Pesticides and their adverse effects

Published in Poisons Beware

This is a listing of chemical pesticides used by individuals and / or local authorities on Hvar and in other parts of Croatia. Included are their possible adverse effects according to scientific sources and official information.

Pesticides and their adverse effects Photo: Vivian Grisogono

Our listing is in alphabetical order and is divided into two parts: the first part names pesticides in common use in Croatia together with their active ingredients, Croatian approval status, and EU or ECHA status for those pesticides whose active ingredients are banned. The second part lists the active ingredients by category: 1. insecticides, 2. synergist, 3. fungicides, 4. limacide (molluscicide), 5. rodenticides, 6. herbicides. For each substance we identify the following: the type of poison; known possible adverse effects; approval status in the European Union (EU); some of the commercial products containing the active substance; and the scientific and official sources of information regarding the active substance.

To check the EU status of any product, you can refer to the EU Pesticides Database. Each entry includes the latest legislation relating to the listed pesticides. The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) records approvals of active substances and products. Its website is the primary source of information about the laws governing pesticides and their approval processes. You can check its list of substances which are approved or under review on the ECHA website page: mouse over Information on chemicals' in the header; then click on 'Biocidal active substances', under 'BPR' in the submenu; click on 'biocidal active substances' under the heading 'Information on biocides'; click 'search' in the next field, and type the name of the substance in the box marked 'Substance name', click the 'search' button below right; the substance, if identified, will come up as a special listing at the bottom of the page. It will show one or more versions of the substance, giving various details, including approval status; to the right of the entry is a box linking to authorized products based on the active substance. Note: the names under which pesticide products are marketed in Croatia mostly do not appear on the EU listings.

The Croatian Phytosanitary Institution - Fitosanitarni informacijski sustav (FIS) lists the pesticides approved for use in the Republic of Croatia, with a separate listing of those whose approval has been withdrawn. There are two further sources of information about pesticides in Croatia: 'Agroklub' i 'Agrobase Croatia'. Note: the FIS listing does not always agree with the latest information given by the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA); also, the three Croatian sources sometimes offer conflicting information about approved and banned pesticides.

The search page of the Croatian Ministry of Agriculture's Phytosanitary Information Institution (FIS), which carries the list of approved pesticides in Croatia, is in English, but details of the pesticides come up in Croatian. To use the search page, type in the name of the product in the box labelled Trade Name of 'Plant Protection Product'; if it is registered for use in Croatia, it will appear as a pop-up under the Trade Name box; there may be different varieties of the product using the same name, so you can click on the one you want to enter it into the Trade Name box; then click on the 'search' button at the bottom of the page (if you leave the general name in the box, any varieties will be shown when you have clicked on the search button); click on the product as shown under the search button to find all its details. If no product shows up from the search, it means it is not approved. You can use the link at the bottom of the panel to the right, labelled 'List of registered plant protection products which are not registered in Republic of Croatia': this comes up as a PDF document, and you can use your 'find' box to find the product and identify when it lost its authorization, if it was ever registered for use in Croatia.

Note: in our text, DDD (which stands for 'Dezinfekcija, dezinsekcija, deratizacija') refers to the Croatian national Pest Control Programme, which is carried out continuously throughout the country.

Insects are vital in the natural chain. Photo: Vivian Grisogono

PART 1. PESTICIDE PRODUCTS LISTED

All chemical pesticides cause collateral damage and carry risks of harm to humans, animals, birds, insects and all kinds of wildlife, as well as to the environment. This list of pesticide products highlights those which are most hazardous with the following symbols:

* = highly dangerous for human health, for instance possibly causes cancer, affects fertility, and/or damages the unborn child;

# = highly toxic, can cause death

* ACROBAT MZ WG -fungicide -active ingredients: mancozeb and dimethomorph -Croatia FIS: approved 29/12/2006.-31/12/2023.

# ACTARA 25WG -insecticide -active ingredient: thiamethoxam -Croatia FIS: approved 28/03/2011.-30/04/2020.

* AFFIRM OPTI -insecticide -active ingredient: emamectin benzoate -ECHA: not approved Croatia FIS: approved 26/03/2018.-30/04/2025.

* ALIETTE WG -fungicide -active ingredient: fosetyl-aluminium -Croatia FIS: not approved

* ALIETTE FLASH -fungicide -active ingredient: fosetyl -Croatia FIS: approved 27/11/2006.-31/12/2023.

* ANTRACOL COMBI WP 76 --fungicide -active ingredients: propineb and cymoxanil -Croatia FIS: not approved

* ANTRACOL WG 70 - fungicide -active ingredient: propineb -Croatia FIS: not approved

* ANTRACOL WP 70 - fungicide -active ingredient: propineb -Croatia FIS: not approved

BATURAD WP -larvicide -active ingredient: bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) -Croatia FIS: approved 03/12/2004.-31/12/2023.

* BOOM EFEKT - glyphosate-based herbicide -Croatia FIS: approved 01/03/2022.-01/03/2022.

BORDOŠKA JUHA CAFFARO 20WP -copper-based fungicide -Croatia FIS: approved 08/07/2004.-31/12/2023.

BORDOŠKA JUHA 20WP MANICA -copper-based fungicide -Croatia FIS: approved 24/11/2006.-31/12/2023.

* CABRIO TEAM - fungicide - active ingredients dimethomorph and pyraklostrobin - Croatia FIS: not approved

* # CABRIO TOP -fungicide -active ingredients: metiram and pyraklostrobin -Croatia FIS: approved 07/04/2011.-07/04/2021.

* # CALINOGOR -insecticide -active ingredient: dimethoate -ECHA / Croatia FIS: not approved

CHAMPION -copper-based fungicide -Croatia FIS: not approved as from 01/01/2020.

CHAMPION FLOW SC -copper-based fungicide -Croatia FIS: approved 17/06/1997.-31/12/2023.

CHAMPION WG50 -copper-based fungicide -Croatia FIS: approved 21/01/2008.-31/12/2023.

* # CHROMOGOR -insecticide -active ingredient: dimethoate -ECHA / Croatia FIS: not approved

CHROMOSUL 80 - fungicide -active ingredient: sulphur - Croatia FIS approved 04/09/1997.-31/12/2023.

* CIDOKOR (Roundup) - glyphosate-based herbicide - EU/Croatia FIS: not approved

* CIDOKOR MAX - glyphosate-based herbicide - Croatia FIS: approved up to 01/03/2022.; Agroklub not approved as from 31/12/2018.; Agrobase Croatia registration withdrawn

* CIDOKOR PLUS - glyphosate-based herbicide -EU/Croatia FIS:- approved 24/11/2015.-01/03/2022 (FIS); Agroklub not approved as from 31/12/2018.; Agrobase Croatia registration withdrawn

* # CIPEX 10E -insecticide -active ingredient: cypermethrin -Croatia FIS: not approved

CUPRABLAU-Z -copper-based fungicide -Croatia FIS: registration expired 01/01/2020

CUPRABLAU Z 35WG -copper-based fungicide -Croatia FIS: approved 17/04/2019.-01/0172022.

CUPRABLAU Z ULTRA -copper-based fungicide -Croatia FIS: not approved.

CUPROCAFFARO 50WP -copper-based fungicide -Croatia FIS: approved 17/04/2019.-01/01/2022.

* # CYMINA -insecticide -active ingredient: cypermethrin -Croatia FIS: not approved

* # CYMINA PLUS -insecticide -active ingredients: tetramethrin and cypermethrin - ECHA / Croatia FIS: not approved

* # CYMINA ULTRA -insecticide -active ingredients: tetramethrin and cypermethrin -ECHA / Croatia FIS: not approved

# CYTHRIN MAX 250EC -insecticide -active ingredient: cypermethrin -Croatia FIS: approved 23/06/2015.-31/10/2020.

* # DECIS 1.25 EC -insecticide -active ingredient: deltamethrin -Croatia FIS: not approved

* # DECIS 2,5 EC -insecticide -active ingredient: deltamethrin -Croatia FIS: approved 02/03/2000.-31/12/2023.

* # DECIS 6,25 EC -insecticide -active ingredient: deltamethrin -Croatia FIS: not approved

* # DECIS 100 EC -insecticide -active ingredient: deltamethrin -Croatia FIS: approved 18/03/2016.-31/10/2020.

* # DECIS TRAP -MEDITERANSKA VOĆNA MUHA -insecticide -active ingredient: deltamethrin -Croatia FIS: approved 23/09/2015.-31/10/2020.

* # DIFCOR -fungicide -active ingredient: difenoconazole -Croatia FIS: approved 14/06/2017.-31/12/2023.

* DIMILIN SC48 -insecticide, growth regulator (IGR) -active ingredient diflubenzuron -Croatia FIS: approved 26/02/1999.-31/12/2023.

* # ECO TRAP -insecticide - active ingredient: deltamethrin -Croatia FIS: not approved

* FALCON EC 460 -fungicide -active ingredients: spyroxamine, tebuconazole, triadimenol -Croatia FIS: approved 10/02/2006.-31/08/2020.

* FALCON FORTE -fungicide -active ingredients: spyroxamine, prothioconazole and tebuconazole -Croatia FIS: approved 20/03/2019.-31/07/2020.

* # FASTAC 10EC -insecticide -active ingredient: alpha-cypermethrin (alphamethrin) -Croatia FIS: approved 16/02/2007.-01/11/2020.

* # FASTAC 10SC -insecticide -active ingredients: alpha-cypermethrin (alphamethrin) and refined mineral oil - Croatia FIS: not approved

* FLUBEX -insecticide, growth regulator (IGR) -active ingredient: diflubenzuron -Croatia FIS: not approved

* FOLIO GOLD -fungicide -active ingredients metalaxyl-M and chlorothalonil -EU: not approved -Croatia FIS: registration withdrawn 20/11/2019.

* # FOLPAN 50WP -fungicide -active ingredient folpet -Croatia FIS: not approved

* # FOLPAN 80WDG -fungicide -active ingredient folpet -Croatia FIS: approved 26/01/2005.-31/12/2023.

* # FOLPAN GOLD -fungicide -active ingredients metalaxyl-M and folpet -Croatia FIS: approved 15/10/2003.-31/12/2023.

* FUBOL GOLD WG -fungicide -active ingredients mancozeb and metalaxyl-M -Croatia FIS: not approved

* GLYFOS - glyphosate-based herbicide -Croatia FIS: not approved

* HERKULES - glyphosate-based herbicide -Croatia FIS: approved 22/02/2017.-01/03/2022.

* HERKULES 480 SL -glyphosate-based herbicide -Croatia FIS: not approved

* HERKULES SUPER - glyphosate-based herbicide -Croatia FIS: not approved

# IMIDAN 50WG -insecticide -active ingredient phosmet -ECHA not approved -Croatia FIS: approved 29/09/2015.-31/07/2020.

LASER - insecticide -active ingredient: spinosad -Croatia FIS approved 20/03/2002.-31/12/2023.

* LUNA EXPERIENCE -fungicide -active ingredients fluopyram and tebuconazole -Croatia FIS: approved 19/01/2015.-31/08/2020.

* LUNA PRIVILEGE -fungicide -active ingredients fluopyram and trifloxystrobin -Croatia FIS: approved 09/02/2015.-31/01/2025.

* LUNA SENSATION -fungicide -active ingredients fluopyram and trifloxystrobin -Croatia FIS: approved 09/07/2019.-31/01/2025.

* # MICROFLY -insecticide -active ingredient cypermethrin -Croatia FIS not approved

* #  MIKAL -fungicide -active ingredients folpet and fosetyl-al -Croatia FIS: not approved

* # MIKAL FLASH -fungicide -active ingredients folpet and fosetyl-al -Croatia FIS: approved 30/11/2006.-31/12/2023.

* # MIKAL PREMIUM F -fungicide -active ingredients folpet, fosetyl, iprovalicarb -Croatia FIS: approved 29/11/2007.-31/12/2023.

MODRA GALICA - copper-based fungicide -Croatia FIS: not approved

MODRA GALICA SCARMAGNAN - copper-based fungicide -Croatia FIS: not approved since 01/07/2016

# MOSPILAN 20SG -insecticide -active ingredient acetamiprid -ECHA approved to 31.01.2027, but no approved products listed -Croatia FIS: approved 07/10/2015.-30/04/2023.

# MOSPILAN 20SP -insecticide -active ingredient acetamiprid -ECHA approved 31.01.2027. but no approved products listed -Croatia FIS: approved 30/10/2015.-30/04/2023

* # MUHOMOR -insecticide -active ingredient azamethiphos -ECHA / Croatia FIS not approved

* NATIVO 75 WG -fungicide -active ingredients tebuconazole and trifloxystrobin -Croatia FIS: approved 06/03/2008-31/12/2023.

* # NEOPITROID PREMIUM -insecticide -active ingredients allethrin and permethrin -ECHA / Croatia FIS not approved

NEORAM WG - copper-based fungicide -Croatia FIS: approved 24/01/2008-31/12/2023.

NORDOX 75WG - copper-based fungicide -Croatia FIS: approved 24/01/2002-31/12/2023.

* OURAGAN SYSTEM 4 -glyphosate-based herbicide - Croatia FIS: approved 24/01/2012-24/01/2022.

* OXALIS -glyphosate-based herbicide - Croatia FIS: not approved since 16/12/2018. Agrobase Croatia: approved until 25/07/2021

* # PERFEKTHION -insecticide -active ingredient dimethoate -ECHA /Croatia FIS not approved

* PERGADO D -fungicide -active ingredients mandipropamid and mancozeb -Croatia FIS: approved 28/01/2019-31/07/2024.

* PERGADO F -fungicide -active ingredients folpet and mandipropamid -Croatia FIS: approved 26/11/2007-31/12/2023.

* PERGADO MZ -fungicide -active ingredients mandipropamid and mancozeb -Croatia FIS: approved 21/05/2007-31/12/2023.

* # PERMEX 22E -insecticide -active ingredients permethrin and tetramethrin -ECHA / Croatia FIS not approved

* # POLECI -insecticide -active ingredient deltamethrin -Croatia FIS: approved 15/01/2014-14/01/2024.

* # POLECI PLUS -insecticide -active ingredient deltamethrin -Croatia FIS: approved 11/05/2016-31/10/2020.

* # POLYRAM DF -fungicide -active ingredient metiram -Croatia FIS: approved 02/02/2012-02/02/2022.

