Slug, Snail and Insect Killer Bait, and for Ortho Bug-Geta Plus.
Sources
- University of Hertfordshire PPDB, updated 2018. Carbaryl.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005, updated 2019. Carbaryl.
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2016. Carbaryl Factsheet.
HAS BEEN USED LONG-TERM IN CROATIA, especially for fruit thinning, applied two to three weeks after full flowering of the trees. (Refs: Radivojević et al. 2011.  Effect of chemical and hand thinning young apple tree on yield and fruit quality. Proceedings, 46th Croatian and 6th International Symposium on Agriculture, Opatija Croatia, pp 1044-1047.  Croatian Agriculture Ministry, article in Croatian). However,  it is no longer authorized for this use in Croatia.
 
CHLORPYRIFOS. Organophosphate. 
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to honeybees, birds, fish, aquatic organisms; moderately toxic to earthworms, algae and aquatic plants; in humans can cause nausea, dizziness, confusion, and respiratory paralysis and death; causes neurodevelopmental defects in children; can harm mother and foetus during pregnancy; can cause acute muscle paralysis and weakness, also breathing difficulties, depression, and double visionin humans, dogs and cats; overexposure can cause weakness, ataxia (uncoordinated movements), proprioceptive dysfunctions (disturbed awareness of posture and movements), particularly of the hind legs, and paralysis in animals, including dogs and cats. 
Product: Pyrinex 48 EC.
EU: Approved 01.07.2006, expiry 31.01.2019 according to the EU Pesticides Database. (Banned in the United States, 2018.) As at 26th October 2018, Chlorpyrifos was not on the European Chemicals Agency listing of approved substances. 2018: Not authorized in 8 EU countries, but still allowed in Croatia.  
Sources:
- Toxnet (Toxicology Data Network) 1983, updated 2015. Chlorpyrifos.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency 2016. Revised Human Health Risk Assessment on Chlorpyrifos
- United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive (HSE) 2016. Changes to Authorisations for Products Containing Chlorpyrifos. (Use restricted to spraying brassica seedlings only, all existing stocks of chlorpyrifos to be destroyed)
- Junquera, P. article updated 2017. CHLORPYRIFOS: SAFETY SUMMARY for VETERINARY USE in DOGS, CATS, HORSES, CATTLE, SHEEP, GOATS, SWINE and POULTRY. Poisoning, intoxication, overdose, antidote. Parasitipedia.net
- United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, 2018. Lulac (11 Petitioners, including Pesticide Action Network (PANNA), Farmworker Justice GreenLatinos, Learning Disabilities Association of America, Farmworkers Association of Florida) v. Wheeler (for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency)  EPA ordered to revoke all tolerances and cancel all registrations for chlorpyrifos within 60 days: Chlorpyrifos banned in the United States
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database. updated August 2018. Chlorpyrifos.
- Health and Environment Alliance (HEAL) August 2018. Chlorpyrifos factsheet (with 40 references)
 
CYPERMETHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid. 
Possible adverse effects: classified as a possible cause of cancer in humans; very toxic to cats, bees, aquatic insects and fish, highly toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects; toxic to a lesser degree to birds.; in humans, can cause organ damage, skin numbness or burning, respiratory irritation, loss of bladder control, vomiting, loss of co-ordination, coma, seizures, and (rarely) death. 
EU: Permit 01.03.2006, expires 31.10.2018. Still under review, Cypermethrin was re-approved in August 2018, subject to stringent conditions.
Products: Cipex, Microfly, Ammo, Cymbush, Demon, Raid Ant Killer, Hot-Shot Fogger, Raid Wasp and Hornet Killer. As at October 2018, these insecticide products were not on the European Chemical Agency listing of approved products, although Cypermethrin was authorized for wood preservative products.
Sources
-TOXNET Toxicology Data Network (U.S.National Library of Medicine). 1986, updated 2012. Cypermethrin.
-Extension Toxicology Network, (Extoxnet). 1993. Pesticide Information profile: Cypermethrin. (Pesticide Information Project, Cornell University)
-PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005. Cypermethrin.
-Aggarwal, P., Jamshed, N., Ekka, M., Imran A. 2015. Suicidal poisoning with cypermethrin: A clinical dilemma in the emergency department. Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock. 8:2 123-125.
-U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs. 2016. Chemicals Evaluated for Carcinogenic Potential. Annual Cancer Report.
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Cypermethrin
USED ON HVAR for adult insect suppression 'fogging' spraying and dispersion: 2016, Cipex 10E, Microfly, (with Permex 22E) - Hvar Town and its surrounds, June, July x2, August, October 2016; Stari Grad and its surrounds, June, July and August 2016; Jelsa Council region, July x2, August 2016. 2017: As fogging against mosquitoes, Cipex (with Permex22E) Stari Grad and environs, May, July, August, September 2017- 8 litres; Jelsa Council area, July, August, September 2017 - 10 litres; Microfly combined with Muhomor for fly control around rubbish bins and rubbish dumps, Stari Grad and environs - 7 kg, Jelsa Council region - 5 kg, May, July, August, September 2017. 2018: Jelsa Council area, main streets, Microfly with Cipex used for fogging action 25th July, 14th August, 5th September 2018.
 
DELTAMETHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid. 
Possible adverse effects: in humans can cause ataxia, convulsions leading to muscle fibrillation and paralysis, dermatitis, oedema, diarrhoea, dyspnoea, headache, hepatic microsomal enzyme induction, irritability, peripheral vascular collapse, rhinorrhoea, serum alkaline phosphatase elevation, tinnitus, tremors, vomiting and death due to respiratory failure. Possible allergic reactions: anaphylaxis, bronchospasm, eosinophilia, fever, hypersensitivity pneumonia, pallor, pollinosis, sweating, sudden swelling of the face, eyelids, lips and mucous membranes, and tachycardia. Toxic to bees; highly toxic to cats; extremely toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects, toxic to fish, also to aquatic herbivorous insects, causing increased algae; 
EU: Approved: 01/1172003 to expiry 31/10/2018 according to the EU Pesticides Database. Many Deltamethrin-based insecticides were approved or re-approved on the European Chemicals Agency listing of approved products as at 26th October 2018, but the list did not include any of the following commonly advertised products, although several similarly named Raid products were listed as authorized. 
Products: Butoflin, Crackdown, Decis 2.5 EC, Decis 100 EC, Scatto, Rotor Super, Poleci Plus, Raid Max Bug Killer, Raid Max Spider and Scorpion Killer,
Sources:
- PubChem, Open Chemistry Database. 2017. Deltamethrin.
- Dai, P-L., Wang, Q., Sun, J-H., Liu, F., Wang, X., Wu, Y-Y., Z. T. 2009. Effects of sublethal concentrations of bifenthrin and deltamethrin on fecundity, growth, and development of the honeybee Apis mellifera ligustica. Environmental Toxicology. 29-3, 644-649
- Extension Toxicology Network (Extoxnet) 1995. Deltamethrin. (Pesticide Information Project, Cornell University)
- Parasitipedia.net. Deltamethrin: Safety Summary for Veterinary Use
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Deltamethrin
ON HVAR: Deltamethrin was on the list of pesticides recommended for use around Hvar Town, Stari Grad and the Jelsa Council area, under the Programme issued by the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute for 2017 and 2018.
DELTAMETHRIN AND THE PRODUCTS DECIS 100ec, DECIS 2.5EC, SCATTO, ROTOR SUPER, AND POLECI PLUS were recommended for use on Hvar and in other olive-growing areas against fruit-flies by the CROATIAN AGRICULTURE-FORESTRY ADVISORY SECTION FOR THE SPLIT-DALMATIAN COUNTY, IN JULY 2018.
 