PREVICUR 607SL -fungicide -active ingredient propamocarb-hydrochloride -Croatia FIS not approved

PREVICUR ENERGY -fungicide -active ingredients fosetyl and propamocarb -Croatia FIS: approved 23/05/2007-31/12/2023.

* PROCLAIM -insecticide -active ingredient emamectin benzoate -ECHA /Croatia FIS not approved

# PUŽOMOR -limacide -active ingredient metaldehyde -ECHA not approved Croatia FIS: approved 12/01/2005-31/12/2023.

* PYRINEX 48EC -insecticide -active ingredient chlorpyrifos -ECHA / Croatia FIS not approved

* # PYRUS 400SC -fungicide -active ingredient pyrimethanil -Croatia FIS: approved 09/05/2007-31/12/2023.

* # PYXAL -insecticide, growth regulator (IGR) -active ingredient pyriproxyfen -Croatia FIS: approved 23/09/2015-31/12/2021.

* QUICK BAYT -insecticide -active ingredient imidacloprid (plus tricosene as attractant) -Croatia FIS not approved

# RATIMOR -rodenticide -active ingredient brodifacoum -Croatia FIS not approved

# RATIMOR -rodenticide -active ingredient bromadiolone -Croatia FIS not approved

* REVIVE II -insecticide -active ingredient emamectin benzoate -ECHA not approved -Croatia FIS: approved 19/03/2019.-30/04/2025.

[RIDOMIL GOLD COMBI 45 WG (re-named FOLPAN GOLD)]

* RIDOMIL GOLD PLUS 42,5 WP -fungicide -active ingredients metalaxyl-M, copper compounds: copper oxychloride -Croatia FIS: registration withdrawn 01/01/2020.

* RIDOMIL GOLD MZ PEPITE -fungicide -active ingredients mancozeb and metalaxyl-M -Croatia FIS: approved 24/01/2011-24/01/2021.

* RIDOMIL GOLD MZ 68WP -fungicide -active ingredients metalaxyl-M and mancozeb -Croatia FIS not approved

* RIDOMIL GOLD R -fungicide -active ingredients metalaxyl-M, copper compounds: copper oxychloride-Croatia FIS: approved 11/04/2017-30/06/2021.

* # ROGOR 40 -insecticide -active ingredient dimethoate -ECHA / Croatia FIS not approved

* ROUNDUP BIOACTIVE -glyphosate-based herbicide - Croatia FIS: approved 01/07/2016-01/03/2022. Agrobase Croatia registration withdrawn.

* ROUNDUP RAPID -glyphosate-based herbicide - Croatia FIS: approved 24/11/2015-01/03/2022; Agrobase Croatia registration withdrawn.

* # SCALA -fungicide -active ingredient pyrimethanil -Croatia FIS: approved 12/09/2016-30/04/2021.

* # SCATTO -insecticide -active ingredient deltamethrin -Croatia FIS: approved 12/07/2016.-31/10/2020.

* SEVIN -insecticide -active ingredient carbaryl -ECHA / Croatia FIS not approved

* # SIGNUM -fungicide -active ingredients pyraklostrobin and boscalid -Croatia FIS: approved 29/12/2006-31/12/2023.

* STROBY WG -fungicide -active ingredient kresoxim methyl -Croatia FIS: approved 25/07/201.-25/07/2021.

SUCCESS BAIT -insecticide -active ingredient spinosad -Croatia FIS: approved 11/01/2005-31/12/2023.

SUMPOR MICRO 80 WP sulphur-based fungicide -Croatia FIS not approved

SUMPOR MOČIVI TIOSAM 80 MIKRO -sulphur-based fungicide -Croatia FIS: not approved

SUMPOR PRAŠIVO -sulphur-based fungicide -Croatia FIS: approved 21/09/2016-31/12/2020.

SUMPOR SC 80 -sulphur-based fungicide -Croatia FIS: approved 25/05/1998-31/12/2023.

SUMPOR WG 80 -sulphur-based fungicide -Croatia FIS: approved 14/10/2016-11/12/2020.

SUMPORNO PRAŠIVO -sulphur-based fungicide -Croatia FIS: approved 13/12/2004-31/12/2023.

* # TILT CB 187,5 FW -fungicide -active ingredients propiconazole and carbendazim -Croatia FIS not approved

* # TILT 250EC -fungicide -active ingredient propiconazole -Croatia FIS: registration withdrawn 19/06/2019.

* # TOPAS 100EC -fungicide -active ingredient penconazole -Croatia FIS: approved 01/02/2007-31/12/2023.

* # UNIVERSALIS -fungicide -active ingredient azoxystrobin -Croatia FIS: approved 21/05/2007-31/12/2023.

* # VERTIMEC 018 EC -insecticide -active ingredient abamectin -Croatia FIS: approved 12/06/2006-30/06/2023.

* # VERTIMEC PRO - insecticide -active ingredient abamectin -Croatia FIS: approved 18/05/2016-30/04/2020.


PART 2: PESTICIDES, ACTIVE INGREDIENTS
Croatia:1. INSECTICIDES. - ECHA APPROVAL CODE PT18 (Insecticides, acaricides, products to control other arthropods)
 
ABAMECTIN (See Emamectin) Combination of Avermectin B1a & B1b, growth regulator, insecticide, miticide, nematicide, derived from soil bacterium Streptomyces avermitilis.
Possible adverse effects: extremely toxic to bees, birds; highly toxic to aquatic life: fish, invertebrates, plants, algae and sediment dwelling organisms; toxic to earthworms; highly toxic to humans through skin contact, inhalation or ingestion: can cause problems for reproduction, impairing male fertility; neurological damage including tremors and ataxia; respiratory failure; skin and eye irritation.
EU: Approved 01/05/2009 - 30/04/2020. ECHA: Approved PT18 01/07/2013 - 30/06/2023
Products: Vertimec 018EC, Vertimec Pro, Kraft 18EC ECHA-approved include BAYGON BAITS, Baygon Esca Scarafaggi, Raid baits, Raid Roach Bait, RAID Klopka za Žohare. Croatia FIS: Vertimec O18EC approved 12/06/2006.- 31/12/2023; Vertimec Pro approved 18/05/2016.-30/04/2020.
Sources: - ECHA 2019. Abamectin Factsheet
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. 2018. Abamectin
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2006, updated 2019. Abamectin
- University of California, Statewide Integrated Pest Management Program. Abamectin
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Vertimec 018EC and Kraft 18EC (10.05.2019, 19.06.2019)
 
ACETAMIPRID. Neonicotinoid
Possible adverse effects: Very toxic to aquatic organisms, may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment; highly toxic to honeybees if mixed with piperonyl butoxide or propiconazole; harmful for populations of pollinating insects; harmful to birds and earthworms; dangerous for the environment; in humans: harmful - toxic if swallowed; can be fatal if inhaled; skin irritant
EU: Approved. ECHA: Approved, PT18, 01/02/2020 - 31/01/2027.
Products: Mospilan 20SP (registration revoked 01.01.2016, re-registered 30.10.2015 to 30.04.2023), Mospilan 20SG (Croatian registration revoked 01.01.2012, re-authorized 07.10.2015 - 30.04.2023.), Acelan 20SPVolleyWizzaardMacho 60FS. ECHA: no related products authorized (06.05.2019, 07.11.2019.) Croatia FIS: Mospilan 20SG approved 07/10/2015-30/04/2023. Mospilan 20SP approved 30/10/2015-30/04/2023.
Sources: - Iwasa, T., Motoyama, N., Ambrose, J.T., Roe, R.M. 2004. Mechanism for the differential toxicity of neonicotinoid insecticides in the honey bee, Apis mellifera. Crop Protection 23: 371-378
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. 2018. Acetamiprid
- Cayman Chemical 2018. Safety Data Sheet: Acetamiprid
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005, updated 2019. Acetamiprid
USED ON HVAR: Mospilan used by vegetable-growers (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Mospilan 20 SP (24.05.2019, 14.06.2019, 19.06.2019, 26.06.2019).
 
ALLETHRIN (d-Allethrin). Synthetic pyrethroid
Possible adverse effects: Very toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; toxic to honey-bees and earthworms; moderately toxic to birds; harmful to humans if swallowed or inhaled.
EU: Not approved. ECHA: Not approved, under evaluation in January 2020. Croatia FIS: not approved. 
Products: Neopitroid Premium (with Permethrin and Piperonyl Butoxide) EU, ECHA, Croatia FIS: No approved products 
Sources:
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. 2018. Allethrin
USED IN CROATIA UNDER THE DDD (ARTHROPOD SUPPRESSION) PROGRAMME: for instance, Neopitroid Premium was used for aerial spraying in the Vukovar-Srijem County in 2014, and the Osijek-Baranja County in 2019. 
 
ALPHA-CYPERMETHRIN (ALPHAMETHRIN). Synthetic pyrethroid.
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to fish, most aquatic organisms and honeybees; extremely toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects; toxic to earthworms; possible human carcinogen; can cause organ damage, respiratory irritation, irreversible eye damage; serious water pollutant.
EU: Approved 01.03.2005 expiry extended from 31.10.2018 to 31.07.2019. ECHA: Approved, PT18, 01/07/2016 - 30/06/2026
Products: Fastac 10 EC, Antec, Contest, Fedona, Littac, Tenopa. ECHA: no related products authorized as at 06.05.2019. 7 approved products (as at 12.08.2019, 7.11.2019) in certain market areas, not including Croatia, encompassing Canasta 1.5SC, Fendona 1.5SC, Littac, Pamova 1.5SC, Cardamon &SC, DigrainAC, Inastro 6SC, Olimero 6SC Croatia FIS: Fastac 10EC approved 16/02/2017.-01/11/2020; Fastac 10SC not approved
Sources: - ECHA 2019. Alpha-Cypermethrin Factsheet.
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Alpha-cyoermethrin
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. 2018. Alpha-cypermethrin.
- El Okda, E-S., Abdel-Hamid, M. A-A., Hamdy, A.M. 2017. Immunological and genotoxic effects of occupational exposure to alpha-cypermethrin pesticide. International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health. Vol 30 (4) 603-615.
- Bej, S., Mukherjee, D., Saha, N.C. 2015. Acute toxicity of alpha-cypermethrin to oligochaete worm, Branchiura sowerbyi (Beddard 1982) along with their behavioural responses. International Journal of Scientific Research. 1:12, 325- 326.
- Wast, N., Gupta, A.K., Prakash, M.M., Gaherwal, S. 2014. Toxic Effect of Alphamethrin 10 EC on Freshwater Fish, Poecilia reticulata (Peters, 1859). World Applied Sciences Journal 30 (6): 782-786.
- Kemabonta, K., Akinhanmi, F.O. 2013. Toxicological Effects of Chlorpyrifos, Dichlorvos and Alpha Cypermethrin on Adult Albino Mice, Mus Musculus. Production, Agriculture and Technology. 9 (2): 1-17.
- Sarikaya, R., 2009. Investigation of Acute Toxicity of Alpha-Cypermethrin on Adult Nile Tilapia (Oreochromos niloticus L.). Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 9: 85-89
USED ON HVAR: Fastac EC is used against fruit fly, especially in olive groves, by many individual agriculturalists. (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Fastac 10EC (14.06.2019, 19.06.2019)
 
AQUATAIN AMF. Silicone-based liquid larvicide (film over the surface of standing water causes pupae and larvae to suffocate)
Possible adverse effects: can damage non-target organisms which depend on the water surface for respiration and movement.
EU: European Commission exempted Aquatain from registration due to its mode of action.
USED ON HVAR: DDD programme, 2017 Stari Grad region 9 litres, 23-25 May; Jelsa region 16 litres, 19-22 May 2017.
 
AVERMECTIN (see Abamectin)
 
AZAMETHIPHOS. Organophosphate, designed for use on target areas, not for spraying in the air; mainly used against flies in enclosed spaces, on horses, cattle, pigs and chickens.
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; toxic to birds; acutely toxic to humans if swallowed or inhaled; can cause headache, weakness, nervousness, sweating, vomiting and difficulty swallowing. Exposure to extremely high levels may result in muscular twitching, eye pain, slurred speech, colic, hyper-salivation, heart complaints, breathing difficulties, convulsions and unconsciousness; also causes eye and skin irritation on contact
EU, not approved. ECHA (PT18): not approved. As at 07.11.2019, initial application for approval was in process.
Products: Muhomor, Salmosan, Alfacron 10, Alfacron Plus, Snip Fly Bait. ECHA: no related products approved (06.05.2019, 07.11.2019) Croatia FIS: Muhomor not approved
Sources: - Pub Chem: Compound summary for CID 71482, Safety and Hazards
- European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products 1999. Azamethiphos, Summary Report.
- Scottish Environment Protection Agency. Azamethiphos. Scottish Pollutant Release Directory.
- University of Hertfordshire. Azamethiphos. Veterinary Substances Database.
- Pesticides Action Network (PAN) Europe. 2006. What substances are banned and authorized in the EU market?
- Muhomor. 2017. Muhomor je insekticid topiv u vodi. Djelatna tvar: Azametifos u koncentraciji 10%. Genera, Jedna komapnija za Jedno zdravlje.
- ECHA (Updated 15/08/2018) Azamethiphos
USED ON HVAR against flies around rubbish bins and rubbish dumps 2017: Hvar Town and surrounds, (with Microfly) 20th June, (with Microfly) 13th July, 11th August heat-spray fogging in rubbish dumps; 28th September, 12th October fogging in rubbish dumps. Total quantity 40.5 kg; Stari Grad and surrounds, Muhomor 33 kg, Jelsa Council area 31.5 kg, May, July, August, September 2017. 2018: around Hvar Town, 25th July, 16th August, 4th September - total quantity 9 kg.
Organophosphates were not approved under the Insect Control Programme of Measures and Implementation Plans issued by the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute in 2017 and 2018, yet Muhomor was used on Hvar in both years, also in 2019.
 
BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS ISRAELENSIS (Bti). Soil bacterium.
Possible adverse effects: can interfere with reproduction in birds; can cause eye and skin irritation in humans and animals; may disturb essential wetland organisms; long-term use perhaps causes loss of biodiversity in the environment.
EU: Approved 01.05.2009, expiry 30.04.2019, extended to 30.04.2020. ECHA: Approved, PT18 01.10.2013 - 30.09.2023.
Products: Aquabac©, Teknar©, Bactimos©, and Vectobac©. Baturad WP. ECHA: 10 approved products as at 07.11.2019, including Aquabac, Bactimos, Vectobac, Culinex Tab Plus, Neudomick Stechmüchen Frei, Neudomick Stechmüchen Flüssing. Baturad was not included. Croatia FIS: Baturad WP approved 03/12/2004.-31/12/2023.
Sources: - Washington State Department of Health. Mosquito Larvicide - Bti.
- Siegel, J.P., Shadduck, J.A. 1990. Mammalian Safety of Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis. in: de Barjac, H., Sutherland, D.J. eds, Bacterial Control of Mosquitoes and Blackflies. pub. Unwin Hymen, London, pp. 202- 2017 
- Lacey, L.A., Merritt, R.W. c.2001. The Safety of Bacterial Microbial Agents Used for Control of Blackfly and Mosquito Control in Aquatic Environments. (PDF document. Authors affiliated to USA Yakima Agricultural Research Laboratory and Michigan State University respectively.)
- Poulin, B., Lefebre, G., Paz, L., 2010. Red flag for green spray: adverse trophic effects of Bti on breeding birds. Journal of Applied Ecology. Vol.47, Issue 4, 884-889.
- Maletz, S., Wollenweber, M., Kubiak, K., Müller, A., Schmitz, S., Maier, D., Hecker, M., Hollert, H.. 2015. Investigation of potential endocrine disrupting effects of mosquito larvicidal Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) formulations. The science of the total environment. Vol.536, 729-738.
USED ON HVAR: 2017: 22nd September, and 2018: 19th September, Baturad was used on 3 hectares of woodland around the Hvar Town region against the Pine Processionary Moth caterpillars, quantity 600 litres each time.
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Baturad WP (14.06.2019)
2019: Baturad (or Decis or Imidan or Rogor) recommended by a well-respected Hvar olive oil producer, to be used in May and June against olive moth (prays oleae, Croatian: maslinin moljac)
 
CARBARYL. Carbamate
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to mammals, aquatic invertebrates, aquatic crustaceans, bees, earthworms. Can be fatal in humans; possible carcinogen and endocrine disruptor; possibly damaging for reproduction and development; can cause cholinesterase inhibition, blurred vision, tears, headaches, memory loss, rhinorrhoea (discharge of thin nasal mucus), salivation; sweating, muscle weakness, abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea; tremors, cyanosis, convulsions and skin irritation.
EU, ECHA: Not approved
Product: Sevin. Combined with limacide Metaldehyde in Lily Miller Slug, Snail and Insect Killer Bait, and for Ortho Bug-Geta Plus. ECHA: no related products approved (06.05.2019, 07.11.2019) Croatia FIS: Sevin not approved
Sources: - University of Hertfordshire PPDB, updated 2018. Carbaryl.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005, updated 2019. Carbaryl.
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2016. Carbaryl Factsheet.
WAS USED LONG-TERM IN CROATIA, especially for fruit thinning, applied two to three weeks after full flowering of the trees. (Refs: Radivojević et al. 2011. Effect of chemical and hand thinning young apple tree on yield and fruit quality. Proceedings, 46th Croatian and 6th International Symposium on Agriculture, Opatija Croatia, pp 1044-1047. Croatian Agriculture Ministry, article in Croatian). However, it is no longer authorized for this use in Croatia.
 
CHLORPYRIFOS. Organophosphate.
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to honeybees, birds, fish, aquatic organisms; moderately toxic to earthworms, algae and aquatic plants; in humans can cause nausea, dizziness, confusion, and respiratory paralysis and death; causes neurodevelopmental defects in children; can harm mother and foetus during pregnancy; can cause acute muscle paralysis and weakness, also breathing difficulties, depression, and double vision in humans, dogs and cats; overexposure can cause weakness, ataxia (uncoordinated movements), proprioceptive dysfunctions (disturbed awareness of posture and movements), particularly of the hind legs, and paralysis in animals, including dogs and cats.
EU: Approved 01.07.2006, expiry 31.01.2019, extended to 31.01.2020. ECHA: not approved. [Chlorpyrifos banned in the United States and 8 EU countries] 
Products: Pyrinex 48 EC, Dursban E48, Nufos ECHA: no related products approved (06.05.2019, 07.11.2019) Croatia FIS: Pyrinex 48 EC was finally banned in Croatia on 31.01.2019, although existing stocks were allowed to be used until the expiry date, and some products were still allowed in Croatia as at 09.11.2019, eg Dursban E48 (permit 19.08.1997- 31.12.2023; Nufos (06.05.2004 - 31.12.2023). However, by the beginning of 2020 registration was withdrawn from all chlorpyrifos products, although their sale was still allowed until the final use-by date for existing stocks.
Sources: - Toxnet (Toxicology Data Network) 1983, updated 2015. Chlorpyrifos.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency 2016. Revised Human Health Risk Assessment on Chlorpyrifos.
- United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive (HSE) 2016. Changes to Authorisations for Products Containing Chlorpyrifos. (Use restricted to spraying brassica seedlings only, all existing stocks of chlorpyrifos to be destroyed)
- Eng, M.L., Stutchbury, B.J.M., Morrissey, C.A. 2017. Imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos insecticides impair migratory ability in a seed-eating songbird. Scientific Reports, 7., article no. 15176.
- Junquera, P. article updated 2017. CHLORPYRIFOS: SAFETY SUMMARY for VETERINARY USE in DOGS, CATS, HORSES, CATTLE, SHEEP, GOATS, SWINE and POULTRY. Poisoning, intoxication, overdose, antidote. Parasitipedia.net
- United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, 2018. Lulac (11 Petitioners, including Pesticide Action Network (PANNA), Farmworker Justice GreenLatinos, Learning Disabilities Association of America, Farmworkers Association of Florida) v. Wheeler (for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) EPA ordered to revoke all tolerances and cancel all registrations for chlorpyrifos within 60 days: Chlorpyrifos banned in the United States.
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database. updated August 2018. Chlorpyrifos.
- Health and Environment Alliance (HEAL) August 2018. Chlorpyrifos factsheet (with 40 references)
USED ON HVAR: 2016, Pyrinex 48 EC used on bushes and trees in Jelsa's public park preventively against aphids
 
CYPERMETHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid.
Possible adverse effects: - very toxic to cats, bees, aquatic insects and fish, highly toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects; toxic to a lesser degree to birds.; in humans, classified as a possible cause of cancer; can cause organ damage, skin numbness or burning, respiratory irritation, loss of bladder control, vomiting, loss of co-ordination, coma, seizures, and (rarely) death.
EU: Permit 01.03.2006, expired 31.10.2018. Still under review, Cypermethrin was re-approved in August 2018, subject to stringent conditions. ECHA: Approved, PT18, 01/06/2020 - 31/05/2030
Products: Cythrin Max 250EC, Cipex, Microfly, Cymina Ultra, Ammo, Cymbush, Demon, Raid Ant Killer, Hot-Shot Fogger, Raid Wasp and Hornet Killer. ECHA: no insecticidal products approved as at 06.05.2019, 07.11.2019, (although Cypermethrin was authorized for 59 wood preservative products, PT08.) Croatia FIS:  Cythrin MAX 250EC approved 23/06/2015.-31/10/2020Cymina Aqua, Cymina Ultra, Cymina Plus, Cipex, Microfly not approved
Sources: - ECHA 2019. Cypermethrin Factsheet.
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Cypermethrin
-U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Pesticide Programs. 2016. Chemicals Evaluated for Carcinogenic Potential. Annual Cancer Report.
-Aggarwal, P., Jamshed, N., Ekka, M., Imran A. 2015. Suicidal poisoning with cypermethrin: A clinical dilemma in the emergency department. Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock. 8:2 123-125.
-TOXNET Toxicology Data Network (U.S.National Library of Medicine). 1986, updated 2012. Cypermethrin.
-PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005. Cypermethrin.
-Extension Toxicology Network, (Extoxnet). 1993. Pesticide Information profile: Cypermethrin. (Pesticide Information Project, Cornell University)
USED ON HVAR, DDD programme, for adult insect suppression 'fogging' spraying and dispersion: 2016, Cipex 10E, Microfly, (with Permex 22E) - Hvar Town and its surrounds, June, July x2, August, October 2016; Stari Grad and its surrounds, June, July and August 2016; Jelsa Council region, July x2, August 2016. 2017: Hvar Town region, Microfly 20th June, (with Permex) 25th May, 20th June, (with Permex and Muhomor) 13th July, total quantity of Microfly 14 kg. Cipex (with Permex) 11th August for hot-spray fogging against mosquitoes around Hvar and its settlements; Cipex (with Muhomor and mineral oil) 11th August against flies on Hvar's rubbish dumps; Cipex (with Permex 22E) 28th September, 12th October for fogging around the Hvar Town region. Total quantity of Cipex 13 litres. Stari Grad and environs, May, July, August, September 2017; Jelsa Council area, July, August, September 2017, Cipex (with Permex 22E) in fogging against mosquitoes; combined with Muhomor for fly control around rubbish bins and rubbish dumps, Stari Grad and environs, also Jelsa Council region, May, July, August, September 2017. Stari Grad Cipex total, 8 litres, Microfly 7 kg; Jelsa, Cipex 10 litres, Microfly 5 kg. 2018: Hvar Town region, Cipex 3rd July, 4th September, 19th September, 18th October, total quantity 13 litres; Microfly 3rd July, 25th July, 16th August, 4th September, 19th September. Stari Grad region: Cipex 2L, Microfly 3L, fogging 26th July, 15th August, 6th September, Jelsa Council area, main streets, Microfly (4 litres) with Cipex (3 litres) used for fogging action 25th July, 14th August, 5th September 2018.
2019: Cythrin Max 250EC recommended by a well-respected olive oil producer: Caythrin Max 250EC to be used in May against olive moth (prays oleae, Croatian: maslinin moljac)
 
DELTAMETHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid.
Possible adverse effects: Toxic to bees; highly toxic to cats; extremely toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; toxic to fish; also to aquatic herbivorous insects, causing increased algae; in humans can cause ataxia, convulsions leading to muscle fibrillation and paralysis, dermatitis, oedema, diarrhoea, dyspnoea, headache, hepatic microsomal enzyme induction, irritability, peripheral vascular collapse, rhinorrhoea, serum alkaline phosphatase elevation, tinnitus, tremors, vomiting and death due to respiratory failure. Possible allergic reactions: anaphylaxis, bronchospasm, eosinophilia, fever, hypersensitivity pneumonia, pallor, pollinosis, sweating, sudden swelling of the face, eyelids, lips and mucous membranes, and tachycardia.
EU: Approved: 01/11/2003 expiry 31/10/2018, extended to 31/10/2019. ECHA: Approved, PT18, 01/10/2013 - 30/09/2023.
Products: Butoflin, Crackdown, Decis 2.5 EC, Decis 100 EC, Scatto, Rotor Super, Poleci Plus, Raid Max Bug Killer, Raid Max Spider, Scorpion Killer. Eco Trap. ECHA: As at 07.11.2019 85 Deltamethrin-based insecticides were approved by the ECHA, but the list did not include any of these commonly advertised products, although several similarly named Raid products were listed as authorized. Croatia FIS: Scatto approved 12/07/2016.-31/10/2020.; Rotor Super approved 10/08/2016-31/10/2020; Poleci Plus approved 11/05/2016-31/10/2020. Decis 100EC was removed from the Croatian list of authorized pesticides on 01.10.2012., but re-authorized from 18.03.2016 - 31.10.2020. Decis 1,25EC, Decis 6,25EC not approved.Eco Trap was not on the list of approved pesticides as at 15th November 2019, and was listed as having lost its authorization in 2011.
Sources: - ECHA 2019. Deltamethrin Factsheet.
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Deltamethrin
- PubChem, Open Chemistry Database. 2017. Deltamethrin.
- Dai, P-L., Wang, Q., Sun, J-H., Liu, F., Wang, X., Wu, Y-Y., Z. T. 2009. Effects of sublethal concentrations of bifenthrin and deltamethrin on fecundity, growth, and development of the honeybee Apis mellifera ligustica. Environmental Toxicology. 29-3, 644-649
- Extension Toxicology Network (Extoxnet) 1995. Deltamethrin. (Pesticide Information Project, Cornell University)
- Parasitipedia.net. Deltamethrin: Safety Summary for Veterinary Use
ON HVAR: Deltamethrin was on the list of pesticides recommended for use around Hvar Town, Stari Grad and the Jelsa Council area, under the Programme issued by the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute for 2017 and 2018.
2018: Croatian Agriculture-Forestry Advisory Section for the Split-Dalmatian county recommended Deltamethrin and the products Decis 100EC, Decis 2.5EC, Scatto, Rotor Super, and Poleci Plus were recommended for use on Hvar and in other olive-growing areas against fruit-flies in July 2018.
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Scatto and Poleci Plus (14.06.2019, 13.09.2019, 27.09.2019); Decis 2.5 EC, Decis 100 EC, Rotor Super (14.06.2019, 19.06.2019, 13.09.2019, 27.09.2019); Eco Trap (13.09.2019)
2019: Decis (or Imidan, or Baturad or Rogor) recommended by a well-respected Hvar olive oil producer, to be used in May and June against olive moth (prays oleae, Croatian: maslinin moljac); Decis (or Imidan or Rogor, or Rogor with the attractant Buminal, or Success Bait, or Eko-Trap) in July, August, September and October against olive fruit fly (bactrocera oleae, Croatian: maslinova muha)
 
DIFLUBENZURON. Benzamide insecticide, Insect Growth Regulator (Disruptor) (IGR).
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to freshwater and marine invertebrates; moderately toxic to fish and earthworms; slightly toxic to birds; affected haemoglobin in animal studies; can cause breathing difficulties in humans; direct contact can be harmful to skin and eyes; metabolites are possible human carcinogens.
EU: Approved 01.01.2009, expiry 31.12.2018, extended to 31st December 2019. ECHA: Approved, PT18, 01/02/2015 - 31/12/2025.
Products: Dimilin, Vigilante, Micromite, Flubex. ECHA: As at 6th May, 7th November 2019 three products were listed as approved under PT18: Dimilin 5 (for the market area of Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden); Labyrinth+ (France); Termigard Plus (Spain). Flubex, Vigilante and Micromite were not included. Croatia FIS: Dimilin SC48 approved 26/02/1999-31/12/2023.
Sources: - United States Environmental Protection Agency 1997. Reregistration Eligibility Decision (R.E.D.): Diflubenzuron.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database 2005, modified 2018: Diflubenzuron.
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database, updated 2018. Diflubenzuron.
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Diflubenzuron
USED ON HVAR: DDD programme, for larvicidal actions, Flubex, 2016: Hvar Town and surrounds, May and October 2016. Stari Grad and surrounds, April and October 2016; Jelsa Council area, April-May and October 2016. 2017: Jelsa Council area: Dimilin used for larvicide, rainwater drains & septic tanks, June & July 2017. 2018: Dimilin used in the Hvar Town region, 13th June, 3rd July, 5.5 kg. Dimilin used in Vrboska on the road to Soline bathing beach (at the request of residents), in Jelsa around the Park and in the rainwater drains in the centre of Jelsa, 13th June & 25th July 2018, 5 kg.
 
DIMETHOATE. Organophosphate.
Possible adverse effects. Very toxic to bees and aquatic organisms; possibly toxic to wildlife, including birds, and livestock: possible endocrine disruptor; in humans: can cause unconsciousness and death; possible human carcinogen (USEPA); inhalation, swallowing or excess skin contact can cause breathing difficulties, headache, dizziness, tiredness, slurred speech, blurred vision, a lack of coordination, sweating, slow or rapid heart beat, convulsions, incontinence; when swallowed, can also cause vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, faecal incontinence; long-term exposure may lead to impaired memory, depression, irritability, confusion and insomnia.
EU: Approved 01.10.2007, expiry extended to 31.07.2019. ECHA: not approved as at 7th November, 22nd December 2019.
Products: Phosphamide, Rogor 40, Calinogor, Chromogor, Cygon, Perfekthion, Fosfamid 40, Aadimethoal. ECHA: no related products authorized.
Croatia FIS: Calinogor, Fosfamid and Aadimethoal not approved. Registration for Rogor 40, Calinogor, Chromogor, Perfekthion withdrawn 31/12/2019, deadline 30/06/2020.
Sources: - World Health Organisation 1989. International Programme on Chemical Safety: Environmental Health Criteria for Dimethoate.
- Extension Toxicology Network (Extoxnet) 1993. Dimethoate.
- Scottish Environment Protection Agency. Dimethoate.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database 2005, modified 2008. Dimethoate. (Pesticide Information Project, Cornell University)
- University of Hertfordshire 2018. Pesticide Properties Database: Dimethoate.
USED ON HVAR: Rogor is used by farmers cultivating olives and other crops (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
Dimethoate and the products Calinogor, Chromogor, Perfekthion, Rogor 40 were recommended for use on Hvar and in other olive-growing areas against fruit-flies by the Croatian Agriculture-Forestry Advisory Section for the Split-Dalmatian County, in July 2018.
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Caligonor, Chromogor, Perfekthion (14.06.2019, 13.09.2019) and Rogor 40 (14.06.2019, 19.06.2019, 13.09.2019, 27.09.2019).
2019: Rogor, also in combination with the attractant Buminal, recommended by a well-respected Hvar olive oil producer for use variously against olive moth (prays oleae, Croatian: maslinin moljac), olive fruit fly (bactrocera oleae, Croatian: maslinova muha), leopard moth (Zeuzera pyrina, Croatian: granotoč) and weevils (otiorhyncus, Croatian: Skorovača) in May, June, July, August, and September; Rogor (or Baturad) to be used in May against olive psyllid (euphyllura olivina, Croatian maslinova buha)
 
EMAMECTIN BENZOATE. Semisynthetic derivative of avermectin.
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to bees, birds, aquatic life, aquatic environment, algae; in humans: highly toxic through swallowing, inhalation and skin contact; can cause organ damage, serious eye irritation or damage; muscle tremors, muscle incoordination, vomiting, pulmonary oedema, unconsciousness; skin allergies.
EU: Approved 01/05/2014 - 30/04/2024. ECHA: not approved
Products: Revive, Affirm, Proclaim. ECHA: no approved products (06.05.2019, 07.11.2019., 22.12.2019.) Croatia: Revive II authorized 19/03/2019 - 30/04/2025. Croatia FIS: Revive II authorized 19/03/2019 - 30/04/2025; Affirm Opti approved 26/03/2018.-30/04/2025. Proclaim not approved .
Sources: - United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2014. Emamectin Benzoate 4.0% Tree Injection, Label Amendment.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database 2005, modified 2019. Emamectin
- University of Hertfordshire, Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Emamectin benzoate
- EU National Assessment, Evaluator FRANCE. 2018. Revive, Registration Report
- Cornell Cooperative Extension, Pesticide Management Education Program 2000. Emamectin Benzoate - Registration of Proclaim Insecticide 3/00.
USED ON HVAR Affirm used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc. (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: Jelsa local Council: Revive used on palm trees in Jelsa Park 12.04.2019.
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Affirm Opti, especially against caterpillars in fruit trees (17th May 2019, 26.06.2019)
 
IMIDACLOPRID. Neonicotinoid.
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to bees, birds, also aquatic life and aquatic environments, with long-lasting effects; can affect reproduction and development in humans; possibly associated with autism spectrum disorder; moderately toxic to mammals, fish and earthworms; persists in soil.
EU: Approved to 31/07/2022, restricted for certain flowering crops. ECHA: Approved, PT18, 01/07/2013 - 30/06/2023.
Products: Admire, Advantage, Kohinor, Merit, Confidor, Hachikusan, Premise, Prothor, Winner, Gaucho (not on the ECHA list of approved products.) ECHA: 60 approved products as at 07.11.2019, including: FLYGOLD ULTRA, Lurectron Flybait (with Tricosene), Muchostop, QUICKBAYT GR, QUICKBAYT, (with Tricosene, approved by ECHA, market area Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom) Croatia FIS: Quick Bayt not approved
Sources: - ECHA 2019. Imidacloprid Factsheet.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database 2005, updated January 2019. Imidacloprid. (Pesticide Information Project, Cornell University)
- University of Hertfordshire, Pesticides Properties Database. 2018. Imidacloprid.
- Baines, D., Wilton, E., Pawluk, A., de Gorter, M., Chomistek, N. 2017. Neonicotinoids act like endocrine disrupting chemicals in newly-emerged bees and winter bees. Scientific Reports 7: article number 10979
- Eng, M.L., Stutchbury, B.J.M., Morrissey, C.A. 2017. Imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos insecticides impair migratory ability in a seed-eating songbird. Scientific Reports, 7., article no. 15176.
- Pisa, L.W., Amaral-Rogers, V., Belzunces, L.P., Bonmatin, J.M., Downs, C.A., Goulson, D., Kreutzweiser, D.P., Krupke, C., Liess, M., McField, M., Morrissey, C.A., Noome, D.A., Settele, J., Simon-Delso, N., Stark, J.D., Van der Sluijs, J.P., Van Dyck, H., Wiemers, M. 2015. Effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on non-target invertebrates. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22: 1: 68-102.
- Zhang, E., Nieh, J.C. 2015. The neonicotinoid imidacloprid impairs honey bee aversive learning of simulated predation. Journal of Experimental Biology, 218: 3199-3205
USED ON HVAR: DDD programme, Quick Bayt® (imidacloprid with Tricosene) used on rubbish tips. 2018: Hvar Town region, July 3rd, 2 kg.; Stari Grad region, 3rd July, 25th July, 15th August, 6th September 2018, 2kg.
 
PERMETHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid.
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to bees, sea organisms, fish; poisonous to cats, also other animals; in humans: classified as a potential carcinogen; linked to Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; can cause neurological damage, also problems in the immune and endocrine systems.
EU: not approved. ECHA: approved, PT18, 01/05/2016 - 30/04/2026
Products: Permex 22E (withTetramethrin & Piperonyl Butoxide); Neopitroid Premium (with D-Allethrin and Piperonyl Butoxide); household fly-killer sprays such as Sanmex Fly and Wasp Killer; Raid formula 277 insect killer. ECHA approved products:12 approved permethrin-based products approved as at 6th May 2019, 14 main approved products as at 22nd December 2019. The list did not include Permex 22E or Permex 22ECCroatia FIS: Permex 22E and Neopitroid Premium not approved
You can find a list of Permethrin products on the 'Scorecard' Pollution Information Site.
Sources: - ECHA 2019. Permethrin Factsheet.
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Permethrin
- Alavanja, M.C.R., Hoffmann, J.N., Lynch, C.F., Hines, C.J., Barry, K. H., Barker, J., Buckman, D.W., Thomas, K., Sandler, D. P., Hoppin, J.A., Koutros, S., Andreotti, G., Lubin, J.H., Blair, A., Beane Freeman, L.E. 2014. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Risk and Insecticide, Fungicide and Fumigant Use in the Agricultural Health Study. PLoS One (US National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health) 9 (10): e109332.
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. August 2009. Permethrin Facts.
- Hoffmann, M., Meléndez, J.L., Ruhman, M.A., 2008. Risks of Permethrin Use to the Federally Threatened California Red-legged Frog (Rana aurora draytonii) and Bay Checkerspot Butterfly (Euphydryas editha bayensis), and the Federally Endangered California Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris obsoletus), Salt Marsh Harvest Mouse (Reithrodontomys raviventris), and San Francisco Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis tetrataenia). Environmental Fate and Effects Division Office of Pesticide Programs, Washington, D.C. 20460
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2007. Permethrin & Resmethrin (Pyrethroids), Toxicity and Exposure Assessment for Children's Health. TEACH Chemical summary.
-World Health Organization. 2006. "International Program on Chemical Safety, Environmental Health Criteria 92: Permethrin."
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. "Reregistration Eligibility Decision (RED) for Permethrin."
- U.S. Centers for Disease Control (ATSDR). 2003. "Toxicological Profile for Pyrethrins and Pyrethroids."
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2002. "TRI Explorer: Providing Access to EPA's Toxic Release Inventory Data."
- International Cat Care. Permethrin Poisoning in Cats.
USED ON HVAR: DDD programme, for adult insect suppression, including fogging spraying and dispersion: 2016: Permex 22E (with Microfly, Cipex 10E)- Hvar Town and its surrounds, June, July x2, August, October; Stari Grad and its environs, June, July, August; Jelsa Council area, July x2, August 2016. 2017: Hvar Town and surrounds Permex 22E (with Microfly) 25th May, 20th June; 13th July; (with Cipex) 11th August, 28th September, 12th October. Permex 22E: 22 litres; Stari Grad and surrounds (with Cipex) 17-18th May, 14th July, 11th August, 26th September, total 10 litres; Jelsa Council region (with Cipex), 12th July, 10th August, 27th September 2017, 9 litres. 2018: Hvar Town region, 24th July 2018, quantity 3 kg; Stari Grad region (also Cipex, Microfly), 26th July, 15th August, 6th September, 3L; Jelsa region (also Cipex, Microfly), 25th July, 14th August, 5th September 2018, 4L.
USED IN NORTHERN CROATIA: DDD programme, Neopitroid Premium was used, for instance, for aerial spraying in the Vukovar-Srijem County (2014) and Osijek-Baranja County (2019)
 
d-PHENOTHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to cats, bees and aquatic organisms; in humans, can cause dizziness, salivation, headache, fatigue, diarrhoea, irritability to sound and touch.
EU, ECHA: not approved (a parallel but distinct substance, IR-trans phenothrin, was given conditional approval in an Assessment Report under European Commission Directive 98/8/EC in 2013., ECHA, PT18, 01/09/2015 - 31/08/2025)
Products: Sumithrin, Raid, Enforcer Flea Killer, Enforcer BedBug spray, Enforcer Flying Insect Killer, Enforcer Wasp and Hornet Killer, Ortho Max Flying Insect Killer, Anvil. ECHA: no related approved products (06.05.2019, 07.11.2019.)
Sources: - Parasitipedia. 2017. Phenothrin: safety summary for veterinary use.
- WHO/FAO 1994. d-Phenothrin. WHO/FAO Data Sheet on Pesticides no.85.
- Cox, C. 2003. Sumithrin (d-Phenothrin). Insecticide Factsheet. Journal of Pesticide Reform. 23 / 2, 10- 14.
ON HVAR: d-Phenothrin was on the list of pesticides recommended for use around Hvar Town, Stari Grad and the Jelsa Council area, under the Programme issued by the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute for 2017.
 