DIFLUBENZURON. Benzamide insecticide, Insect Growth Regulator (Disruptor) (IGR). 
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to freshwater and marine invertebrates; moderately toxic to fish and earthworms; slightly toxic to birds; affected haemoglobin in animal studies; can cause breathing difficulties in humans; direct contact can be harmful to skin and eyes; metabolites are possible human carcinogens. 
Products: Dimilin, Vigilante, Micromite, Flubex
EU:  Approved 01.01.2009, expiry 31.12.2018, according to the EU Pesticides DatabaseAs at 26th October 2018, Dimilin and two other Diflubenzuron-based insecticides were authorized for use up to 2027 according to the European Chemical Agency listing, whereas Flubex, Vigilante and Micromite were not included.
Sources:
- United States Environmental Protection Agency 1997. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (R.E.D.): Diflubenzuron.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database 2005, modified 2018: Diflubenzuron.
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database, updated 2018. Diflubenzuron.
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Diflubenzuron
USED ON HVAR for larvicidal actions, Flubex, 2016: Hvar Town and surrounds, May and October 2016. Stari Grad and surrounds, April and October 2016; Jelsa Council area, April-May and October 2016. 2017: Jelsa Council area: Dimilin used for larvicide, rainwater drains & septic tanks, June & July 2017. 2018: Dimilin used in Vrboska on the road to Soline bathing beach (at the request of residents), in Jelsa around the Park and in the rainwater drains in the centre of Jelsa, June & July 2018.
DIMETHOATE. Organophosphate. 
Possible adverse effects. Very toxic to bees and aquatic organisms; possibly toxic to wildlife, including birds, and livestock: possible endocrine disruptor; in humans inhalation, swallowing or excess skin contact can cause  breathing difficulties, headache, dizziness, tiredness, slurred speech, blurred vision, a lack of coordination, sweating, slow or rapid heart beat, convulsions, incontinence and in extreme cases unconsciousness and death; when swallowed, canalso cause vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, faecal incontinence; long-term exposuremay lead to impaired memory, depression, irritability, confusion and insomnia; possible human carcinogen (USEPA). 
Products: Phosphamide, Rogor 40, Calinogor, Chromogor, Cygon, Perfekthion, Fosfamid 40, Aadimethoal. 
EU: Approved 01.10.2007, expiry 31.07.2019, according to the EU Pesticides Database. As at October 2018, Dimethoate was not included on the European Chemicals Agency listing of approved substances.
Sources:
- World Health Organisation 1989. International Programme on Chemical Safety: Environmental Health Criteria for Dimethoate.
- Extension Toxicology Network (Extoxnet) 1993. Dimethoate
- Scottish Environment Protection Agency. Dimethoate.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database 2005, modified 2008. Dimethoate. (Pesticide Information Project, Cornell University)
- University of Hertfordshire 2018. Pesticide Properties Database: Dimethoate.
DIMETHOATE AND THE PRODUCTS Calinogor, Chromogor, Perfekthion, Rogor 40 were recommended for use on Hvar and in other olive-growing areas against fruit-flies by the CROATIAN AGRICULTURE-FORESTRY ADVISORY SECTION FOR THE SPLIT-DALMATIAN COUNTY, IN JULY 2018.
 
PERMETHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid. 
Possible adverse effects: classified as a potential carcinogen for humans; linked to Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; poisonous to cats, also other animals: highly toxic to bees, sea organisms, fish; in humans, can cause neurological damage, also problems in the immune and endocrine systems. 
EU: not approved, according to the EU Pesticides Database. However, the ECHA listing as at 28th October 2018 names 167 approved permethrin-based products.  The list does not include Permex 22E or Permex 22EC, which contain the synergist / inert substance Piperonyl Butoxide (see below). 
Products: Permex 22E; household fly-killer sprays such as Sanmex Fly and Wasp Killer; Raid formula 277 insect killer. You can find a list of Permethrin products on the 'Scorecard' Pollution Information Site.
Sources:
-World Health Organization. 2006. "International Program on Chemical Safety, Environmental Health Criteria 92: Permethrin."
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2002. "TRI Explorer: Providing Access to EPA's Toxic Release Inventory Data."
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. August 2009. Permethrin Facts.
- Hoffmann, M., Meléndez, J.L., Ruhman, M.A., 2008. Risks of Permethrin Use to the Federally Threatened California Red-legged Frog (Rana aurora draytonii) and Bay Checkerspot Butterfly (Euphydryas editha bayensis), and the Federally Endangered California Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus), Salt Marsh Harvest Mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris), and San Francisco Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia). Environmental Fate and Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs, Washington, D.C. 20460
- International Cat Care. Permethrin Poisoning in Cats.
- U.S. Centers for Disease Control (ATSDR). 2003. "Toxicological Profile for Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids."
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) for Permethrin."
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2007. Permethrin & Resmethrin (Pyrethroids), Toxicity and Exposure Assessment for Children's Health. TEACH Chemical summary.
- Alavanja, M.C.R., Hoffmann, J.N., Lynch, C.F., Hines, C.J., Barry, K. H., Barker, J., Buckman, D.W., Thomas, K., Sandler, D. P., Hoppin, J.A., Koutros, S., Andreotti, G., Lubin, J.H., Blair, A., Beane Freeman, L.E. 2014. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Risk and Insecticide, Fungicide and Fumigant Use in the Agricultural Health Study. PLoS One (US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health) 9 (10): e109332.
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Permethrin
USED ON HVAR for adult insect suppression 'fogging' spraying and dispersion: 2016: Permex 22E (with Microfly, Cipex 10E)- Hvar Town and its surrounds, June, Julyx2, August, October; Stari Grad and its environs, June, July, August; Jelsa Council area, July x2, August 2016. 2017Sveta Nedjelja had 'fogging' actions in June, July, August, September, October 2017; Permex 22E with Cipex 10E: Stari Grad and surrounds, May, July, August, September - 10 litres; Jelsa Council region, July, August, September 2017 - 9 litres
 
d-PHENOTHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to cats, bees and aquatic organisms; in humans, can cause dizziness, salivation, headache, fatigue, diarrhoea, irritability to sound and touch. 
EU: not approved according to the EU Pesticides Database. Not on the ECHA listing as at 26th October 2018, although a parallel substance, IR-trans phenothrin, was given conditional approval in an Assessment Report under European Commission Directive 98/8/EC in 2013.. 
Products: Sumithrin, Raid, Enforcer Flea Killer, Enforcer BedBug spray, Enforcer Flying Insect Killer, Enforcer Wasp and Hornet Killer, Ortho Max Flying Insect Killer, Anvil
Sources:
- WHO/FAO 1994. d-Phenothrin. WHO/FAO Data Sheet on Pesticides no.85.
- Cox, C. 2003. Sumithrin (d-Phenothrin). Insecticide Factsheet. Journal of Pesticide Reform. 23 / 2, 10- 14.
ON HVAR: d-Phenothrin was on the list of pesticides recommended for use around Hvar Town, Stari Grad and the Jelsa Council area, under the Programme issued by the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute for 2017.
 
PHOSMET. Organophosphate. 
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to aquatic life and environment; highly toxic to honeybees; in humans can be fatal if inhaled; if swallowed, causes stomach pain, diarrhoea, nausea, sickness; can cause organ damage, eye irritation; possibly causes fetal damage or disrupts fertility; can cause swelling, itchiness, raised skin temperature if absorbed through the skin; can be toxic to birds, earthworms, cats and dogs. 
Product: Imidan 50 WG. 
EU: Approved 01.10.2017, expiry 31.07.2019 according to the EU Pesticides Database. As at October 2018, Phosmet was not included in the European Chemicals Agency listing of approved substances.
Sources:
- Ultra Scientific Inc. Phosmet (Imidan) Safety Data Sheet.
- Extension Toxicology Network (Extoxnet) 1993. Phosmet. (Pesticide Information Project, Cornell University)
- United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2001. Pesticides: Reregistration. Phosmet IRED facts. (safer alternatives available)
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database: 2005, modified 2018. Phosmet (Imidan, Imidathion)
- University of Hertfordshire, Pesticide Properties Database, updated 2018: Phosmet.
THE PHOSMET PRODUCT IMIDAN was recommended for use on Hvar and in other olive-growing areas against fruit-flies by the CROATIAN AGRICULTURE-FORESTRY ADVISORY SECTION FOR THE SPLIT-DALMATIAN COUNTY, in JULY 2018.
 
RESMETHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid. 
Possible adverse effects: potentially harmful to humans: endocrine disruptor, neurotoxic, eye and skin irritant, possible thyroid toxicity; possible human carcinogen; highly toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates; moderately toxic to birds; 
EU: not approved, according to the EU Pesticides Database. Not on the ECHA listing as at 26th October 2018. (Banned in the United States since 2015) 
Trade names: Chrysron, Crossfire, Raid Flying Insect Killer,
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2018. Resmethrin.
- US EPA. 2011. Permethrin, Resmethrin, d-Phenothrin (Sumithrin®): Synthetic Pyrethroids for Mosquito Control.
- University of Hertfordshire, Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Resmethrin.
ON HVAR: Resmethrin was on the list of pesticides recommended for use around Hvar Town, Stari Grad and the Jelsa Council area, under the Programme issued by the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute for 2017. 
 
TETRAMETHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid. 
Possible adverse effects: potential human carcinogen, also can cause dizziness, breathing difficulties, coughing, eye irritation, gastrointestinal upset, blisters and skin rashes; extremely toxic to bees and aquatic organisms, including fish and aquatic invertebrates. 
EU / ECHAnot approved, under review (2018).  
Products: Permex 22E; Household insect-killing sprays such as Sanmex Fly and Wasp Killer.; Bonide Wasp and Hornet Killer, Enforcer Flea Spray, Hi-Yield Wasp and Hornet Spray, Ortho MAX Flying Insect Killer, Raid Flea Killer, Raid Flying Insect Killer.
Sources:
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2008, revised 2010. Reregistration Eligibility Decision Document for Tetramethrin.
- Thoreby, E. (author), Williams, M.M. (editor), Lah, K. (updater) 2011. Tetramethrin. Toxipedia.
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Tetramethrin.
- ECHA, (updated 21 10 2018) Tetramethrin
USED ON HVAR for adult insect suppression 'fogging' spraying and dispersion. Permex 22E (with Cipex 10E and Microfly) 2016: Hvar Town and its surrounds:  June, Julyx2, August, October; Stari Grad and its environs, June, July, August; Jelsa Council area, July x2, August 2016. 2017Sveta Nedjelja had 'fogging' actions in June, July, August, September, October; Stari Grad and surrounds, May, July, August, September; Jelsa Council region, July, August, September 2017
 
TRICHLORFON. Organophosphate.
Possible adverse effects: In humans, possible carcinogen; suspected to cause reproductive problems and birth defects; can cause vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal cramps; affects the nervous system: can cause confusion, headaches, irritability, speech difficulties, memory and concentration loss; when inhaled, causes breathing problems, pulmonary oedema, sometimes nose-bleeds; eye contact can cause redness and bleeding, tears, blurred vision; skin contact can cause sweating and muscle contractions; severe poisoning affects the central nervous system and can cause loss of coordination (ataxia), slurred speech, weakness, fatigue, paralysis, unconsciousness, and even death; symptoms such as cramps, tingling, numbness in the legs followed by incoordination and paralysis sometimes come on 1-4 weeks after exposure and can leave permanent disability.
Highly toxic to birds, bees, and aquatic organisms, toxic to fish. 
EU /ECHA: Not approved.
Sources:
- Toxnet (Toxicology Data Network) 1983, updated 2018. Trichlorfon
- Extension Toxicology Network (Extoxnet) 1993. Trichlorfon. (Pesticide Information Project, Cornell University)
- National Center for Biotechnology Information.PubChem Compound Database. 2005, modified 2018. Metrifonate - TRICHLORFON
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database 2018. TrichlorfonUSED ON HVAR: for many years has been distributed to households together with rat poison (Ratimor, see below), previously in flimsy cellophane packaging. In tabelt form, intended for use down toilet pans: result, most probably finishes in the sea from many seaside properties, or in the soil from soak-away septic tanks. 2018: 3 tablets (?presumably Trichlorfon) delivered with Ratimor, Stari Grad & surrounds, 22-24 May, 2-4 October; Jelsa Council region, 18-21 May, 25th September - 4th October 2018.
 
SYNERGIST (INERT SUBSTANCE  / MIXER)
PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE (PBO). Pyrethroid synergist. 
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; may delay mental development in infants; animal studies show possible damage, including tumours, in mice and rats.
Sources:
- Okamiya, H., Mitsumori, K., Onodera, H., Ito, S., Imazawa, T., Yasuhara, K., Takahashi, M. 1998. Mechanistic study on liver tumor promoting effects of piperonyl butoxide in rats. Archives of Toxicology 72 (11): 744-750.
- Khan, M.Z. & Law, F.C.P. 2005. Adverse effects of pesticides and related chemicals on enzyme and hormone systems of fish, amphibians and reptiles: a review. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Science 42 (4): 315-323. 
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. Reregistration Eligibility Decision for Piperonyl Butoxide (PBO)
- Muguruma, M., Nishimura, J., Jin, M., Kashida, Y., Moto, M., Takahashi, M., Yokouchi, Y., Mitsumori, K. 2006. Molecular pathological analysis for determining the possible mechanism of piperonyl butoxide-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. Toxicology 228 (2-3): 178-187. 
- Horton, M. K., Rundle, A., Camann, D.E., Boyd Barr, D., Rauh, V.A., whyatt, R. M. 2011. Impact of Prenatal Exposure to Piperonyl Butoxide and Permethrin on 36-month Neurodevelopment. Pediatrics. 
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Piperonyl Butoxide
For an overview of inert substances, please refer to the United States Environmental Protection Agency listing: Pesticide Registration, Inert Ingredients
USED ON HVAR in Permex 22E for adult insect suppression 'fogging' spraying and dispersion (Permex 22E used with Microfly and Cipex 10E)2016: - Hvar Town and its surrounds, June, Julyx2, August, October; Stari Grad and its environs, June, July, August; Jelsa Council area, July x2, August 2016. 2017Sveta Nedjelja had 'fogging' actions in June, July, August, September, October; Stari Grad and surrounds, May, July, August, September; Jelsa Council region, July, August, September 2017