PHOSMET. Organophosphate.
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to aquatic life and environment; highly toxic to honeybees; in humans can be fatal if inhaled; if swallowed, causes stomach pain, diarrhoea, nausea, sickness; can cause organ damage, eye irritation; possibly causes fetal damage or disrupts fertility; can cause swelling, itchiness, raised skin temperature if absorbed through the skin; can be toxic to birds, earthworms, cats and dogs.
EU: Was approved 01/10/2017, expired 31/07/2019  ECHA: not approved
Product: Imidan 50 WG, Imidan 50WP. ECHA: no related approved products (06.05.2019, 07.11.2019)  Croatia FIS: Imidan WG approved 29/09/2015-31/07/2020. Imidan 50WP not approved
Sources: - Ultra Scientific Inc. Phosmet (Imidan) Safety Data Sheet.
- Extension Toxicology Network (Extoxnet) 1993. Phosmet. (Pesticide Information Project, Cornell University)
- United States Environmental Protection Agency. 2001. Pesticides: Reregistration. Phosmet IRED facts. (safer alternatives available)
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database: 2005, modified 2018. Phosmet (Imidan, Imidathion)
- University of Hertfordshire, Pesticide Properties Database, updated 2018: Phosmet.
2018. The Croatian Agriculture-Forestry Advisory Section for the Split-Dalmatian County recommended the Phosmet product Imidan for use on Hvar and in other olive-growing areas against fruit-flies in July 2018.
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Imidan 50WG against olive fly (Bactrocera oleae) 14.06.2019, 19.06.2019, 26.06.2019, 21.08.2019, 13.09.2019, 27.09.2019,
2019. Imidan (or - variously - Decis or Baturad or Rogor) recommended by a well-respected Hvar olive oil producer for use in May, June, against olive moth (prays oleae, Croatian: maslinin moljac); Imidan (or Decis or Rogor or Rogor with Buminal or Success Bait or Eko-Trap) recommended to be used in July, August, September and October against olive fruit fly (bactrocera oleae, Croatian: maslinova muha)
 
PYRIPROXYFEN Insect growth regulator (IGR). Aromatic ether, member of pyridines (substance group unclassified)
Possible adverse effects: Toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates; Very toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects; moderately toxic to bees, earthworms; in humans: harmful if absorbed through the skin, or swallowed; causes eye irritation; possibly affects male fertility; possible endocrine disruptor, may have an estrogenic effect; possible liver and blood toxicant
ECHA: Approved PT18 01.02.2015 - 31 01 2025.
Products: Pyxal, Sumilan, Proxilar compresse, Tigrex compresse. Croatiaa FIS: Pyxal approved 23/09/2015-31/12/2021.
Sources: - PubChem 27.03.2005 modified 01.02.2020. Pyriproxyfen (compound)
- EFSA. 2020. Pyriproxyfen
- Shahid, A., Zaidi, S.D., Akbar, H., Saeed, S. 2019. An investigation on some toxic effects of pyriproxyfen in adult male mice. Iran Journal of Basic Medical Sciences 22 (9) 997 - 1003. 48 references
- Pesticide Properties Database. 2019. Pyriproxyfen.
- US Environmental Protection Agency. 2012. Label amendments for Pyriproxyfen Insect Growth Regulator.
ON HVAR: 2019: Pyxal recommended by a well-respected Hvar olive oil producer for use in May against scale insects (coccoidea, Croatian: štitašte uši)
 
RESMETHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid.
Possible adverse effects: potentially harmful to humans: endocrine disruptor, neurotoxic, eye and skin irritant, possible thyroid toxicity; possible human carcinogen; highly toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates; moderately toxic to birds; 
EU, ECHA: not approved. Banned in the United States since 2015.
Products, Trade names: Chrysron, Crossfire, Raid Flying Insect Killer. ECHA: no approved products (06.05.2019, 07.11.2019.)
Sources: - PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2018. Resmethrin.
- US EPA. 2011. Permethrin, Resmethrin, d-Phenothrin (Sumithrin®): Synthetic Pyrethroids for Mosquito Control.
- University of Hertfordshire, Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Resmethrin.
ON HVAR: Resmethrin was on the list of pesticides recommended for use around Hvar Town, Stari Grad and the Jelsa Council area, under the Programme issued by the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute for 2017.
 
SPINOSAD, combination of Spinosyn A and Spinosyn D, derived from naturally occurring soil fungi (naturalyte)
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to aquatic organisms, with long-lasting effects; highly toxic to bees; toxic to fish and earthworms; in humans can cause allergic reactions and eye irritation.
EU: Approved 01.02.2007 - 30.04.2020. ECHA: Approved, PT18, 01.11.2012. - 31.10.2022.
Products: Laser, Success Bait. ECHA: 37 related products approved, not including Laser and Success Bait (06.05.2019, 07.11.2019) Croatia FIS: Laser approved 20/03/2002-31/12/2023; Success Bait approved 11/01/2005-11/12/2023.
Sources: - ECHA 2019. Spinosad Factsheet.
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties DataBase. 2018. Spinosad.
- PubChem Database Spinosad factor A
- Syracuse Environmental Research Associates, Inc. 2016. Spinosad: Human Health and Ecological Risk Assessment. SERA TR-056-16-03b
ON HVAR: Laser used by individuals, especially on vines (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Laser (19.06.2019) and Success Bait (13.09.2019, 27.09.2019)
 
TETRAMETHRIN. Synthetic pyrethroid.
Possible adverse effects: potential human carcinogen, also can cause dizziness, breathing difficulties, coughing, eye irritation, gastrointestinal upset, blisters and skin rashes; extremely toxic to bees and aquatic organisms, including fish and aquatic invertebrates.
EU / ECHA: not approved: under assessment as at May 6th 2019; initial application for approval in progress, 07.11.2019.
Products: Permex 22E (with Permethrin & Piperonyl Butoxide); Cymina Ultra; Household insect-killing sprays such as Sanmex Fly and Wasp Killer.; Bonide Wasp and Hornet Killer, Enforcer Flea Spray, Hi-Yield Wasp and Hornet Spray, Ortho MAX Flying Insect Killer, Raid Flea Killer, Raid Flying Insect Killer. ECHA: no related approved products, 07.11.2019, 22.12.2019. Croatia FIS: Permex 22E, Cymina Plus, Cymina Ultra not approved
Sources: - ECHA 2019. Tetramethrin Factsheet.
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2008, revised 2010. Reregistration Eligibility Decision Document for Tetramethrin.
- Thoreby, E. (author), Williams, M.M. (editor), Lah, K. (updater) 2011. Tetramethrin. Toxipedia.
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Tetramethrin.
- ECHA, (updated 21 10 2018) Tetramethrin
USED ON HVAR: DDD programme for adult insect suppression fogging spraying and dispersion: 2016: Permex 22E (with Microfly, Cipex 10E)- Hvar Town and its surrounds, June, July x2, August, October; Stari Grad and its environs, June, July, August; Jelsa Council area, July x2, August 2016. 2017: Hvar Town and surrounds Permex 22E (with Microfly) 25th May, 20th June; 13th July; (with Cipex) 11th August, 28th September, 12th October. Permex 22E: 22 litres; Stari Grad and surrounds (with Cipex) 17-18th May, 14th July, 11th August, 26th September, total 10 litres; Jelsa Council region (with Cipex), 12th July, 10th August, 27th September 2017, 9 litres. 2018: Hvar Town region, 24th July 2018, quantity 3 kg; Stari Grad region (also Cipex, Microfly), 26th July, 15th August, 6th September, 3L; Jelsa region (also Cipex, Microfly), 25th July, 14th August, 5th September 2018, 4L.
 
THIAMETHOXAM. Neonicotinoid.
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to aquatic life, with acute and lasting effects; highly toxic to bees; toxic to earthworms; in humans, can be harmful through skin contact, inhalation, and especially ingestion; can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, abdominal pain, dizziness, headache; ingestion can cause seizures, coma, hypothermia, respiratory failure, hypotension, ventricular dysrhythmias and death.
EU: Approved (expiry extended to 30.04.2019.) but for restricted use only (Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2018/785, of 29th May 2018.) ECHA: approved PT18 01.02.2015 - 31.01.2025.
Products: Actara 25WG, Actara 240SC, Cruiser SB, Centric, Flagship, Meridian, Optigard, Platinum (not on the ECHA approved list as at 6th May 2019). ECHA approved products: Agita 10WG, AGITA 100 PLUS, AGITAGARD 10WG, AGITA®10wg, Ditex, MS Thia-Fly (Market area Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus & 22 more); AGITA 1GB (Market area France Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom). Croatia FIS: Actara 25WG approved 28/03/2011-30/04/2020.; Actara 240SC not approved Sources: - ECHA 2019. Thiamethoxam Substance information.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2019. Thiamethoxam
- Coulon, M., Schurr, F., Martel, A.-C., Cougoule, N., Bégaud, A., Mangoni, P., Dlamon, A., Alaux, C., Le Conte, Y., Thiéry R., Ribière-Chabert, M., Dubois, E. 2018. Metabolisation of thiamethoxam (a neonicotinoid pesticide) and interaction with the Chronic bee paralysis virus in honeybees. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 144: 10-18
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Thiamethoxam.
- Tosi, S., Nieh, J.C. 2017. A common nicotinoid pesticide, thiamethoxam, alters honey bee activity, motor functions and movement to light. Nature Scientific Reports 7: article number 15132.
- Toxnet (Toxicology Data Network) 2011, updated 2012. Thiamethoxam.
USED ON HVAR Actara used by individuals cultivating olives, vines, etc. (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Actara (10.05.2019, 14.06.2019, 19.06.2019)
 
TRICHLORFON. Organophosphate.
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to birds, bees, and aquatic organisms, toxic to fish; in humans, possible carcinogen; suspected to cause reproductive problems and birth defects; can cause vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal cramps; affects the nervous system: can cause confusion, headaches, irritability, speech difficulties, memory and concentration loss; when inhaled, causes breathing problems, pulmonary oedema, sometimes nose-bleeds; eye contact can cause redness and bleeding, tears, blurred vision; skin contact can cause sweating and muscle contractions; severe poisoning affects the central nervous system and can cause loss of coordination (ataxia), slurred speech, weakness, fatigue, paralysis, unconsciousness, and even death; symptoms such as cramps, tingling, numbness in the legs followed by incoordination and paralysis sometimes come on 1-4 weeks after exposure and can leave permanent disability.
EU /ECHA: Not approved.
Sources: - Toxnet (Toxicology Data Network) 1983, updated 2018. Trichlorfon
- Extension Toxicology Network (Extoxnet) 1993. Trichlorfon. (Pesticide Information Project, Cornell University)
- National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database. 2005, modified 2018. Metrifonate -TRICHLORFON.
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Trichlorfon.
USED ON HVAR: for many years was distributed to households together with rat poison (Ratimor, see below), previously in flimsy cellophane packaging. In tablet form, intended for use down toilet pans: result, most probably finishes in the sea from many seaside properties, or in the soil from soak-away septic tanks.
Dangerous poisons in flimsy packaging. Photo: Vivian Grisogono.
TRICOSENE. Chemical compound: muscalure, Z-9-tricosene, cis-tricos-9-ene, muscamone
Possible adverse effects: Irritant to skin and eyes on contact; inhalation can cause irritation to the respiratory tract; highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates
EU: Not approved ECHA: Approved PT19, repellants and attractants, 01/10/2014 - 30/09/2024.
Products: Maxforce Fly Spot Bait, Bonanza Fly Bait, Stimukil Fly Bait. ECHA approved products (9th November 2019): Lurectron Flybait, also FLYGOLD ULTRA, QUICK BAYT, QUICK BAYT GR, Muchostop (see Imidacloprid) Croatia FIS: Quick Bayt not approved
Sources: - ECHA 2019. Tricosene Factsheet.
- University of Hertfordshire Bio-Pesticides DataBase. 2018. Muscalure, Z-9-tricosene.
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database, 2005, updated January 2019. Tricosene
USED ON HVAR DDD programme, on rubbish tips: 2018: Quick Bayt®, Hvar Town region, 3rd July, 2 kg; Stari Grad region, 3rd July, 25th July, 15th July, 6th September 2018, 2 kg.
 
2. SYNERGIST (INERT SUBSTANCE / MIXER)
PIPERONYL BUTOXIDE (PBO). Pyrethroid synergist.
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; may cause birth defects, including holoprosencephaly (HPE); may delay mental development in infants; animal studies show possible damage, including tumours, in mice and rats.
EU: not classified as a plant protection product. ECHA: approved, PT18, 01/07/2018 - 30/06/2028
Products: Permex 22E, Cymina Ultra (Cypermethrin, Tetramethrin), Cymina Plus (Cypermethrin, Tetramethrin) Neopitroid Premium (Permethrin & D-Allethrin) Croatia FIS: These products are not authorized
Sources: - Okamiya, H., Mitsumori, K., Onodera, H., Ito, S., Imazawa, T., Yasuhara, K., Takahashi, M. 1998. Mechanistic study on liver tumor promoting effects of piperonyl butoxide in rats. Archives of Toxicology 72 (11): 744-750.
- Khan, M.Z. & Law, F.C.P. 2005. Adverse effects of pesticides and related chemicals on enzyme and hormone systems of fish, amphibians and reptiles: a review. Proceedings of the Pakistan Academy of Science 42 (4): 315-323.
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 2006. Reregistration Eligibility Decision for Piperonyl Butoxide (PBO)
- Muguruma, M., Nishimura, J., Jin, M., Kashida, Y., Moto, M., Takahashi, M., Yokouchi, Y., Mitsumori, K. 2006. Molecular pathological analysis for determining the possible mechanism of piperonyl butoxide-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mice. Toxicology 228 (2-3): 178-187.
- Horton, M. K., Rundle, A., Camann, D.E., Boyd Barr, D., Rauh, V.A., Whyatt, R. M. 2011. Impact of Prenatal Exposure to Piperonyl Butoxide and Permethrin on 36-month Neurodevelopment. Pediatrics.
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Piperonyl Butoxide
- Everson, J.L., Sun, M.R., Fink, D.M., Heyne, G.W., Melberg, C.G., Nelson, K.F., Doroodchi, P., Colopy, L.J., Ulschmid, C.M., Martin, A.A., McLaughlin, M.T., Lipinski, R.J. 2019. Developemntal Toxicity Assessment of Piperynol Butoxide Exposure Targeting Sonic Hedgehog Signaling and Forebrain and Face Morphogenesis in the Mouse: An in Vitro and in Vivo Study. Environmental Health Perspectives, 127, 10
For an overview of inert substances, please refer to the United States Environmental Protection Agency listing: Pesticide Registration, Inert Ingredients.
USED ON HVAR in Permex 22E for adult insect suppression 'fogging' spraying and dispersion (see Permethrin or Tetramethrin, above)
 
3. FUNGICIDES (Agricultural fungicides are not included in the ECHA list of approved chemical substances)
AZOXYSTROBIN (substance group strobilurin)
Possible adverse effectshighly toxic to aquatic organisms and the aquatic environment, with long-lasting effects; highly toxic to hoverfly larvae; toxic to fish, earthworms; in humans, suspected possible carcinogen; can be fatal if swallowed; highly toxic if inhaled; harmful if absorbed through the skin; skin and eye irritant.
EU: Approved 01.01.2012 - 31.12.2024
Products: Universalis (with Folpet), Amistar, Mirador Croatia FIS: Universalis approved 21/05/2007-31/12/2023.
Sources: - PubChem 2019. Azoxystrobin.
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Azoxystrobin.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency 2016. Azoxystrobin, Conditional Registration.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency 1997. Azoxystrobin. Pesticide Fact Sheet, for Conditional Registration.
USED ON HVAR: Universalis is used, especially on vines (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
 
BOSCALID substance group carboxamide
Possible adverse effects: moderately toxic to fish, birds and earthworms; may affect foraging capacity in honeybees; in humans: possible carcinogen; possible effects on reproduction and development
EU: Approved 01.08.2008 - 31.07.2020
Products: Signum (boscalid and pyraklostrobin) Croatia FIS: Signum approved 29/12/2006-31/12/2023
Sources: - PubChem 2020. Boscalid
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database 2019. Boscalid
- Liao, L-H., Wu, W-Y., Dad,A., Berenbaum, M.R. 2019. Fungicide suppression of flight performance in the honeybee (apis mellifera) and its amelioration by quercetin. Proceedings of the Royal Society, Biological Sciences
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Scientific Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Signum (19/06/2019)
 