FUNGICIDES

COPPER COMPOUNDS
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to fish, birds, aquatic invertebrates, organisms and plants; toxic to bees and earthworms; sheep, chickens; persists in the soil. In humans can cause nausea, irritation of respiratory tract and skin, eczema. Eye contact can cause conjunctivitis, inflammation of the eyelid lining, excess fluid build-up in the eyelid, clouding of the cornea, cornea tissue deterioration due to ulceration in the eye's mucous membrane.
Long-term, excessive exposure leads to the risk of heavy metal poisoning, including liver disease, brain damage, kidney and intestinal problems, anaemia, mutagenic potential; possible damaging effects on reproduction and development. Symptoms include: a metallic taste in the mouth, burning pain in the chest and abdomen, intense nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, headache, sweating, shock, disrupted urination leading to yellowing of the skin.
EU: Approved.
Products: Bordeaux Mixture (combination of copper sulphate and hydrated lime / calcium dihydroxide, see below ); Kocide 3000 (copper hydroxide), Champ®Formula 2 (copper hydroxide), Comac (copper hydroxide), Wetcol 3 Copper Fungicide (tetracopper tricalcium sulphate and soluble calcium), Bordocop
 
COPPER SULPHATE
Bordeaux Mixture: Possible adverse effects: toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates, aquatic plants, algae, birds, earthworms. In humans: harmful if inhaled, can cause serious eye problems. Associated with increased risk of potentially malignant oral submucous fibrosis, which can lead to oral squamous cell carcinoma.
EU: Approved (01.01.2019-31.12.2025.)
Sources:
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. August 2018. Copper Sulphate.
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. May 2018. Bordeaux Mixture.
- Rodrigues, C.G., Krüger, A. P., Barbosa, W. F., Guedes, R. N. C. 2016. Leaf Fertilizers Affect Survival and Behavior of the Neotropical Stingless Bee Friesella schrottkyi (Meliponini: Apidae: Hymenoptera). Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol.109, 3, pp 1001-1008.
- Mathew, P., Ravi, D.A., Varghese, S.S., Manojkumar, A.D. 2015. Effect of copper-based fungicide (bordeaux mixture) spray on the total copper content of areca nut: Implications in increasing prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis. Journal of International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry.
- European Food Safety Authority. 2008. Conclusion on the peer review of copper compounds. Scientific Report 187, 1-101.
- EXTOXNET Extension Toxicology Network. 1994. Copper Sulphate.
USED ON HVAR: Copper-based compounds, especially Copper Sulphate and Bordeaux Mixture, are widely used on vines, especially on the north side of the island.

LIMACIDE (MOLLUSCICIDE) (against slugs, snails and other arthropods)

METALDEHYDE (Chemical compound)
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to aquatic organisms, with long-lasting effects; deadly to dogs and cats: Toxic to humans if swallowed or through skin contact or inhalation; can cause salivation, lethargy, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, convulsions, hyperthermia, comas, and death
EU: approved, 01/06/2011-31/05/2023.
Products: Corry's slug, snail and insect killer, Bug-geta snail and slug pellets, Slugit, Slug-Tox, Certis Deal 5, Meridien, Carakol, Metalden, Metarex. Combined with insecticide Carbaryl in Lily Miller Slug, Snail and Insect Killer Bait, also for Ortho Bug-Geta Plus.
Sources:
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database, 2005, modified 2019. Metaldehyde.
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database updated 2018. Metaldehyde.
- Toxnet (Toxicology Data Network), 1983, updated 2010. Metaldehyde.
USED ON HVAR: widely used as Pužomor in gardens and fields, with many documented fatalities among dogs and cats.  

RODENTICIDES

Raticide delivered in flimsy box to households on Hvar, 2018.
BRODIFACOUM. Rodenticide - superwarfarin - 4-hydroxycoumarin vitamin K antagonist anticoagulant poison. 
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic when ingested, causes haemorrhage, can be fatal to humans and animals alike; can be fatal through inhalation and skin contact; highly toxic to fish and birds; causes long-lasting damaging effects in aquatic environments;  
EUNot approved, according to the EU Pesticides Database updated to 07.04.2016, but was on the authorized list of the European Chemicals Agency, October 2018.
Products: Ratimor, Ridak, Delicat, Sorexa Checkatube
Sources:
- Toxnet (Toxicology Data Network) 1984, updated 2014. Brodifacoum
- PubChem, Open Chemistry Database 2011, updated 2018: Brodifacoum
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database, updated 2018. Brodifacoum 
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Brodifacoum
ON HVAR: Brodifacoum was on the list of pesticides recommended for use around Hvar Town, Stari Grad and the Jelsa Council area, under the Programme issued by the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute for 2017, and in the Institute's Implementation Plan for 2018.
 
BROMADIOLONE. Rodenticide - anticoagulant - superwarfarin - 4-hydroxycoumarin vitamin K antagonist anticoagulant poison. 
Possible adverse effects: Acutely toxic, can be fatal if swallowed, inhaled, or via skin contact; may damage fertility or the unborn child; can cause organ damage in humans; highly toxic to fish and aquatic life, also to earthworms. 
EU: Approved 01.06.2011, expiry 31.05.2021 according to the EU Pesticides Database. ECHA approved. 
Products: Ratimor wax blocks, Ratimor Bromadiolone Fresh Bait, Ratimor Bromadiolone Pasta Bait, Maki, Coumarin, Tomcat, Sarakat Bromabait, Contrac, Bromone, Maki, Super-Caid
Sources:
- PubChem, Open Chemistry Database, 2011. updated 2018. Bromadiolone 
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database, updated 2018. Bromadiolone
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Bromadiolone
USED ON HVAR, Ratimor (granules and paraffin block): 2016: Hvar Town and surrounds: May and October; Stari Grad and surrounds, April and October; Jelsa Council region, April-May and October 2016; 2017: Stari Grad and surrounds, May and November, 787 kg used; Jelsa Council region, May and November 2017. 981 kg used; 2018: Stari Grad & surrounds, 22-24 May, 2-4 October; Jelsa Council region, 18-21 May, 25th September - 4th October 2018.Ratimor has been delivered to households on Hvar twice a year for many years. It has been delivered along with an insecticide, Trichlorfon (see above). Until 2017, the pesticides were delivered in flimsy cellophane packages, with the instructions on the inside. In 2018, Ratimor was delivered to households in flimsy cardboard boxes, without detailed instructions as to how to use the poisons, and without any guidance as to how to dispose of the box and poison after use.
 
Bromadiolone rat poison was delivered in cellophane packaging to households on Hvar every year up to 2017.

HERBICIDES.

GLYPHOSATE. There are at least some 750 glyphosate-based herbicides available in the world markets. Eleven of them, including the widely used Roundup (Cidokor in Croatian), were banned in the EU in 2016.

Suspected possible adverse effects in humans: carcinogenic; neurotoxic; genotoxic; contributes to antibiotic resistance; influences pregnancy, fertility, and birth defects; endocrine disruptor; damages DNA, gut bacteria, organs including liver, kidneys and spleen; contributes to Parkinson's Disease and autism.

Possible environmental ill-effects: damage to water, fish, aquatic organisms, soil, soil organisms, bees, butterflies, gastropods, trees, plants.

Herbicide in the Stari Grad Plain. Photo: Vivian Grisogono
You can find a detailed presentation of the evidence of glyphosate's potential dangers here. For a description of the problems relating to glyphosate, click here.
USED ON HVAR: Roundup (locally Cidokor) has been widely and intensively used on Hvar over many years, alongside other glyphosate-based herbicides such as 'Ouragan' and 'Oxalis'.
 
Information updated January 2019.
 
Please note: The above information is as complete and accurate as possible, and has taken several years to piece together. The Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute and some of the Hvar local authorities have not to date given us the complete information which we requested. If you are aware of inaccuracies or further information which would be relevant to this list, please let us know at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
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