CARBENDAZIM substance group benzimidamole
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to aquatic organisms and the aquatic environment, with long-lasting effects; toxic to earthworms; moderately toxic to honeybees; in humans, may cause genetic defects; may damage fertility and the unborn child;
EU: Not approved
Products: Tilt CB 187.5 FW (carbendazim and propiconazole) Croatia FIS: Tilt CB 187.5FW not approved
Sources: - PubChem 2020. Carbendazim
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database 2019. Carbendazim
 
CHLOROTHALONIL substance group chloronitrile
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to fish; very toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects; toxic to birds, honeybees, earthworms; in humans: can be fatal if swallowed or inhaled; possible carcinogen; can affect reproduction and development; possible endocrine disruptor; causes serious eye damage; can cause respiratory tract irritation; can cause allergic skin reaction
EU: not approved
Product: Folio Gold Croatia FIS: Folio Gold authorization withdrawn 20/11/2019
Sources: - PubChem 2020. Chlorothalonil
- PPDB Pesticide Properties Database University of Hertfordshire. 2019. Chlorothalonil
 
COPPER COMPOUNDS
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to fish, birds, aquatic invertebrates, organisms and plants; toxic to bees and earthworms; sheep, chickens; persists in the soil. In humans can cause nausea, irritation of respiratory tract and skin, eczema. Eye contact can cause conjunctivitis, inflammation of the eyelid lining, excess fluid build-up in the eyelid, clouding of the cornea, cornea tissue deterioration due to ulceration in the eye's mucous membrane.
Long-term, excessive exposure leads to the risk of heavy metal poisoning, including liver disease, brain damage, kidney and intestinal problems, anaemia, mutagenic potential; possible damaging effects on reproduction and development. Symptoms include: a metallic taste in the mouth, burning pain in the chest and abdomen, intense nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, headache, sweating, shock, disrupted urination leading to yellowing of the skin. People with Wilson's disease (in which copper is absorbed and stored excessively in the body), are at special risk of poisoning from copper-based pesticides.
EU: Approved.
Products: Bordeaux Mixture (combination of copper sulphate and hydrated lime / calcium dihydroxide, see below ); Bordoška juha Caffaro 20WP (copper compounds, Bordeaux Mixture), Bordoška juha 20WP Manica (copper compounds, Bordeaux Mixture); Kocide 3000 (copper hydroxide); Champ®Formula 2 (copper hydroxide), Champion WG50; Champion Flow SC; Comac (copper hydroxide), Wetcol 3 Copper Fungicide (tetracopper tricalcium sulphate and soluble calcium), Bordocop, Nordox 75WG (copper(I) oxide), Cupra (copper oxychloride); Cuprablau Z 35WG; Cuprocaffaro 50WP ; Neoram WG (copper oxychloride) Copper Key Flow (copper oxychloride), Codimur SC (copper oxychloride)
Croatia FIS: Bordoška juha caffaro 20WP approved 08/07/2004.-31/12/2023; Bordoška juha 20WP manica approved 24/11/2006-31/12/2023. Champion Flow SC approved 17/06/1997-31/12/2023. Champion WG50 approved 21/01/2008.-31/12/2023. Cuprablau Z 35WG approved 17/04/2019-01/01/2022; Cuprocaffaro 50WP approved 17/04/2019-01/01/2022; Neoram WG approved 24/01/2008-31/12/2023; Nordox 75WG approved 24/01/2002-31/12/2023. Not approved: Modra galica; Cuprablau Z Ultra; Modra Galica (Scarmagnan) registration withdrawn on 01/07/2016; Champion and Cuprablau-Z registration withdrawn on 01/01/2020, final deadline for sales of stocks 01/07/2020, final use-by date 01/07/2021.
 
Spraying vines, 30th April 2019. Photo: Vivian Grisogono
COPPER SULPHATE
Bordeaux Mixture. (combination of copper sulphate and hydrated lime / calcium dihydroxide)
Possible adverse effects: toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates, aquatic plants, algae, birds, earthworms. In humans: harmful if inhaled, can cause serious eye problems. Associated with increased risk of potentially malignant oral submucous fibrosis, which can lead to oral squamous cell carcinoma.
EU: Approved, 01.01.2019-31.12.2025.
Sources: - University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. August 2018. Copper Sulphate.
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. May 2018. Bordeaux Mixture.
- Rodrigues, C.G., Krüger, A. P., Barbosa, W. F., Guedes, R. N. C. 2016. Leaf Fertilizers Affect Survival and Behavior of the Neotropical Stingless Bee Friesella schrottkyi (Meliponini: Apidae: Hymenoptera). Journal of Economic Entomology, Vol.109, 3, pp 1001-1008.
- Mathew, P., Ravi, D.A., Varghese, S.S., Manojkumar, A.D. 2015. Effect of copper-based fungicide (bordeaux mixture) spray on the total copper content of areca nut: Implications in increasing prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis. Journal of International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry.
- European Food Safety Authority. 2008. Conclusion on the peer review of copper compounds. Scientific Report 187, 1-101.
- EXTOXNET Extension Toxicology Network. 1994. Copper Sulphate.
USED ON HVAR: Copper-based compounds, such as Nordox, and especially Copper Sulphate and Bordeaux Mixture, are widely used on vines, especially on the north side of the island, also on other crops (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use copper-based pesticides fungicides (22.02.2019, 14.03.2019, 15.03.2019 (for olives), 15.03.2019 (for vines), 12th April 2019 (for vegetables), 19.06.2019, 26.07.2019)
2019: Nordox or Cuprablau or Bordeaux Mix (Bordoška juha) recommended by a well-respected Hvar olive oil producer to be used in January, February, March and November against olive leaf spot (spilocaea oleagina Cast. Croatian: paunovo oko); Neoram combined with mineral oil recommended in January against scale insects (coccoidea, Croatian: štitašte uši); Neoram and Nordox recommended against olive leaf spot in September; Neoram as an alternative against olive leaf spot in November.
Sprayed vines, June 12th 2018. Photo: Vivian Grisogono
CYMOXANIL substance group cyanoacetamide oxime
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to aquatic life and the aquatic environment, with long-lasting effects; in humans: highly toxic if swallowed; reproductive toxicity, suspected of damaging fertility and the unborn child; skin irritant; eye irritant; prolonged exposure causes organ damage
EU: Approved 01/09/2009-31/08/2021.
Product: Antracol Combi WP 76  (Cymoxanil and Propineb) Croatia FIS: Antracol Combi not approved
Sources: PubChem 2020. Cymoxanil.
PPDB Pesticide Properties Database, University of Hertfordshire. 2019. Cymoxanil
 
DIFENOCONAZOLE, substance group Triazole
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to fish, aquatic plants and algae, with long-lasting effects; harmful to bees; can contaminate bee pollen; moderately toxic to birds and mammals; in humans, possible carcinogen; possible endocrine disruptor; harmful if swallowed or inhaled; can cause serious eye irritation
EU: Approved 01/01/2009 - 31/12/2020.
Products: Difcor Croatia FIS: Difcor approved 14/06/2017-31/12/2023
Sources: -PubChem 2020. Difenoconazole (Compound)
- PPDB University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2019. Difenoconazole
- Leite, D.T., Sampaio, R.B:, Santos, J.N., Chambo, E.D., Carvalho, C.A.L., Sodré, G.S. 2018. Toxicity of Fenpyroximate, Difenoconazole and Mineral oil on Apis Mellifera L. Sociobiology 65 (4) 737-743. 44 references
- McArt, S.H., Fersch, A.A., Milano, N.J., Truitt, L.L., Böröczky, K. 2017. High pesticide risk to honey bees despite low focal crop pollen collection during pollination of a mass blooming crop. Scientific Reports 7, 46554. 55 references
- Marek Kubik, Janusz Nowacki, Andrzej Pidek, Zofia Warakomska, Lech Michalczuk, et al.. 2000. Residues of captan (contact) and difenoconazole (systemic) fungicides in bee products from an apple orchard. Apidologie, Springer Verlag, 31 (4), pp.531-541. 11 references
ON HVAR: Difcor recommended by a well-respected Hvar olive oil producer for use in April 2019 against olive leaf spot (spilocaea oleagina Cast. Croatian: paunovo oko)
 
DIMETHOMORPH substance group morpholine
Possible adverse effects: toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates, crustaceans and plants, with long-lasting effects; hazardous to the aquatic environment; possibly affects honeybees through accumulation in pollen; slight risk for bumblebees and birds; moderately toxic to earthworms; can affect soil bacteria, impacting on soil nitrification and ammonification; in humans: irritant to respiratory tract, skin and eyes; possibly causes chromosome aberrations; possibly affects reproduction and development
EU: Approved 01/10/2007-31/07/2020
Products: Acrobat MZ WG (Dimethomorph with Mancozeb), Cabrio Team (Dimethomorph and Pyraclostrobin) 
Croatia FIS: Acrobat MZ WG approved 29/12/2006-31/12/2023; Cabrio Team not approved
Sources: - PubChem 2020. Dimethomorph
- PPDB Pesticide Properties Database University of Hertfordshire. 2019. Dimethomorph
- Böhma, F., Bischoff, G., Zebitz, C.P.W., Rosenkranz, P., Wallner, K. 2018. Pesticide residue survey of pollen loads collected by honeybees (Apis mellifera) in daily intervals at three agricultural sites in South Germany. PLoS One published online July 6th 2018.
- Wang, C., Zhang, Q., Wang, F., Liang, W., 2017. Toxicological effects of dimethomorph on soil enzymatic activity and soil earthworm (Eisenia fetida) Chemosphere 169 316-323
- Cycoń, M., Piotrowska-Seget, Z., Kozdrój, J. 2010. Responses of indigenous microorganisms to a fungicidal mixture of mancozeb and dimethomorph added to sandy soils. International Biodeterioration and Biogredation 64 (4) 316-323
 
FLUOPYRAM, substance group benzamide, pyramide
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to fish, aquatic plants and algae, with long-lasting effects; slightly toxic to bees, birds, earthworms; in humans, can cause serious eye irritation; possibly causes damage to nervous system; affects reproduction, possibly damages the unborn child
EU: Approved 01/02/2014 - 31/01/2024.
Products: Luna ® Privilege (fluopyram with trifloxystrobin); Luna Experience (fluopyram with tebuconazole), Luna Sensation (fluopyram with trifloxystrobin), Velum Prime Croatia FIS: Luna Experience approved 19/01/2015.-31/08/2020; Luna Privilege approved 09/02/2015.-31/01/2025.; Luna Sensation approved 09/07/2019.-31/01/2025.
Sources: - University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database, 2018. Fluopyram
- Bayer Crop Science Safety Data Sheet, 2017. Luna Experience SC400
USED ON HVAR Luna Experience, Luna Sensation and Luna Privilege used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Luna Privilege and Luna Experience (14.03.2019., 10.05.2019., 24.05.2019., 18.06.2019.,26.06.2019., 26.07.2019)
 
FOLPET (synthetic phthalimide)
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to fish and aquatic organisms; moderately toxic to earthworms; causes developmental effects in animals; in humans: probable human carcinogen; possibly disrupts fertility; toxic if inhaled; causes serious eye irritation; can cause allergic skin reactions. ECHA warnings: hazardous to the environment and human health
EU: Approved 01/10/2007 - 31/07/2020. ECHA: approved under PT 06 (preservatives for products during storage), 07 (film preservatives), 09 (fibre, leather, rubber and polymerised materials preservatives)
ProductsUniversalis (folpet and azoxystrobin), Folpet 80 WDG, Folpan 50 WP, Phoenix®, Mikal Flash (folpet and fosetyl-al), Mikal (folpet and fosetyl-al), Mikal Premium F (folpet, fosetyl, iprovalicarb), Pergado F (folpet and mandipropamid) 
Croatia FIS: Universalis approved 21/05/2007-31/12/2023., Mikal Flash approved 30/11/2006-31/12/2023, Mikal Premium F approved 29/11/2007-31/12/2023, Pergado F approved 26/11/2007-31/12/2023. Mikal and Folpan 50WP not approved
Sources: - PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2019. Folpet.
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. 2018. Folpet.
- United States Environmental Protection Agency 1999. R.E.D. facts. Folpet.
USED ON HVAR Mikal, Mikal Flash, Universalis and Pergado used by farmers cultivating grapes and olives, etc (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
30th April 2019, following heavy rain on Hvar, the Agriculture Ministry's Scientific Support Department advised grape growers to use Pergado F to prevent downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola)
12th April 2019, the Agriculture Ministry's Scientific Support Department advised grape growers to use Folpet fungicides preventively against black spot (Phomopsis viticola)
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Mikal Flash, Mikal Premium F (02.05.2019, 27.05.2019, 18.06.2019, 03.07.2019), and Pergado F (27.05.2019)
 
FOSETYL-ALUMINIUM (Fosetyl-al) Organophosphate
Possible adverse effects: toxic to mammals, bees, birds, fish, aquatic invertebrates, algae, earthworms; possible human carcinogen; irritant if inhaled, can cause lung damage; causes serious eye irritation or damage; skin irritant
EU: approved 01/05/2007 - 30/04/2020.
ProductsMikal Flash (folpet and fosetyl-al), Mikal (folpet and fosetyl-al), Mikal Premium F (folpet, fosetyl, iprovalicarb), Aliette Flash, Fosetyl-Al 80WP, Previcur Energy (propamocarb with fosetyl-al).
Croatia FIS: Mikal Flash approved 30/11/2006-31/12/2023, Mikal Premium F approved 29/11/2007-31/12/2023, Previcur Energy approved 23/05/2007-31/12/2023; Aliette Flash approved 27/11/2006-31/12/2023; Aliette WG, Mikal not approved
Sources: - PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2019. Fosetyl-Al
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Fosetyl-al
- Toxnet (Toxicology Data Network) 1993, updated 2006, field updates 2010. Fosetyl-Aluminum
- United States Environmental Protection Agency 1991. R.E.D. facts. Fosetyl-Al
USED ON HVAR Mikal and Mikal Flash used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Mikal Flash, Mikal Premium F (02.05.2019, 27.05.2019, 18.06.2019, 03.07.2019), and Aliette Flash (12.04.2019)
 
IPROVALICARB substance group carbamate
Possible adverse effects: marine pollutant; very toxic to aquatic organisms; toxic to fish and aquatic invertebrates; may cause long-term adverse effects in the aquatic environment; moderately toxic to earthworms; in humans: possible carcinogen; corrosive to skin; highly damaging to health if swallowed (Melody Duo WP66,8)
EU: Approved 01/04/2016-31/03/2031
Products: Melody Duo 66,8, Melody Duo WP 66,75 (propineb and iprovalicarb) Croatia FIS:  Melody Duo 66,8, Melody Duo WP 66,75 not approved
Sources: - PubChem 2020. Iprovalicarb
- PPDB Pesticide Properties Database University of Hertfordshire. 2019. Iprovalicarb
- US Environmental Protection Agency 2002. Iprovalicarb (Melody) Pesticide Tolerance 8/02.
- European Commission 2002. Review Report for the active substance iprovalicarb (working document)
- Bayer Crop Science 2004/2005. safety Data Sheet Melody Duo WP66,8 10XI KG FS Internation
 
KRESOXIM METHYL (Substance group Strobilurin)
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to aquatic life; Highly toxic to the aquatic environment with long-lasting effects; moderately toxic to mammals; moderately toxic to earthworms; slightly toxic to honey bees (apis mellifera); in humans: probable carcinogen; irritant to respiratory tract, skin and eyes
EU: approved 01/01/2012 - 31/12/2024.
Product: Stroby WG Croatia FIS: Stroby WG approved 25/07/2011-25/07/2021
Sources: - PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 updated 2020. Kresoxim Methyl
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2019. Kresoxim Methyl
- Tesoriero, D., Maccagnani, B., Santi, F., Celli, G. 2003. Toxicity of three pesticides on larval instars of Osmia cornuta: preliminary results. Bulletin of Insectology 56 (1) 169-171. 21 references
ON HVAR 2019: Stroby (or Nativo) recommended by a well-respected Hvar olive oil producer for use in May, August and November against olive leaf spot (spilocaea oleagina Cast. Croatian: paunovo oko)
 
MANCOZEB (substance group carbamate)
Possible adverse effects: toxic to fish, birds, aquatic invertebrates; moderately toxic to bees, earthworms, algae; in humans: possible thyroid disruptor; possible effects on reproduction and development; respiratory tract irritant; eye irritant
EU: Approved 01/07/2006 - extended to 31/01/2020.
ProductsAcrobat MZ WG (mancozeb, dimethomorph), Fubol Gold (mancozeb, metalaxyl), Cadillac, Mancozeb Plus, Mancozeb Flowable with Zinc, Matco 8-64 (mancozeb with metalaxyl), Ridomil Gold MZ pepite (mancozeb, metalaxyl), Ridomil Gold MZ 68WP (mancozeb with metalaxyl), Pergado MZ (Mandipropamid with Mancozeb) Croatia FIS: Acrobat MZ WG approved 29/12/2006-31/12/2023, Ridomil Gold MZ pepite approved 24/01/2011-24/01/2021, Pergado MZ approved 21/05/2007-31/12/2023. Ridomil Gold MZ 68WP, Fubol Gold not approved
Sources: - PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2019. Mancozeb
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Mancozeb
- Axelstad, M., Boberg, J., Nellemann, C., Kiersgaard, M., Jacobsen, P.R., Christiansen, S., Hougaard, K.S., Hass, U. 2011. Exposure to the widely used fungicide mancozeb causes thyroid disruption in rat dams but no behavioral effects in the offspring. Toxicological Sciences 120 (2) 439-446
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2005. Mancozeb Facts - Pesticide Reregistration
ON HVAR: Ridomil and Cadillac used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
24th May 2019, the Agriculture Ministry's Scientific Support Department advised vegetable growers to use Ridomil Gold MZ preventively on potatoes, garlic, onions, tomatoes and peppers.
12th April 2019, the Agriculture Ministry's Scientific Support Department advised grape growers to use Mancozeb fungicides preventively against black spot (Phomopsis viticola)
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use mancozeb (26.04.2019, 10.05.2019, 26.06.2019); Acrobat MZ (12.04.2019, 05.06.2019, 18.06.2019., 03.07.2019); Pergado MZ (19.06.2019); Ridomil Gold MZ pepite (12.04.2019, 05.06.2019, 18.06.2019, 19.06.2019, 03.07.2019)
 
MANDIPROPAMID (substance group mandelamide)
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to fish and aquatic organisms; moderately toxic to birds and earthworms; can be harmful to the liver and kidneys; eye irritant.
EU: Approved 01/08/2013 - 31/07/2023. ECHA warning: hazardous to the environment.
Products: Pergado F (Mandipropamid, Folpet), Pergado D (Mandipropamid, Mancozeb), Pergado MZ (Mandipropamid, Mancozeb)
Croatia FIS: Pergado F approved 26/11/2007-31/12/2023, Pergado D approved 28/01/2019-31/07/2024, Pergado MZ approved 21/05/2007-31/12/2023.
Sources: - PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 26/10/2006 updated 10/07/2019. Mandipropamid
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database, updated June 2019. Mandipropamid
ON HVAR: Pergado used especially by grape-growers (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Pergado MZ (19.06.2019)
 
METALAXYL, METALAXYL-M (substance group phenylamide)
Possible adverse effects: toxic to bees, birds, fish, earthworms; in humans: can cause serious eye damage; skin irritant; very harmful if swallowed
EU: Approved 01/07/2010 - 30/06/2023.
ProductsFolio Gold (metalaxyl, chlorothalonil), Fubol Gold (mancozeb, metalaxyl), Ridomil Gold MZ pepite (mancozeb, metalaxyl), Ridomil Gold MZ 68WP (mancozeb with metalaxyl), Ridomil Gold Plus 42,5 WP (metalaxyl-M, copper compounds, copper oxychloride); Ridomil Gold R (metalaxyl-M, copper compounds, copper oxychloride)
Croatia FIS: Ridomil Gold MZ pepite approved 24/01/2011-24/01/2021; Ridomil Gold R approved 11/04/2017-30/06/2021; Folio Gold authorization withdrawn 20/11/2019; Ridomil Gold Plus 42,5 WP authorization withdrawn 01/01/2020; Ridomil Gold MZ 68WP, Fubol Gold not approved
Sources: - PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2006 modified 2019. Metalaxyl-M
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Metalaxyl-M
ON HVAR: Ridomil used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Ridomil Gold MZ pepite (12.04.2019., 05.06.2019., 18.06.2019., 19.06.2019., 03.07.2019.)
 
METIRAM Substance group Carbamate
Possible adverse effects: Moderately toxic to fish; highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates; highly toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; hazardous to the aquqatic environment; moderately toxic to honeybees and earthworms; in humans: can cause skin and eye irritation; can cause anaemia; toxic if ingested or inhaled; can cause abdominal cramps, vomiting and diarrhoea if ingested; classified as a possible human carcinogen
EU: Approved 01/07/20016 - 31/01/2020 (extended from 31/01/2019).
Products: Cabrio® Top (Metiram & Pyraclostrobin), Polyram DF 
Croatia FIS: Cabrio Top approved 07/04/2011-07/04/2021; Polyram DF approved 02/02/2012-02/02/2022
Sources: - PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005, modified 2019. Metiram
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Metiram
- Toxnet (Toxicology Data Network) 1991, revised 2010. Metiram
ON HVAR: Cabrio® Top used by individuals cultivating vines, olives (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised grape-growers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use the Metiram fungicide Polyram DF preventively against black spot (Phomopsis viticola) (12th April 2019)
 
PENCONAZOLE, substance group Triazole
Possible adverse effects: toxic to bees, birds, fish, aquatic invertebrates and algae; in humans: suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child; possible endocrine disruptor; very harmful if swallowed
EU: Approved 01.01.2012 - 31.12.2021.
ProductsTopas 100EC, Penconazole 200 EW, Hockley Pencon 10 Croatia FIS: Topas 100EC approved 01/02/2007-31/12/2023
- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2019. Penconazole
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Penconazole
ON HVAR: Topas used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Topas (05.06.2019, 18.06.2019, 03.07.2019, 26.07.2019)
 
PROPAMOCARB substance group carbamate
Possible adverse effects: Potentially harmful to herbivorous and insectivorous birds; moderately toxic to fish and honeybees; in humans: harmful if swallowed; skin irritant; possible endocrine disruptor; possible neurotoxicant
EU: Approved 01/10/2007-31/07/2020
Products: Previcur Energy (propamocarb with fosetyl-al); Previcur 670SL (propamocarb hydrochloride). Croatia FIS: Previcur Energy approved 23/05/2007-31/12/2023; Previcur 607SL not approved
Sources:- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2020. Propamocarb
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database. 2019. Propamocarb
- EFSA Scientific report 2006. Conclusion on the peer review of propamocarb. EFSA 78, 1-80.
 
PROPICONAZOLE substance group triazole
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to fish; toxic to aquatic organisms; in humans, highly irritant to eyes and skin; harmful if swallowed, inhaled or absorbed through the skin; can cause skin allergies; possible liver toxicant; possible endocrine disruptor; classified as possible carcinogen by USEPA.
EU: approval withdrawn December 2018, final deadline March 2020. Not approved as at 07.11.2019.
Products: Tilt 250EC, Tilt CB 187.5 FW (carbendazim and propiconazole) Menara, Mantis, Banner Maxx. Croatia FIS: Tilt 250EC, Tilt CB 187.5FW not approved
Sources: - University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Propiconazole
- U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2014. Tilt fungicide. Revised master label
ON HVAR: Tilt used by individuals cultivating vines, olives (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
 
PROPINEB (substance type: carbamate)
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to aquatic life; toxic to bees, birds, earthworms; in humans: can cause organ damage, allergic skin reactions; toxic on skin contact; suspected as possible carcinogen, respiratory tract irritant.
EU: not approved (approval revoked, with a grace period allowed to Member States until 22nd June 2019).
ProductsPropineb 70%, Antracol®WPG70, Antracol®WP/70 (with zinc), Antracol Combi WP/76 (propineb, cymoxanil)
Croatia FIS: Antracol®WPG70, Antracol®WP/70, Antracol Combi not approved
Sources: - PubChem Open Chemistry Database, 2005 modified 2019. Propineb
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Propineb
ON HVAR: Antracol used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
 
PROTHIOCONAZOLE substance group triazolinthione
Possible adverse effects: toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates, aquatic crustaceans and sediment dwelling organisms; very toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; hazardous to the aquatic environment; toxic to honeybees and earthworms; in humans: can affect reproduction and development; possible endocrine disruptor; can cause skin irritation; possible irritant if inhaled;
EU: Approved 01/08/2008-31/07/2020
Product: Falcon Forte (prothioconazole, spiroxamine, tebuconazole) 
Croatia FIS: Falcon Forte approved 20/03/2019-31/07/2020
Sources: - PubChem 2020. Prothioconazole
- PPDB Pesticide Properties Database University of Hertfordshire. 2019. Prothioconazole
- Zhang, Z. Du, G., Gao, B., Hu, K., Kaziem A.E., Li, L., He, Z., Shi, H., Wang, M. 2019. Stereoselective endocrine-disrupting effects of the chiral triazole fungicide prothioconazole and its chiral metabolite. Environmental Pollution, 251 30-36
- CLH Report, Proposal for Harmonised Classification and Labelling. 2018. Substance name: Prothioconazole.
- EPA 2016. Prothioconazole; Pesticide Tolerances. Federal Register, The Daily Journal of the United States Government.
 
PYRACLOSTROBIN (Carbamate ester, substance group Strobilurin)
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to fish, aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; hazardous to the aquatic environment with long-term effects; in humans: toxic, acutely dangerous if inhaled, can be fatal if swallowed; may cause respiratory irritation; causes eye and skin irritation; causes neurodegeneration; can cause nausea, headache, dizziness, chest pain
EU: Approved 01/06/2004 - 31/01/2020.
Products: Cabrio® Top (Pyraclostrobin & Metyram), Baitai ® (Pyraclostrobin & Metyram), Cabrio Team ® (Pyraclostrobin & Dimethomorph), Signum (Pyraclostrobin & Boskalid) 
Croatia FIS: Cabrio Top approved 07/04/2011-07/04/2021; Signum approved 29/12/2006-31/12/2023. Cabrio Team not approved
Sources: - PubChem Open Chemistry Database, 2006 modified 2019. Pyraclostrobin
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Pyraclostrobin
- Pearson, B.L., Simon, J.M., McCoy, E.S., Salazar, G., Fragola, G., Zylka, M.J. 2016. Identification of chemicals that mimic transcriptional changes associated with autism, brain aging and neurodegeneration. Nature Communications 7, 11173
- United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2008. Acute Pesticide Poisoning Associated with Pyraclostrobin Fungicide - Iowa 2007 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Rreport 56 (51) 1343-1345
ON HVAR: Cabrio® Top used by individuals cultivating vines, olives (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Signum (19.06.2019)
 
PYRIMETHANIL (Substance group anilinopyrimidine).
Possible adverse effects: toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; endocrine disruptor in tree frogs, causes liver and kidney damage in non-target species; toxic to earthworms; in humans, possible carcinogen; toxic through skin contact and inhalation
EU: approved 01/05/2007 - 30/04/2020
Products: Pyrus® 400SC, Scala Croatia FIS: Pyrus 400SC approved 09/05/2007-31/12/2023; Scala approved 12/09/2016-30/04/2021
Sources: - PubChem Open Chemistry Database, 2005/2019. Pyrimethanil
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database, 2019. Pyrimethanil
- Bernabo, I., Guardia, A., Macirella, R., Tripepi, S., Brunelli, E. 2017. Chronic exposure to fungicide pyrimethanil: multi-organ effects on the Italian tree frog (Hyla intermedia). Scientific Reports 7, 6869.
-Toxnet, Toxicology Data Network. 2004 / 2010. Pyrimethanil
USED ON HVAR: Pyrus® 400SC is used especially on vines. (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Pyrus 400SC (26.04.2019, 10.05.2019, 05.06.2019, 18.06.2019, 26.07.2019, and Scala (19.06.2019)
 
SPIROXAMINE (Substance group morpholine).
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to aquatic life; in humans, suspected of causing damage to the unborn child; may cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure; harmful if swallowed or inhaled; can cause skin irritation and allergic reactions;
EU: Approved 01.01.2012 - 31.12.2021, extended to 31.12.2023.
Products: Impulse®, Prosper®500 EC, Falcon (spiroxamine with tebuconazole), Falcon EC 460 (spiroxaminetebuconazole, tridimenol), Falcon Forte (spiroxamine, prothioconazole, tebuconazole) 
Croatia FIS: Falcon EC 460 approved 10/02/2006-31/08/2020, Falcon Forte approved 20/03/2019-31/07/2020
Sources: - PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2019. Spiroxamine
- European Chemicals Agency, Substance Information. 2018. Spiroxamine
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Spiroxamine
ON HVAR: Falcon used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Falcon 460EC (18.06.2019, 26.07.2019)
 
SULPHUR (inorganic compound)
Possible adverse effects: if inhaled can cause coughing, sneezing and respiratory impairment; skin contact can cause redness, itching and burning in sensitive individuals; eye contact can cause painful irritation, redness and tears; ingestion can cause nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea; can interfere with photosynthesis in plants.
EU: Approved 01/01/2010 - 31/12/2020.
Products: Chromosul 80 (Warnings: Chromosul 80 to be used no more than four times a year, and never when the vine is fully developed; should not be mixed with propamocarb, captan, heptenophos, oils, bupirimate and folpet.); Sumpor prašivo; Sumpor WG 80, Sumpor SC 80; Sumpor Micro 80WP, Sumpor močivi tiosam 80 mikro, Sumporno prašivo
Croatia FIS: Chromosul 80 approved 04/09/1997-31/12/2023; Sumpor prašivo approved 21/09/2016-31/12/2020; Sumpor WG 80 approved 124/10/2016-11/12/2020; Sumpor SC 80 approved 25/05/1998-31/12/2023; Sumporno prašivo approved 13/12/2004-31/12/2023; Sumpor micro 80WP, Sumpor močivi tiosam 80 mikro not approved
Sources: - University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Sulphur
- Petit, A-N., Fontaine, F., Vatsa, P., Clément, C., Vaillant-Gaveau, N. 2012. Fungicide impacts on photosynthesis in crop plants. Photosynthesis Reseach 111 (3) 315-326
- Extension Toxicology Network (Extoxnet). 1995. Sulfur. (Pesticide Information Project, Cornell University)
ON HVAR: Chromosul used, especially by grape-growers (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use sulphur-based fungicides (15.03.2019, 19.06.2019, 26.06.2019,)
 
TEBUCONAZOLE (substance group triazole)
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic to aquatic life, with long-lasting effects; toxic to bees, birds, earthworms; in humans: can damage the unborn child; possible human carcinogen; toxic if swallowed.
EU: Approved 01/09/2009 - 31/08/2019, extended to 31.08.2020. ECHA: approved under PT07 (film preservatives), 08 (wood preservatives), 10 (construction material preservatives)
ProductsTebuconazole 3.6, Cogito (tebuconazole with propiconazole), Luna Experience (tebuconazole with fluopyram), Falcon 460EC (tebuconazole with spiroxamine), Falcon Forte (spiroxamine, prothioconazole, tebuconazole), Nativo 75WG (trifloxystrobin with tebuconazole).
Croatia FIS: Nativo approved 06/03/2008-31/12/2023; Luna Experience approved 19/01/2015-31/08/2020; Falcon EC 460 approved 10/02/2006-31/08/2020; Falcon Forte approved 20/03/2019-31/07/2020.
Sources: - PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2019. Tebuconazole
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2018. Tebuconazole
ON HVAR: Luna and Falcon used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Falcon 460EC (18.06.2019, 26.07.2019); Luna Experience (14.03.2019, 10.05.2019, 24.05.2019, 18.06.2019, 26.06.2019, 26.07.2019), Nativo 75WG (08.03.2019, 14.03.2019, 15.03.2019, 12.04.2019, 02.05.2019, 24.05.2019, 27.05.2019, 05.06.2019, 18.06.2019, 19.06.2019, 03.07.2019)
2019: Nativo (alternatively Stroby) recommended by a well-respected Hvar olive oil producer against olive leaf spot (spilocaea oleagina Cast. Croatian: paunovo oko)
 
TRIFLOXYSTROBIN (substance group strobilurin)
Possible adverse effects: very toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates and algae; very toxic to aquatic life with long-lasting effects; moderately toxic to sediment-dwelling organisms and aquatic plants; moderately toxic to earthworms; low toxicity to honeybees; in humans: can cause problems with reproduction and development; can cause eye irritation and allergic skin reactions;
EU: 01/08/2018-31/07/2033.
Products: Nativo 75WG (trifloxystrobin with tebuconazole). Luna Privilege (trifloxystrobin with fluopyram), Luna Sensation (trifloxystrobin with fluopyram) Croatia FIS: Nativo approved 06/03/2008-31/12/2023; Luna Privilege approved 09/02/2015.-31/01/2025.; Luna Sensation approved 09/07/2019.-31/01/2025.
Sources- PubChem Open Chemistry Database. 2005 modified 2020. Trifloxystrobin
- University of Hertfordshire: Pesticide Properties Database 2019. Trifloxystrobin
- Junges, C.M., Peltzer, P.M., Lajmanovich, R.C., Attademo, A.M., Cabagna Zenklusen, M.C., Basso, A. 2012. Toxicity of the fungicide trifloxystrobin on tadpoles and its effect on fish-tadpole interaction. Chemosphere 87 1348-1354.
ON HVAR Luna Privilege and Luna Sensation used by individuals cultivating vines, olives, etc (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019: the Agriculture Ministry's Department of Expert Support for the Development of Agriculture and Fishing advised farmers in the Split-Dalmatia County to use Luna Privilege (14.03.2019., 10.05.2019., 24.05.2019., 18.06.2019.,26.06.2019., 26.07.2019.), and Nativo 75WG (08.03.2019., 14.03.2019., 15.03.2019., 12.04.2019., 02.05.2019., 24.05.2019., 27.05.2019., 05.06.2019., 18.06.2019., 19.06.2019., 03.07.2019.)
2019: Nativo (alternatively Stroby) recommended by a well-respected Hvar olive oil producer against olive leaf spot (spilocaea oleagina Cast. Croatian: paunovo oko)
 
4. LIMACIDE (MOLLUSCICIDE) ECHA APPROVAL CODE PT16, molluscicides, vermicides and products to control other invertebrates (against slugs, snails and other arthropods)
METALDEHYDE (Chemical compound)
Possible adverse effects: Highly toxic to aquatic organisms, with long-lasting effects; deadly to dogs and cats: Toxic to humans if swallowed or through skin contact or inhalation; can cause salivation, lethargy, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, convulsions, hyperthermia, comas, and death
EU: approved, 01/06/2011-31/05/2023. ECHA: not approved as at 07/11/2019,,28/02/2020.
Products: Corry's slug, snail and insect killer, Bug-geta snail and slug pellets, Slugit, Slug-Tox, Certis Deal 5, Meridien, Carakol, Metalden, Metarex. Combined with insecticide Carbaryl in Lily Miller Slug, Snail and Insect Killer Bait, also for Ortho Bug-Geta Plus. ECHA: no approved related products
Sources: - PubChem Open Chemistry Database, 2005, modified 2019. Metaldehyde.
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database updated 2018. Metaldehyde.
- Toxnet (Toxicology Data Network), 1983, updated 2010. Metaldehyde.
USED ON HVAR: widely used as Pužomor in gardens and fields, with many documented fatalities among dogs and cats.
 
5. RODENTICIDES ECHA APPROVAL CODE PT14, rodenticides
BRODIFACOUM. Rodenticide - superwarfarin - 4-hydroxycoumarin vitamin K antagonist anticoagulant poison.
Possible adverse effects: highly toxic when ingested, causes haemorrhage, can be fatal to humans and animals alike; can be fatal through inhalation and skin contact; highly toxic to fish and birds; causes long-lasting damaging effects in aquatic environments
EU: Not approved ECHA: approved, PT14, 01/02/2012 - 30/06/2024.
Products: Ratimor, Ridak, Delicat, Sorexa Checkatube. ECHA as at 07.11.2019, 454 approved products including AGRIGARD PASTA BF-50, ALBAROD BF-50 PASTA, BRODI PASTE, BRODITEC P-50, BRODITEC P-50 CEREALI, ANTI-RAT Plus, Vahaplokid, ANTI-RAT Plus vaska briketes, ANTI-RAT Plus vaškiniai blokai, BRODI RAT BLOCK, BRODIFACOUM BB. Croatia FIS Ratimor products no longer approved
Sources: - ECHA 2019. Brodifacoum factsheet
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Brodifacoum
- PubChem, Open Chemistry Database 2011, updated 2018: Brodifacoum
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database, updated 2018. Brodifacoum
- Toxnet (Toxicology Data Network) 1984, updated 2014. Brodifacoum
ON HVAR: Brodifacoum was on the list of pesticides recommended for use around Hvar Town, Stari Grad and the Jelsa Council area, under the Programme issued by the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute for 2017, and in the Institute's Implementation Plan for 2018.
 
BROMADIOLONE. Rodenticide - anticoagulant - superwarfarin - 4-hydroxycoumarin vitamin K antagonist anticoagulant poison.
Possible adverse effects: Acutely toxic, can be fatal if swallowed, inhaled, or via skin contact; may damage fertility or the unborn child; can cause organ damage in humans; highly toxic to fish and aquatic life, also to earthworms.
EU: Approved 01.06.2011, expiry 31.05.2021 according to the EU Pesticides Database. ECHA: approved, PT14, 01/07/2011 - 30/06/2024
Products: Ratimor wax blocks, Ratimor Bromadiolone Fresh Bait, Ratimor Bromadiolone Pasta Bait, Maki, Coumarin, Tomcat, Sarakat Bromabait, Contrac, Bromone, Maki, Super-Caid. ECHA: 496 related products approved. Croatia FIS Ratimor products no longer approved
Sources: - ECHA 2019. Bromadiolone Factsheet
- PubChem, Open Chemistry Database, 2011. updated 2018. Bromadiolone
- University of Hertfordshire Pesticide Properties Database, updated 2018. Bromadiolone
- ECHA (updated 15/08/2018) Bromadiolone
USED ON HVAR, Ratimor (granules and wax blocks): 2016: Hvar Town and surrounds: May and October; Stari Grad and surrounds, April and October; Jelsa Council region, April-May and October 2016; 2017: Hvar Town region, May-June, 17th & 23rd November, total quantities 1010 kg granules 172 kg wax blocks; Stari Grad and surrounds, May and November, total: 787 kg; Jelsa Council region, May and November 2017. total 981 kg; 2018: Hvar Town region 22nd May, 3rd October, Ratimor granules 455 kg, wax blocks 22 kg; Stari Grad & surrounds, 22-24 May, 2-4 October; Jelsa Council region,18-21 May, 25th September - 4th October 2018.Ratimor has been delivered to households on Hvar twice a year for many years. It wasdelivered along with an insecticide, Trichlorfon (see above). Until 2017, the pesticides were delivered in flimsy cellophane packages, with the instructions on the inside. In 2018, Ratimor was delivered to households in flimsy cardboard boxes, without detailed instructions as to how to use the poisons, and without any guidance as to how to dispose of the box and poison after use.
 
6. HERBICIDES. (Herbicides are not included in the ECHA list of approved chemical substances)
Herbicide in Stari Grad field. Photo: Vivian Grisogono
GLYPHOSATE. There are at least some 750 glyphosate-based herbicides available in the world markets. Eleven of them, including the widely used Roundup (Cidokor in Croatian), were banned in the EU in 2016.
Suspected possible adverse effects in humans: carcinogenic; neurotoxic; genotoxic; contributes to antibiotic resistance; influences pregnancy, fertility, and birth defects; endocrine disruptor; damages DNA, gut bacteria, organs including liver, kidneys and spleen; contributes to Parkinson's Disease and autism.
Possible environmental ill-effects: damage to water, fish, aquatic organisms, soil, soil organisms, bees, butterflies, gastropods, trees, plants.
You can find a detailed presentation of the evidence of glyphosate's potential dangers here. For a description of the problems relating to glyphosate, click here.
EU: Glyphosate approved 16.12.2017 - 15.12.2022.
Products: Roundup / Cidokor, Touchdown / Ouragan, Herkules Super, Glyfos, Oxalis, Boom Efekt, Roundup Bioactive, Roundup Rapid etc. etc.
Croatia FIS: Cidokor -FIS not approved; Cidokor Max - FIS approved 09/06/2015-01/03/2022, Agroklub: not approved since 31/12/2018; Agrobase Croatia: registration withdrawn; Cidokor Plus -FIS: approved 24/11/2015-01/03/2022, Agroklub: not approved since 20/09/2018., Agrobase Croatia: registration withdrawn; Ouragan System 4 -FIS: approved 24/01/2012-24/01/2022; Glyfos -FIS: not approved; Herkules approved 22/02/2017-01/03/2022; Herkules 480 SL not approved; Herkules Super not approved; Oxalis -FIS not approved since 16/12/2018, Agrobase Croatia: Oxalis approved until 25/07/2021; Roundup Bioactive -FIS: approved 01/07/2016-01/03/2022; Agrobase Croatia: registration withdrawn; Roundup Rapid -FIS approved 24/11/2015-01/03/2022; Agrobase Croatia: registration withdrawn.
USED ON HVAR: Roundup (locally Cidokor) has been widely and intensively used on Hvar over many years, alongside other glyphosate-based herbicides such as 'Ouragan', 'Oxalis' and 'Boom Efekt'. (see 'Starigrad Plain: Our Survey')
2019, Cidokor, alternatively Herkules Super or Glyfos were recommended by a well-respected Hvar olive oil producer to be used on weeds in April and June.
 
Information updated February 2020.
 
Please note: the above information is as complete and accurate as possible, and has taken several years to piece together. To date the Split-Dalmatian County Public Health Institute and one of the Hvar local authorities have only given us incomplete information in response to our requests. If you are aware of inaccuracies or further information which would be relevant to this list, please let us know at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.
 
 
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